Thursday 30 May 2024


Sculptures and images of the original Buddha show that the enlightened religious leader was heavily recognized for its Bantu hairstyle compared to the straightened hair.

Bantu knots are a protective hairstyle in which the hair is repeatedly sectioned, twisted, and wrapped around the base to make a knot-like appearance stacked on top of one another.

Bantu knots can be traced back to the Bantu speaking people, which started in Southern West Africa and moved out through Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa during the Bantu migration, from the 2nd millennium BCE to 1500 CE.

Today Bantu people can be found in several parts of Africa, including the Central, Eastern, and Southern regions, where they speak 500+ distinct dialects of the same language.

In Jamaica, Bantu knots are also known as Chiny bumps.

Greater Ethiopia was the name given to the area that connected Africa with India. It's known as the ancient Ethiopian belt by certain researchers. Most of these people have merged, exterminated or forced south by new populations coming from the north.

The original Buddha was wearing the hairstyle sknown today as Bantu knots. Asia's ancient people were black. Many Greek and Roman documents exist concerning these Ethiopians (Black people) who lived from Africa to India. Buddha was not, according to popular belief, a fat White Asian man.

Siddhartha Gautama ("the Buddha"), who lived more than 2,500 years ago, is commonly regarded as the founder of Buddhism in India.

Gautama, a prince born into a wealthy family in present-day Nepal, lived in the 5th century B.C.

Historians argue about whether he was a prince or simply the son of an oligarch.

Gautama, whether a prince or not, gave up his life of luxury to seek enlightenment after witnessing the sufferings that regular people faced.

Gautama is reported to have gained enlightenment while meditating under a Bodhi tree after six years of quest. He would spend the rest of his life attempting to teach others how to achieve this spiritual state.

Buddhism, along with Christianity and Islam, is currently regarded as a major religion with 470 million adherents. Despite its origins in East and Southeast Asia, the impact of faith or 'style of life' is spreading to Western countries.

We're still wearing Bantu Knots after all these years! It's actually incredible to see how we've managed to hold on to our history over the years, especially when so much of it has been stolen away from many of us. Bantu Knots are a terrific way to defend yourself.

Did you know?

What you are looking is not just a snake, but a special snake called the Black Mamba.

The Black Mamba snake is highly venomous. Highly highly venomous that in 10 minutes, any human or animal bitten may not survive it. Its venom sends shock into the bloodstream and then paralyzes the body.

The black mamba is highly venomous that if it bites another snake, the snake will die.

It hardly attacks human and will fight only when threatened. It Speeds at 20 km/h. Black Mamba is 14 feet in size—That’s like placing two tall men together in length.

Black Mambas are carnivorous—they feed mostly on birds, small mammals like rodents, bats, and bushbabies. They generally prefer warm-blooded prey but will also consume other snakes.

Black mamba are shy snakes. Their Life span is 11 years. Black Mambas are in Nigeria.

Bonus: Since Black Mambas rarely bite humans, and you are wondering what snake kllls human the most, The snake is called ‘saw-scaled viper’. Saw-scaled viper. Arguably, it has the deadliest venom.

However, The mongooses are known to be animal predators that kills the Black Mamba, Saw-scaled viper, cobra easily,tearing them apart.


Sonny Okosun was a pioneering Nigerian musician who rose to prominence in the 1970s and 1980s for his socially conscious music that addressed issues of Pan-Africanism, freedom, and human rights abuses.

Born on January 1, 1947 in Benin City, Nigeria, Okosun came from the Esan ethnic group and grew up in poverty.  As a young man, he was inspired by Western rock and pop acts like Elvis Presley, Cliff Richard, and The Beatles, but he felt that songs needed a stronger message.

Okosun formed his first band, The Postmen, in 1966 and later joined Victor Uwaifo's Maestros band, where he honed his skills in musical composition.  In 1972, he formed his own band called Paperback Ltd., which was later renamed Ozziddi, a synthesis of Afrobeat, reggae, and funk.

Okosun's music often addressed social and political issues affecting Africans, such as apartheid in South Africa, liberation movements, and black pride. His 1977 anthem "Fire in Soweto" protesting apartheid was one of his best known songs.  Other notable tracks included "Papa's Land" (1977) and "Holy Wars" (1978).

In the 1980s, Okosun's popularity began to wane, but he reinvented himself as a gospel performer in the 1990s, releasing the successful album "Songs of Praise" in 1994.  He also founded his own church, the House of Prayer Ministries, in Lagos in 1998.

Okosun passed away on May 24, 2008 at the age of 61 from colon cancer while visiting the United States.  He was eulogized in both the Nigerian and international media for his pioneering role in African liberation music and his influence on a generation of musicians.


The "Buffalo Soldiers" were African American soldiers who served in the United States Army in the late 1800s.

The nickname "Buffalo Soldiers" was given to them by Native American tribes, particularly the Cheyenne, who admired their fighting skills and bravery in battle.

The nickname was a reference to their dark, curly hair, which was said to resemble the fur of the buffalo, and to their fierce fighting ability, which was likened to that of the buffalo.

The 10th Cavalry Regiment was the first all-African American regiment in the U.S. Army, formed in 1866 after the Civil War.

They were sent to the western frontier to help protect settlers, miners, and stagecoaches from hostile Native American tribes.

Despite facing discrimination and segregation within the army and in society, the Buffalo Soldiers proved themselves to be skilled and effective soldiers, earning a reputation for their bravery and endurance in harsh and dangerous conditions.

They inspired Bob Marley's Reggae Classic Buffalo Soldier!!

Dahomey Amazons attack on Abeokuta and Abeokuta's revenge

In Egba history, some people fought bravely for Abeokuta. They defended the city with their lives. During a battle with Dahomey, Dahomey warriors climbed over dead bodies of their comrades and attacked relentlessly. The Egba warriors were surprised by their strength and determination. They thought these warriors might not be normal humans.

At that time, Egba warriors had a brutal custom. They would cut off the heads and genitals of their first captive and send them to their leader, the Alake, as trophies. But when they sent trophies to the Alake after a battle, they discovered they had been fighting against women.

The Alake and Egba warriors were embarrassed that they had been fighting women. So, they planned a more aggressive strategy to push back the Amazons. After three days, they finally drove the Dahomey army away.

The Dahomeans left many dead behind than the captives they took. This victory was a relief for the Egba warriors and the Alake.

But the Amazons didn't give up. They invaded Abeokuta again in 1864. This time, the Egba side was better prepared with stronger weapons and strategies. However, they still suffered some loses.

A year later, Balogun John Okenla avenged Abeokuta by invading Dahomey. He sought revenge for the attacks in 1851 and 1864.

Should Nigeria Revert to Its Old National Anthem? Share Your Thoughts!

Nigeria's national anthem has a rich history, and recently, President Tinubu has proposed reverting to the country's former national anthem, "Nigeria, We Hail Thee". But before we dive into the debate, let's take a brief look at the history of this anthem.

"Nigeria, We Hail Thee" was Nigeria's national anthem from 1959 to 1978. It was written by Lillian Jean Williams and composed by Frances Benda. The anthem was a symbol of national pride and unity, and its lyrics celebrated Nigeria's diversity and the hope for a brighter future.

According to President Tinubu, the old national anthem represents a more inclusive and united Nigeria, and reverting to it would help to promote national unity and cohesion in the face of current challenges. He believes that the lyrics of the old anthem better reflect the country's values and aspirations.

Should Nigeria revert to its old national anthem, "Nigeria, We Hail Thee"? Do you think this change would promote national unity and cohesion, or is it a step backward? Share your thoughts, opinions, and perspectives!

Let's have a respectful and constructive conversation about this proposal. Share your views, and let's explore the implications of reverting to the old national anthem together!

#Nigeria #Africa 

Brief History Of Queen Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) was born on 21 April 1926. She is Queen and longest reigning monarch of the United Kingdom of great Britain and numerous other Commonwealth realms and territories. She was extremely popular for nearly all of her long reign by the world 🌎. She was the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth). Her father ascended the throne in 1936 upon the abdication of his brother, King Edward VIII, making Elizabeth the presume heir to the throne. She was nicknamed Lilibet during her childhood days. Though she spent much of her childhood with nannies, Princess Elizabeth was influenced greatly by her mother, who instilled in her a devout Christian faith as well as a keen understanding of the demands of royal life. She is named after her mother, with her two middle names representing her paternal great-grandmothers.

During her education days, she was taught mostly by private tutors, with an emphasis on British history and law, the princess also studied music and learned to speak fluent French. She trained as a Girl Guide (the British equivalent of the Girl Scouts) and developed a lifelong passion for horses. Elizabeth's younger years are spent between her family's townhouse and their home in Richmond Park. In 1936, the family took the Royal Lodge in Windsor Great Park as their country home. When WWII begins, she move with her sister to the royal lodge where she made her first radio broadcast, joining the army and performed other public duties too. In 1947, soon after the royal family returned from an official visit to South Africa and Rhodesia, they announced her engagement to Prince Philip of Greece, her third cousin (both were great-great-grandchildren of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert) and a lieutenant in the Royal Navy. She had set her sights on him when she was only 13, and their relationship developed through visits and correspondence during the war. Elizabeth and Phillip were married for 73 years, until the Prince died in April 2021 at the age of 99. They have four children together.

Their first son, Charles (Prince of Wales) was born in 1948; a daughter, Anne (Princess Royal) arrived two years later. When Elizabeth's grandfather George V died in 1936, his eldest son (Elizabeth's uncle) became King Edward VIII. Edward, however, was in love with American divorcée Wallis Simpson and had to choose between the crown and his heart. In the end, Edward chose "Simpson and abdicated the crown. The event changed the course of her life, making her the heir presumptive to the British crown. Her father was crowned King George VI in 1937, taking on the name George to emphasize continuity with his father. Her mother became Queen Elizabeth. Her father's health start inclining in 1951, Elizabeth stepped in for him at various state functions. After spending that Christmas with the royal family, Elizabeth and Philip left on a tour of Australia and New Zealand, making a stopover in Kenya en route.

They were in Kenya on February 6, 1952, when King George VI succumbed to lung cancer at the age of 56, and his 25-year-old daughter became the sixth woman in history to ascend to the British throne. Elizabeth was crowned Queen Elizabeth II on June 2, 1953, in Westminster Abbey, at the age of 25. For the first time ever, the coronation ceremony was broadcast on television, allowing people from across the globe to witness the pomp and spectacle of the event. In the first decade of her reign, Elizabeth settled into her role as queen, developing a close bond with Prime Minister Winston Churchill (the first of 13 prime ministers she would work with during her reign). She was also making numerous state trips to abroad and other places too. Queen Elizabeth II became queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries.

These countries were the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (known today as Sri Lanka), as well as the Head of the Commonwealth. She is widely recognized across the globe. She lived a very peaceful and unforgettable live. She's lovely and easy going.She love to be with her families,it has also been reported that her husband Prince Philip lovingly refers to her as 'Cabbage. "She's the longest-reigning monarch in British history. She earned that distinction in 2015, when she surpassed Queen Victoria's 63 years, seven months and two days on the throne.

Brief History Of Eruwa In Oyo State

Eruwa meaning ''pieces of yam are available here'' is a town and the headquarters of Ibarapa East Local Government Area in south-western Nigeria located in Oyo state. Eruwa is 72 km south west of Ibadan and 60 km north east of Abeokuta.

Eruwa derived its name from the way in which hawkers advertised roasted yams to the northern caravans who constantly congregated in the town. The method of hawking employed was Eru wa nibi o i.e. (pieces of yam are available here). The four quarters in Eruwa at that time; Anko, Oke Oba, Isaba and Aborerin settled on Ilewu hill which offered greater protection and security during the period wars in Yoruba land (from 1830's to 1890's). The founders of Eruwa were of Oyo origin. The leader of the group was Obaseeku who was a prince, a bare hunter as well as a powerful medicine man.

Obaseeku married Oyinlola, an Oyo princess. The marriage produced two male children. The first child was named Akalakoyi (meaning the vultures have rejected this) and the second child was named Olaribikusi. The two children and their descendants constitute the two ruling families in Eruwa up till today. The town is characterized by many hills. Perhaps, the need for adequate security in those days of frequent wars was most likely the over-riding consideration in the minds of the early settlers. Like other Africans, Eruwa people were polytheistic in the past. They worshipped several gods and deities prominent among which were Oro, Sango, Egungun, Orisa oko, Osanyin, Yemoja and Ifa.

The first corrugated iron sheet house in Eruwa was built in 1908. Following the massive destruction of Eruwa by fire in 1922, majority of the people started tooling up for the corrugated iron sheets. Eruwa is governed by a Monarch whose recognized traditional title is Eleruwa which means the owner/ruler of Eruwa. He administers the town with the assistance of his Chiefs and ward heads who have the traditional title known as Baale. In 1979, a former Military Governor of Oyo state, Jemibewon, ranked Eleruwa – fifth in the comity of sixty-seven traditional rulers accorded recognition by the state government. Eruwa is significant in many respects.

It is the headquarters of the Ibarapa which had seven towns namely Eruwa, Lanlate, Igboora, Idere, Ayete, Tapa and Igangan. During the pre-colonial days, Eruwa was recognized by the Alaafin of Oyo as the leading town in Ibarapa district. Similarly, during the colonial era, this leadership position was conveniently retained through political, economic and social services culminating among others into structural development. In 1915, administrative rest houses were built in Eruwa and in the same year, a native court was opened at Eruwa.


Obaseeku is the father of all the hills in Eruwa. No one could ascertain the source of the hill.

There was a man, a great hunter and a warrior, who lives on the hill. It was on the hill that destiny brought Oyinlola and Obaseeku together. Oyinlola is a princess of Alaafin Oyo. Oyinlola was allegedly sent out from the  palace after a terrible allegation from other wives. It was also recorded that Oyinlola gave birth to a son before she left Oyo Alaafin.

Research made us to understand that Obaseeku asked Oyinlola out and agreement occured, she then gave birth to OLARIBIKUSI AND AKALAKO. The two sons of Obaseeku found out that they had a brother in Eruwa and they went back to Oyo Alaafin to inform the king, it was then a crown was given to them. Then the King told them that their elder brother should be their father in Eruwa and the two sons be king. That's why the two ruling houses in Eruwa up till date remains the dynasty of the two sons of Obaseeku. The elder brother of Olaribikusi and Akalako is ODOFIN.

In Eruwa today, any incoming king must spend three months with Odofin to give him his fatherly regards.

When Obaseeku died, he was buried at the foot of the hill, the grave of Obaseeku called Oju Obaseeku and it's worshipped annually. That's why the hill was named after the brave hunter Obaseeku.


Modupe Afolabi Jemi-Alade, popularly known as Art Alade, was born in 1932. He attended CMS Grammar School in Lagos. Reflecting on his academic struggles, he mentioned in an interview, “I was a dullard and my father thought that I could be saved if I was sent abroad.” Consequently, he went to England in 1956 and attended Devon Technical College and the London School of Television Production.

Alade began his career as a musician on a cruise line, the Greek Line, and performed in various clubs in London. By 1964, upon his return to Nigeria, he joined the staff of the Nigerian Television Service, now known as NTA. He rose through the ranks to become the director of programmes in 1978 and retired in 1979. Additionally, Art Alade owned a nightclub called Art’s Place.

The Bar Beach Show was a variety show featuring interviews with entertainment stars and musical performances. The Art Alade Show, similar in format, aired around 9 or 10 AM on Sundays. A vivid memory involves coming home to the aroma of good food and watching the show while enjoying breakfast.

Art Alade's son, Darey Art Alade, has also made a name for himself as a musician.

The Bala Miller Show, another variety show, aired on NTA at 8 PM from around 1983 to 1986, produced at NTA Kaduna. Bala Miller, a popular musician with hits in the 1970s, was also a director of the Costain Club in Kaduna.

This interview with Art Alade on the Bala Miller Show included a live performance of his version of Victor Olaiya's song "Baby Jowo," which he titled "Sisi Jowo." The performance was simply amazing.

Art Alade – "Sisi Jowo" live on the Bala Miller Show in 1983. #Africa #Nigeria

Wednesday 29 May 2024


Here’s Thomas Sankara, the best president in Africa’s history. Within four years, he:

Empowered women.

Increased literacy from 13-73% refused aids and made his country self reliant.

Renamed his country to Burkina Faso (meaning Land of the Upright People).

Vaccinated 2M kids.

Reduced all public servants salaries including his.

Built 350 schools, roads, railways without foreign aid.

Increased literacy rate by 60%.

Banned forced marriages.

Gave poor people land.

Planted 10 million trees.

Appointed females to high governmental positions, encouraged them to work, recruited them into the military, and granted pregnancy leave during service at work.

Sold off the government fleet of Mercedes cars and made the Renault 5 (the cheapest car sold in Burkina Faso at that time) the official service car of the ministers.

He reduced the salaries of all public servants, including his own, and forbade the use of government chauffeurs and 1st class airline tickets.

As President, he lowered his salary to $450 a month and limited his possessions to a car, four bikes, three guitars, a fridge and a broken freezer.

He opposed foreign aid, saying that “he who feeds you, controls you.”

Drove out French imperialism & withdrew Burkina Faso from IMF.

He was later killed in a French backed coup in 1987.


Ori Olokun (Yorùbá orishá associated with the sea and the patron orisa of the descendants of Africans that were carried away during the transatlantic slave trade or middle passage).

Sculpture which sit at the entrance of the ancestral city of Ile Ife ( note: the original bronze sit in the British Museum in London.

Photo:  Thomas heynes.

Official new National Anthem

Nigeria we hail thee

Our own dear native land

Though tribes and tongue may differ

In brotherhood we stand

Nigerians all, are proud to serve

Our sovereign Motherland.

Our flag shall be a symbol

That truth and justice reign

In peace or battle honour'd,

And this we count as gain,

To hand on to our children

A banner without stain.

O God of all creation

Grant this our one request.

Help us to build a nation

Where no man is oppressed

And so with peace and plenty

Nigeria may be blessed.

Monday 27 May 2024


On Jan. 17, 1961‬, democratically elected prime minister of the Republic of the Congo, Patrice Lumumba, was executed with the assistance of the governments of Belgium and the United States.

In his 1960 independence day speech Lumumba said,

We are going to show the world what the Black man [and woman] can do when he works in freedom, and we are going to make of the Congo the center of the sun’s radiance for all of Africa. We are going to keep watch over the lands of our country so that they truly profit her children.

Just six months later he was imprisoned and executed by firing squad.

The Zinn Education Project has a lesson for high school classes on the Congo, examining the brutal exploitation of the Congolese for rubber in the 19th and 20th centuries and for coltan (in smart phones) today. Here is the text for the role of Lumumba in the lesson:

Patrice Lumumba:

I was the first elected prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. I was a postal clerk and traveling salesman. In 1958, I helped found the Mouvement National Congolais, a political party that demanded independence from Belgium. In October 1959, I was arrested and imprisoned for inciting anti-colonial riots. I won the country’s first parliamentary election in June 1960.

On June 30, 1960, King Baudouin of Belgium came to grant us our independence. How arrogant. His speech was even worse. He told us that we should be thankful the Belgians brought us civilization. In my speech, I reminded him of all the crimes they committed against us. As you can imagine, he thought I was ungrateful. White kings get upset when Black men talk back to them. Predictably, the United States and Great Britain were also angry. They accused me of being a communist because I believed that the wealth of Congo should remain in Congo to create a strong society. The U.S. CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) and their counterparts in Britain and Belgium paid a group of Congolese military men (including Joseph Mobutu) to kïll me. I was executed by a firing squad on January 17, 1961, after a long torture session. Before they killed me, they made me eat the paper on which my Independence Day speech was written. After my assassination, people all over the world protested the destruction of our democracy.

Sunday 26 May 2024


The Great Zimbabwe Walls were constructed from Granite blocks gathered from the exposed rock of the surrounding Hills. Here is how the Great Wall was built, no mortar was used: All of the Great Zimbabwe walls were fitted without the use of mortar by laying stones one on top of the other. Each layer slightly more recessed. Each layer was slightly more recessed than the last to produce a stabilizing inward slope. Early examples were coarsely fitted using rough blocks and incorporated features of the landscape such as boulders into the walls. Later walls were fitted together closely and evenly over long serpentine courses to produce remarkably finished surfaces.

The Jibrites of Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia

The origin of the Jibrites traces back to Arab Muslim immigrants who sought refuge in Habesha during the conflicts between Islamic states in the Arabian Peninsula. Some of them belonged to the Khuza'im tribe, while others traced their ancestry back to Aqeel ibn Abi Talib or Uthman ibn Affan, may Allah be pleased with them. Their affiliation can be traced back to the Quraysh tribes, as they were Arabs and not Abyssinians.


Jibrites spoke both Arabic and various Habesha languages common in the region. They write using Arabic and Habesha scripts. The language they spoke was called Argoba (Arabic-jabah), which became the tribe's name altogether.

Trade remains the principal profession of the Jibrites, in addition to agriculture and other crafts like weaving and customs transactions. Ifat Kingdom controlled the trade route connecting the interior to Zaila on the Red Sea coast. Consequently, they prospered as one of the most flourishing kingdoms. They engaged in barter and exchange, but in Ifat, the Egyptian currency was used with its various denominations.

 Customs, Characteristics, and Beliefs:

The Jibrites (Argoba ) were known for their adherence to their religion. They were righteous jurists and ascetics, predominantly following the Shafi'i school of thought. Their customs intertwined with all aspects of life in the region they lived in. They upheld certain traditions almost like laws, especially regarding religious matters. Known for their piety in worship, honesty in transactions, calm nature, and sincerity in work, they maintained a pleasant appearance with fair faces and dark reddish-brown skin, and uniform bodies.

It was a tradition among the Jibrites to marry off their daughters to any Muslim suitor, thereby reducing the rate of unmarried women. This practice led to their intermingling with various tribes, steering them away from tribal and group biases. By nature, their women were veiled, and they often married only one wife.

The Army:

The Ifat Jibirt army consisted of fifteen thousand cavalrymen followed by around thirty thousand infantrymen or more. They led the Islamic jihad against the Abyssinian Christians.

Ifat was the first among the Islamic kingdoms to rebel against the Abyssinian king during the reign of King Haq Aldin, uniting with other kingdoms. The warfare was intense between Ifat and the Abyssinian kingdom, with Ifat prevailing shortly thereafter, asserting its authority over most Islamic city-states. In the era of the former Imam Ahmed Ibrahim mentioned before, Ifat managed to destroy and defeat the Abyssinian Habesha Kingdom of Amhara, a condition that persisted for a while.

 Fall of the Ifat Jibirt Kingdom:

Ifat's domination continued in East Africa, imposing its name over all the kingdoms and prevailing over all the Muslims in the region. Ifat distributed slaves from the Abyssinian prisoners to regions in Yemen, the Hejaz, Egypt, Syria, and Iraq.

The Abyssinian king sought help from the Europeans who, in their early days in Africa, declared Ethiopia a Christian island surrounded by Muslims. Having strong ties with them through the Coptic Church in Egypt, which promptly informed them of the region's affairs, they invoked the aid of the Europeans.

The European relief under Christopher de Gama introduced firearms to the region for the first time. The relief armies supported the Abyssinians in preparation for the battle. Muslim combatants fiercely fought against firearms, but the martyrdom of the valiant Imam Ahmed Qaray, who led the troops personally in the decisive battle, marked the downfall of the Ifat Jibirt state.

Upon hearing the news of the Imam's martyrdom, the Muslim warriors dispersed, returning to their homelands to escape the Abyssinian ruler's persecution. The Abyssinian kings began persecuting Muslims, further fracturing their groups. This oppression forced many Muslims to convert to Christianity or face death, leading a large group of Muslims to flee to various regions around the world.

The dispersion of the Jibrites from the Abyssinian king continued for centuries until now. They settled in distant villages away from the Abyssinian ruler and his authority, spreading across Arab and Islamic lands. Their affiliation transitioned to Jibrit as opposed to only Ifat. They have an Islamic heritage with old mosques built during the Ifat Kingdom and even before in all the regions they inhabit, such as the region and mosque of Shonki, Gozi Mosque, the Jibirt region, the capital Omar Walasma Mosque, Melsai and Ahmed Mosque for the Imam Ahmed tribe, and Ahwaj Maqbarah, which houses the graves of companions and Qur'anic reciters. They played a significant role in building the cities of Harar and Jijiga, which flourished under the rule of Ifat during the reign of Amir Nur Mohammed.

The presence of the Jibrites in Ethiopia remains prevalent across most cities and villages, dominant in the regions of Afar, Amhara, Tigray, and Harer.

Africa’s Neolithic Achievements

A lot of Africans and non-Africans don’t know plant domestication in Africa began 7,500 years ago; Africa domesticated 2000+ crops that we know of.

During the history of mankind, there was a point when humans began planting and growing their food, even selling it for trade, there was a gradual shift from hunting animals and gathering food sources to farming and animal domestication. Sometimes hunting-gathering-fishing happened alongside farming.

This period is referred to as the Neolithic revolution. With the Neolithic revolution came inevitable changes in the social life of humans. All humans did not simultaneously transition to farming and cultivation of plants at the same time or period; this is as a result of several reasons.

For starters, not every environment favoured farming. The soil quality, types of available plant, amount of rainfall, climate change and soil depletion are all factors that might have affected this.

In Africa, as silly as it may seem, some people are of the opinion that Africans remained hunter-gatherers until around 1500 AD and were ignorant of agriculture until a more “civilized people” taught them how.

This, of course, is false and contrary to glaring evidence available. For example foods like the finger millet, pearl millet, Emmer, yams amongst many others were cultivated between more than 5,500 to 3000 years ago, some even much older. Additional crops have been domesticated from since 5,500-5,000 years ago. Experimentation with domestication began around 12,000 years ago with the Qadan culture people.

Once Africa cracked sorghum, and pearl millet, it cultivated over 2,000 more crops.

Picture: Rice farm

Saturday 25 May 2024


D.O. Fagunwa was born in 1903 or c. 1910, Okeigbo, Ondo state. A Yoruba man from southwest Nigeria. He died December 9, 1963, near Bida. He was a Yoruba chief and educator whose series of fantastical novels made him one of Nigeria’s most celebrated writers.

Fagunwa’s first novel, "Ogboju Ode Ninu Igbo Irunmale" (1938; "The Forest of a Thousand Daemons"), was the pioneering full-length novel published in the Yoruba language. His subsequent works include "Igbo Olodumare" ("The Forest of God") published in 1949, "Ireke Onibudo" (1949; "The Sugarcane of the Guardian"), "Irinkerindo Ninu Igbo Elegbeje" (1954; "Wanderings in the Forest of Elegbeje"), and "Adiitu Olodumare" (1961; "The Secret of the Almighty"). Besides these novels, Fagunwa also authored several short stories and two travel books, solidifying his influence in Nigerian literature.


The first known skyscraper in tropical Africa sits in the heart of Ibadan Oyo state Nigeria the building is owned by Oodua investment company limited. it was constructed by one of the oldest construction firms in Nigeria Cappa and D'Alberto.

On January 9 1985 the entire building was gutted by fire rendering it dilapidated and unusable the fire incident in the building was reportedly caused by a spark in a piece of malfunctioning electrical equipment and then in 1988 plans to renovate and reconstruct was in place and on August 2nd, 1992 cocoa house was reborn and reopened to the general public giving the building a change in shape and finishes.

The scientific wonder of dark skin and its significant role in early reproduction of all humans

Life on earth is sustained by sunlight from the star at the centre of our solar system. That sunlight arrives in different wavelengths: x-rays, infra-red which gives us warmth, visible light and ultraviolet light. There are two types of ultraviolet: ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B. Ultraviolet A is the most damaging, and we reduce its effect by wearing appropriate clothing, whereas ultraviolet B can be damaging without melanin production in the human skin.

Melanin prevents UVB from damaging the skin to an extent whereby it could cause cancer. It also prevents DNA damage, which has a significant impact I will soon explain. Everyone with melanin should know these facts, whatever their colour since all humans have melanin.

Skin has many functions. As the body's largest organ, skin protects against germs, protects all other organs, regulates body temperature and enables touch (tactile) sensations. The skin's main layers include the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and is prone to many problems, including skin cancer, acne, wrinkles and rashes. Melanin protects against cancer and damage. Our skin is not simple and static; it is actually dynamic and powerful.

Over 100-200 generations it can become lighter driven by multiple complex factors to maximise vitamins D production in lower UVB radiation environments. This is called depigmentation like what happened within Africa in Southern Africa around 100,000 years ago, with Europeans around 6,000 - 8,000 years ago, and Central Asians around 20,000 - 22,000 years ago.

The dark pigmentation protects from DNA damage and absorbs the right amounts of UV radiation needed by the body, as well as protects against foliate depletion. Foliate is water soluble vitamin B complex which naturally occurs in green, leafy vegetables, whole grains, and citrus fruits. Foliate is needed for normal sperm production in men. Furthermore, foliate is essential for fetal growth, organ development, and neural tube development. Foliate breaks down in high intense UVR.  Dark-skinned women suffer the lowest level of neural tube defects.

Our skin pigmentation isn’t a race. It is a God given feature of the human body, that protected the very first ancestors of the human race from the negative effects of the suns rays. The bodies of humanity’s earliest ancestors had the ability to develop multiple shades, and light skin developed before the first emergence of humans with a “white skin”.

Different skin tones of skin pigmentation is a result of adaptation to different environments and levels of UV radiation.

While melanin provides protection against UV radiation, it doesn't make individuals immune to the harmful effects of the sun. All individuals, regardless of their skin tone, should take precautions when exposed to strong sunlight, such as using sunscreen, wearing protective clothing, and taking measures to avoid overexposure.

During the summer, Europeans and North Americans have to wear sun screen and hats more often than Africans would think to use them. Africans also benefit from using sunscreen and hats, but in the absence of these inventions, melanin did the job for hundreds of thousands of years of human existence.


Muhammadu Sanusi II, known by the religious title Khalifa Sanusi II (Ajami: خليفة السنوسي), is the spiritual leader (khalifa) of the Tijanniyah Sufi order in Nigeria and the emir (Sarki) of the ancient city-state of Kano.

He is a member of the Dabo dynasty and was born in Kano in 1961 into the royal family as the grandson of Muhammadu Sanusi I. He succeeded his great-uncle Ado Bayero to the throne on 8 June 2014, assuming the regnal name Muhammadu Sanusi II.

His enthronement was controversial, with some believing that it was a politically motivated move to avoid corruption charges from his tenure at the central bank. Many expected Bayero's son to succeed him as The Emir, and protested Sanusi's appointment.

 He spent most of his reign advocating for cultural reform in Northern Nigeria.In 2020, he was dethroned by Governor Abdullahi Umar Ganduje and was succeeded by his cousin Aminu Ado Bayero. On 23 May 2024, Governor Abba Kabir Yusuf reinstated him to the throne making him the 16th Fulani emir of Kano.

One of the 100 most influential people in the world, TIME Magazine (2011). He served as the Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria from 2009 to 2014, ushering in banking reforms until his suspension after he brought to light the $20 billion oil scandal.


Oba Fredrick Kumokun Adedeji Haastrup, Ajimoko 1, was the 34th Oba of Ijesha land. He was from the Bilaro royal families of Ilesha.

History has it that he was captured by the Ilorins at the age of 14 c.1820s-30s and was sold into Slavery, He was transferred from one slave market to another, finally reaching the coast where he was put on a slave ship chained to other slaves, fortunately, the ship was intercepted by the British Man O' war marines who diverted the slave ship to Sierra Leone.

In Sierra Leone, the young Kumokun met a CMS missionary by name Niels Christian Haastrup, who took a liking in him, Kumokun became his ward and was later Baptized taking the name Fredrick Haastrup. After nearly three decades, he returned home first arriving in Lagos and later in Ijeṣaland to re-establish contact with his Ijeṣa royalty. In Lagos, he acquired large tracts of property which became known as Igbó Obį Haastrup, contracted to the present day Igbobį, at Ibeju Lekki where he cultivated Kola-nuts on a commercial scale. His business interests meant he often took ship up and down the waterways trading in dry fish and other commodities. On one of these journeys, he was instrumental in steering the vessel to safety. He described himself as steering the ship in the manner of a caucasian: Ajimọkọ bi oyinbo.

He became popular in Ijéṣaland during the Kiriji wars when he was a member of the Ekiti parapo solidarity group in Lagos. The organization supplied arms to Ijeṣa warriors who were at war with Ibadan. He was later pivotal in advising the Owá (King) during peace negotiations with the British and Ibadan that brokered the end of hostilities.

In April 1896, when he was well into his seventies, Frederick Kúmókụn Haastrup became the Owá Obokun of Ijeṣaland and took the title Ajimọkọ I (derived from his nickname: 'Ajimọkọ bi Oyinbo'),  though he was the first Christian Ọba of Yoruba land. He died on September 1, 1901.

Thursday 23 May 2024


Based on current scientific evidence, linguistics, genetic research, and fossil remains suggest that the Sumerians, like all other Homo sapiens, likely originated in Africa. Linguistic studies often trace the roots of Sumerian to the Afro-Asiatic language family, which has its origins in Africa. Genetic research has consistently shown that all modern humans share a common African ancestry, with genetic diversity decreasing the further away from Africa populations are found. Fossil evidence, including ancient skeletal remains and genetic studies of ancient populations, also support the theory of a single African origin for modern humans. Therefore, while there may be ongoing debates and research regarding specific migration patterns and interactions between populations, the evidence strongly suggests that the Sumerians, like other early civilizations, ultimately descended from African Homo sapiens.

Like all Afroasiatic Civilizations descended from the East African protoafroasiatic the Sumerians wrote from right to left. Sumerian cuneiform, one of the earliest writing systems, was typically inscribed on clay tablets using a stylus. The direction of writing was generally from right to left, although there were variations depending on the period and the specific context in which the writing was used.

Evidence suggests that the Sumerians practiced circumcision. Depictions on artifacts such as cylinder seals and other ancient texts indicate that circumcision was indeed a cultural practice among the Sumerians. It's believed to have had both religious and cultural significance in their society.

Three Greek sources, namely Herodotus, Strabo, and Diodorus Siculus, all mention the practice of circumcision originating in Africa. Herodotus, known as the "Father of History," discusses circumcision among Egyptian, Ethiopian, and Colchian peoples in his "Histories." Similarly, Strabo, a Greek geographer and historian, references circumcision in his "Geography," highlighting its prevalence among various African groups, including the Egyptians. Diodorus Siculus, another Greek historian, also includes mentions of circumcision in his "Library of History," noting its practice among Egyptians, Ethiopians, and others. These accounts collectively provide valuable insights into the ancient cultural practice of circumcision in Africa.

Earliest Human Habitation by African Zone

North Africa:

(1). Morocco 🇲🇦 - Jebel Irhoud - Approximately 300,000 years ago (Early Homo Sapiens)

(2). Libya 🇱🇾 - Haua Fteah - Approximately 80,000 years ago (Early Homo Sapiens)

West Africa:

(1). Nigeria 🇳🇬 - Iwo Eleru - Approximately 12,000 years ago (Late Homo Sapiens)*

(2). Niger 🇳🇪 - Kiffian Culture sites (Tichitt-Walata) - Approximately 8,000 years ago (Late Homo Sapiens)*

Central Africa:

(1). Democratic Republic of the Congo 🇨🇩 - Katanda - Approximately 90,000 years ago (Early Homo Sapiens)

(2). Zambia 🇿🇲 - Mumbwa Caves - Approximately 50,000 years ago (Early Homo Sapiens)

East Africa:

(1). Ethiopia 🇪🇹 - Gademotta Formation - Approximately 195,000 years ago (Early Homo Sapiens)

(2). Kenya 🇰🇪 - Olorgesailie - Approximately 295,000 years ago (Early Homo Sapiens)

South Africa:

(1). South Africa 🇿🇦 - Border Cave - Approximately 195,000 years ago (Early Homo Sapiens)

(2). South Africa 🇿🇦 - Diepkloof Rock Shelter - Approximately 60,000 years ago (Early Homo Sapiens)

* There have been less excavations in West Africa, so dates may change in future. #Africa

History Of Ondo Kingdom

Sitting among the thickly forested planes that characterize southwestern Nigeria are the towns and communities that make up the Ondo Kingdom. Located some 300kilometres to the north-east of Lagos, Nigeria’s economic nerve centre and 45kilometres west of Akure, the Ondo State capital, the Kingdom is easily reached by road from all parts of the country. The Ondo people are one of the largest Yoruba subgroups, situated in the eastern part of the Yoruba speaking area of Nigeria. The weather elements that characterize the region are those typifying the rainforest region of Sub-Sahara Africa.

The descent of Ondo people, as well as the geography of the Kingdom does not reflect any significant deviation from those of other towns and communities peopled by the Yoruba of south-westernNigeria, who are virtually agreed on the common paternity of Oduduwa. However there exists still, as in most historical collections, about three separate accounts that explain the origin of the Ondo people. While the people of the Kingdom, almost in unison rejected a version that links its origin to the Old Benin Kingdom in present day Edo State, as being the invention of its proponents, there seems to be some level of convergence on the other two accounts which trace the origin of the people to Ife and Oyo respectively. While an outright invention of any historical account, as attributed to the BeninKingdom version, may be unlikely, the symmetry of the more widely held versions of the origin of the people are herein reflected with the major dissonance being in the origin from either Oyo or Ife. But on a broad outlook, the two accounts seem to point towards the same direction, as those in Oyo originally migrated from Ife, the ultimate source of all Yoruba.

Oduduwa, the progenitor of the Yoruba was one of the sons of Lamurudu, who was believed to have migrated from Mecca, Saudi Arabia, after some sectarian disagreement. He held the title of Olofin Adimula before he left Mecca. This perhaps explains why most Yoruba Obas are still referred to by that title to date. Oranmiyan, one of the sixteen sons of Oduduwa who left Ile-Ife, probably out of sheer ambition or mere adventure, was the first Alaafin of Oyo and the father of Oluaso, who gave birth to Pupupu, the first paramount ruler of Ondo Kingdom.

Pupupu, a female, was one of the twin children of Oba Oluaso, who was said to have reigned in Oyo in the 15th Century. The other twin, a male, was named Orere. Twin birth in those days was considered an abomination and a strange phenomenon, esemawe, as a historical source interpreted it. Conventionally, the twins and their mother were instantly put to death, to prevent the imminent bad omen which was believed to be synonymous with their arrival. But because Olu, the mother of the children was one of the favourites of the King, her life and those of the twins were spared. They were however with an entourage of slaves under the guidance of a hunter called Ija, sent out of the palace with a beaded crown and an Akoko tree, signifying their royalty. Those were to accord them the dignity and the reverence due to royalty. Again, their father against the tradition of multi tribal marks of Oyo, incised two long tribal marks, one on each side of the cheek. Oluaso was apparently conscious of the fact that he may not set his eyes on the children for a long time, hence those facial marks were incised on them, so that they would be recognizable any time they were seen or if they came back home. This explains the origin of the tribal marks of Ondo to date.

The group wandered through the forest till they got to a place called Epin, near Gbere, whose inhabitants were referred to as Ibariba. They were well received and catered for until the death of Oba Oluaso in 1497. They headed back to Oyo when the succeeding king did not treat them fairly, but Onigbogi, the reigning king had to send them back to a virgin land compassed about by Ife, Ijesa, Ekiti, Ado(Benin) and Ijebu communities. They later got to Igbo Ijamo (the forest discovered by Ija). The group apparently stayed in this place for some time. Eventually they found lgbo Ijamo unsafe and therefore continued their journey eastward, until they finally got to a place called Epe, not far from the present Ondo town.

They were in Epe for many years and as they journeyed on, they passed through a hill which is today known as Oke Agunla and one of the communities that make up the present day Ondo Kingdom. From this hill, they spotted some smoke and headed in its direction. There they met a man called Ekiri one of the original inhabitants of the area. The Ifa oracle, as was the usual practice then, was consulted on the prospects of the newly found location. The oracle instructed them to take along with them a yam stake (edo), as their walking stick. They were to poke the stick into the ground as they went along their way, and wherever the stick didn’t bond with the land, they were to settle.

The group left Epe and proceeded as instructed by the oracle until they got to a place where the yam stake did not penetrate the ground. The group chorused in surprise Edo du do, (The yam stake would not stick in). According to oral history, the word Ondo is a contraction of the sentence “Edo du do”. When the group arrived in Ondo, they met the Ifore, the Idoko and the Oka people. These indigenous inhabitants recognized the royalty of the new arrivals and readily ceded to them the authority to rule over the territory. And in due course, the original inhabitants of Ondo were assimilated into the culture of the new comers. It remains a reference point however that the Idoko and Ifore settlers still maintain a kind of separate political structure which is akin, in many respects, to that of the larger Ondo community. As time went on, the people spread to form other settlements like lgbindo, lgbado, llu-nla, Odigbo, Ajue. Igunsin, etc.

By and large, the Ondo people still regard Epe, a relatively small town, seven miles from Ondo, on the Oke-lgbo road, as their original town (Orisun), from where they migrated to their present location. Up until now, many Ondo festival and rituals have Epe as their source. Pilgrimages are sometimes made to Epe for some of the festivals. Historical account also has it that at the demise of the Osemawe, his head was usually buried in Epe while the remaining part of his body was in Ondo.

It is also worthy of note that a historical account holds that the twin brother of Pupupu, actually settled down in Ile-Oluji and became its first traditional ruler. This may also explain the close link between Ondo and Ile-Oluji, who are actually descendants from siblings of same percentage. #Africa #Nigeria

A Scientific Account of the Origins of Yoruba People

Yoruba people have more than one ancestor. By incontestable logic it is obvious that ancestors are the paternal line, maternal line, and autosomal line. Oduduwa’s own lineage begins after 17,300 generations (346,000 years) of African history. Where did his parents come from?

Geneticists explored three potential birthplaces for Scientific Adam through Y-chromosome studies, and mitochondrial Eve through mitochrondrial studies. Africa's diverse genetic pool suggests an ancient origin. The Middle East's historical significance and its genetic diversity make it a contender. Asia's genetic variations also play a role. By analyzing genetic markers and mutations, researchers attempt to pinpoint Adam's origin and Eve’s origin, exploring migrations and evolutionary patterns. The debate continues due to complexities in genetic data and human migration, with each region offering compelling evidence for scientific Adam's ancestral roots, along with scientific Eve.

By 200,000-300,000 years ago there were modern humans in all zones of Africa along with archaic humans: in West, North, East, Central and Southern Africa.

The migration path of West African ancestors traces back to East Africa, where early humans exhibited remarkable innovation and adaptability. Dating back hundreds of thousands of years, evidence from archaeological digs in Olorgesailie, Kenya, and Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, showcases early technological advancements and trade networks. Genetic research supports the notion of ancestral migrations, with various subclades of the E-M96 Y-DNA haplogroup indicating movements within Africa.

Linguistic reconstructions provide further insight, revealing shared cultural practices and societal structures among ancient West African populations. These include early justice systems even by 40,000-50,000 years ago, the emergence of religion by 40,000 years ago, and communal approaches to conflict resolution, evident in the Proto-Niger-Congo and Proto-Afro-Asiatic language families. Archaeological findings, such as pottery making and agricultural development, underscore the settlement and development of West African communities over time.

Oral traditions also contribute to our understanding, offering narratives of migration and settlement patterns. These traditions, while subject to evolution over time, provide valuable insights into the historical journey of West African populations.

Despite the comprehensive evidence supporting this migration path, alternative explanations and counterarguments must be considered. Genetic inference, cultural continuity and change, and methodological limitations all play a role in shaping our understanding of Yoruba history. Interaction with other groups, such as North African civilizations and trans-Saharan trade routes, also likely influenced the development of West African societies.

Mythologies are neatly linear, and fascinating to commit to memory or to induce large populations to form a shared sense of culture but multidisciplinary evidence, dna studies, archaeology and linguistic evidence which establish facts provide a multifaceted view.

There have indigenous inhabitants in Southwest Nigeria for millennia and continuous arrivals of foreigners who intermarried, learned the local language and settled down. Their journey was not a linear path but a complex, multifaceted migration. Various routes emerged, bringing African admixtures from diverse populations into  Southwest Nigeria. The migration paths weren't uniform; groups ventured along different trajectories, adapting to varied environments, climates, and challenges encountered along the way.

In about the 9th century AD, a very important revolution started at Ife in central Yorubaland and, over the next six centuries (until about 1600 AD), swept over the whole of Yorubaland. The revolution resulted in the creation of unified kingdoms and towns all over Yorubaland. It transformed the ancient clumps of small and separate settlements into unified kingdoms and towns everywhere in Yorubaland. Starting from Ife in the 9th Century AD, this revolution continued until about the 16th Century AD, and turned Yorubaland into a country of many proud kingdoms and many rich towns.

Prior to the promotion of Yoruba identity under Ajayi Crowther and the independence movements, the Yoruba people had more diverse languages and city states.

Oduduwa myth of him descending from an iron chain carrying a chicken and earth is known by many intelligent Yoruba people to be myth. No one from Benin that has scientific training thinks the first Ogiso fell out of the sky. The allegory mainly means they came from somewhere far away or their impact felt like a Godsend.

Yoruba, as well all other Niger-Congo ancestry traces back to E-M2/E-M96 Y DNA ancestors, L0-L7 mitochondrial ancestors, and it is over 17,000 ancestors as well as over 350,000 years deep.

Term “Yoruba” covers various ethnicities - Oyo, Ife, Ijebu, Owu, Ijesha, Ile, Sabe, Popo, Egba, Ondo, Ekiti, Itsekiri, Awori, Taro, Ga, Ewe, Igbomina, Ikale, Egbado, Akure, Ilorin, Owo, Ahori, Ssbe, Lokoga, Ketu and others. It also covers many cities founded by hunters, and other Baale families over 150 of them. Oranyan did not only marry Torosi, a Tapa princess, who became the mother of Sango Akata Yẹri-Yẹri, he also married Moremi Ajasoro. Likewise, all other royal families from Oyo, Ife, Ijebu, Owu, Ijesha, Ile, Sabe, Popo, Egba, Ondo, Ekiti, Itsekiri, Awori, Taro, Ga, Ewe, Igbomina, Lokoga, Ketu, and other regions across over 50 generations, either married indigneous families, or daughters from other neighbouring kingdoms or federations. Yoruba people, like all humans trace their ancestry not only down the paternal line and maternal line which is approximately statistically 0.5% of lineage but also down the autosomal line which accounts for 99.5% of lineage. All these ethnicities are interconnected for many reasons not only by oral tradition, religious myths, language, trade, genetics, and politics. #Africa #Nigeria


The Asantes have the largest population in Ghana 🇬🇭 with a population estimated at 12 million people, and they can be found in Ghana, and Ivory Coast 🇨🇮.

The Asante people are Beyond tribe. Over time they have welcomed everyone because the Asante were created out of a multiethnic federation composed of already existing Akan people groups such as the Denkyira, Akwamu, Kwaaman and many others. These groups spoke Twi before they came together to form the Asante federation. So these polities families (Abusua) numbered about 8. Over time it grew.

The Asante people, who are a subgroup of the Akan, therefore tend to speak the Twi language, a language that is one of the most widely spoken in West Africa. Their capital was Kumasi, one of the largest cities in Ghana. Kumasi was the capital of the Asante precolonial federation, also sometimes referred to as a kingdom.

Most modern Asante people are Christians. Some are traditional worshippers, while a growing population of Muslims can also be found.

According to the history of these great people, the Asante kingdom was found in the 1600s, in the midst of a land that was full of gold and that served as a major trade item between them and the Europeans.

Many Asantes exist in Caribbean countries, especially in Jamaica, where there is a clear Asante influence in the Jamaican name, dress, and physical appearance.

The Asante, like many tribes, have their own delicious foods such as Fufu, Mpoto Mpoto, and others that have already been hijacked by other tribes who find them more delicious.

Asante also participated in the booming business of West Africa in the olden days, in which a bigger empire would invade the smaller one and capture its citizens in order to sell them as slaves to the Europeans.

Many Asantes fought tirelessly for the quick independence of Ghana, and they successfully made it the second west African country to get independence, lagging only behind Liberia.

#Africa #Ghana #IvoryCoast

The Kidnapping industry in ancient Gaul and Western Europe during the 1st century BCE - 1,100 AD

Although slavery was rife during the Roman era, a kidnapping industry existed to sell enslaved people to human traffickers throughout the northern Mediterranean. One person was worth one jar of red wine in Gaul. While slaves were indeed traded for various commodities, including wine, the value of a slave would have depended on factors such as age, health, skills, and demand in the market. 

Julius Caesar was once kidnapped by pirates in the eastern Mediterranean near the island of Pharmacusa (modern-day Pharmacusa, Greece), in a separate incident to events in Gaul, and redeemed for a ransom due to Caesar famously negotiating his own release. 

This continued in Western Europe for at least 1000 years. Even a king could be held hostage or kidnapped. King Richard the Lionheart of England was held hostage on his way back from the Third Crusade. He was captured by Leopold V, Duke of Austria, near Vienna on December 20, 1192. Richard had been returning to England after the conclusion of the Third Crusade, during which he had fought against Saladin for control of the Holy Land. His captivity lasted until February 4, 1194, when he was released after the payment of an exorbitant ransom, that almost bankrupted England.

There is historical evidence to suggest that kidnapping for the purpose of selling individuals into slavery did occur, including in Gaul (modern-day France). During the Roman period, Gaul was under Roman rule, and slavery was a significant aspect of the economy.

One notable example comes from the writings of Julius Caesar, who documented his conquest of Gaul in his work "Commentarii de Bello Gallico" (Commentaries on the Gallic War). In his accounts, Caesar describes instances where Gauls engaged in raids and warfare against neighboring tribes, capturing individuals whom they would then sell into slavery.

Additionally, archaeological evidence, such as inscriptions and legal texts, also provide insights into the practice of slavery in Gaul during the Roman period. These sources indicate that slavery was widespread and that individuals could be enslaved through various means, including capture in warfare, debt bondage, and kidnapping.

Kidnapping operated alongside more conventional operations which supplied enslaved persons. The slave trade in ancient Rome was complex and multifaceted, involving various methods of acquisition, including capture in warfare, debt bondage, and sale by individuals or groups.

Historical records do provide insights into the slave trade in ancient Rome. Slaves were acquired through various means, including capture in wars, piracy, debt bondage, and through the sale of individuals by their families or other parties. Additionally, there were slave markets where enslaved individuals were bought and sold, often by traders or slave dealers.


Thomas Fuller, also known as "Negro Tom" and the "Virginia Calculator," was an enslaved African renowned for his extraordinary mathematical abilities. Born in 1710 in what is now Benin 🇧🇯, Fuller was brought to America as a slave in 1724. He became famous for his remarkable powers of mental calculation, and later in life, he was discovered by antislavery campaigners who used his abilities to argue that blacks were not inferior to whites in academics.

In a report, Rush emphasized the credibility of Hartshorne and Coates, who tested Fuller's mathematical skills:

When asked how many seconds there are in a year and a half, Fuller answered in about two minutes: 47,304,000 seconds.

When asked how many seconds a man has lived who is seventy years, seventeen days, and twelve hours old, he answered in a minute and a half: 2,210,500,800 seconds. A gentleman who had been calculating with a pen told Fuller he was wrong, but Fuller quickly replied, “top, massa, you forget de leap year.” Upon adding the leap year seconds, the calculations matched exactly.

When asked how many sows a farmer would have if he started with six sows, each sow had six female pigs in the first year, and they all increased in the same proportion for eight years, Fuller answered in ten minutes: 34,588,806 sows. The additional time taken to answer was due to a minor misunderstanding of the question.

Despite Fuller's perfect answers, Hartshorne and Coates noted that his mental abilities may have been even greater in his youth. Fuller, who was gray-headed and showed signs of old age, had worked hard on a farm all his life and was never intemperate with alcohol. He spoke highly of his mistress, who refused to sell him despite large offers, showing her respect for him. When Mr. Coates remarked that it was a pity Fuller had not received an education equal to his genius, Fuller replied, "No, Massa, it is best I had no learning, for many learned men be great fools."

Fuller's mathematical abilities were unparalleled, and no one could challenge his talents.

Wednesday 22 May 2024


Babatunde Folorunsho (Baba Oni Lace): The first Yoruba man to be publicly executed for armed robbery in Nigeria

Mr. Babatunde Folorunsho, along with Joseph Ilobo and Williams Alders Oyazimo, was publicly executed at Bar Beach, Lagos.

Babatunde Folorunsho was a notorious armed robber and a hardened criminal who terrorized Nigerians in the 1970s with his gang. His reign of crime coincided with that of Ishola Oyenusi, known as "Doctor Rob and Kill," another infamous Nigerian criminal.

Folorunsho earned the nickname "Baba oni lace" (Mr. Lace) due to his affinity for lace outfits, which he even wore during his robberies. He was one of the most wanted criminals in Nigeria at the time. Despite being relentlessly pursued by the Nigerian police and local guards, he managed to evade capture for a long period, during which crime rates soared, exacerbated by the aftermath of the civil war.

However, Folorunsho's luck ran out in 1971 when he was apprehended by the police during a robbery operation. He was charged with robbing Mr. Alfred Marshall of a car. His capture was met with national jubilation.

On April 8th and 13th, 1971, Babatunde Folorunsho was tried and found guilty of highway robbery by Judge James Agboola Ojomo, who sentenced him to death by firing squad.

On July 24th, 1971, thousands of Nigerians gathered at Bar Beach, Lagos, to witness the execution of Babatunde Folorunsho, Joseph Ilobo, and Williams Alders Oyazimo. This public execution was unprecedented in the country.

As the robbers arrived at the execution ground in a lorry, the crowd was filled with anxiety and excitement. In chains, the robbers walked to the stakes. Babatunde Folorunsho, known as "Baba oni lace," wore his characteristic lace outfit. Unlike Folorunsho, Joseph Ilobo resisted his fate until the end, protesting vocally.

At the point of execution, Ilobo addressed the crowd, exclaiming, "Are all these people here to see me die? Ah! This is a wicked world. I have not committed any crime." Williams Alders Oyazimo, a sub-lieutenant in the Nigerian Navy, also proclaimed his innocence tearfully. He stated, "If you search your conscience, you will know that a naval officer of my status will never go in the dead of the night to steal. I’ll die today, innocent of the crime for which I am condemned."

Military chaplain Col. Pedro Martins asked the condemned men to pray for forgiveness, but Oyazimo maintained his innocence, saying, "Father, I am innocent. My blood will cleanse my family and my children will prosper." His final words moved many Nigerians, making the moment particularly poignant.


Scarification is practiced for many different reasons depending on which part of Africa you come from and the cultural beliefs of your tribe. Below are a number of reasons why scarification is practiced in different parts of the African Continent. 

Scarring on the abdomen of women in many tribes is used to denote a willingness to be a mother. Her ability to tolerate the pain of scaŕring was an indication of her emotional maturity and readiness to bear children.

Scarification can be used for healing a patient changing them from a less desired state to a more desired state. It may help a patient go from victim to survivor. What is relevant to society varies from culture to culture. 

These individuals pass through various kinds of rituals which represent death and rebirth and redefine the relationship between self and society through the skin. Most people in certain regions of Africa who have “markings” can be identified as belonging to a specific tribe or ethnic group. 


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