Sunday 16 June 2024

MARY SEACOLE

Mary Seacole, a renowned Jamaican nurse, gained recognition for her remarkable contributions during the Crimean War. Born in 1805 in Kingston, Jamaica, she displayed exceptional nursing skills and compassion towards the sick and wounded. Despite facing racial prejudice, she persevered and traveled to the Crimea to provide care for British soldiers.

Seacole's dedication and expertise in nursing led her to establish the "British Hotel" near the battlefront, which served as a place of respite and healing for wounded soldiers. Her hands-on approach to healthcare and innovative treatment methods significantly improved the soldiers' well-being. She became known for her selflessness and unwavering commitment to the well-being of others, earning her the admiration and respect of many.

Mary Seacole's legacy continues to inspire generations, as she defied societal norms and overcame obstacles to make a lasting impact on healthcare. Her pioneering spirit and humanitarian efforts exemplify the highest standards of nursing practice, making her a revered figure in the history of healthcare. Mary Seacole's story serves as a beacon of hope and resilience, showcasing the power of compassion and determination in the face of adversity.

A statue has been erected to her outside Saint Thomas hospital in London, UK in memory of her achievements.

20 Amazing Facts About The Gambia 🇬🇲

(1). The Gambia 🇬🇲 is a small West African country that is almost entirely surrounded by Senegal.

(2). It is the smallest country in mainland Africa, with a total land area of about 4,361 square miles.

(3). The Gambia 🇬🇲 has a population of approximately 2 million people.

(4). The official language of The Gambia is English, but many Gambians also speak local languages such as Mandinka, Wolof, and Fula.

(5). The Gambia 🇬🇲 has a tropical climate with a wet and dry season. The dry season usually runs from November to May.

(6). The Gambia River, one of the country's most prominent features, flows through the middle of the country and is vital for transportation and agriculture.

(7). The capital city of The Gambia 🇬🇲 is Banjul, located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.

(8). Tourism is an essential industry in The Gambia, with visitors attracted to its beautiful beaches, wildlife reserves, and vibrant culture.

(9). The Gambia 🇬🇲 is known for its diverse birdlife, making it a popular destination for birdwatchers.

(10). The country is home to several national parks and nature reserves, including Kiang West National Park and River Gambia National Park.

(11). The Gambia 🇬🇲 has a rich cultural heritage, with traditional music, dance, and storytelling playing a significant role in Gambian society.

(12). The predominant religion in The Gambia is Islam, with about 95% of the population practicing the faith.

(13). The Gambia 🇬🇲 gained its independence from British colonial rule on February 18, 1965.

(14). The country has a strong tradition of wrestling, with traditional wrestling matches known as "Borreh" attracting large audiences.

(15). The economy of The Gambia relies heavily on agriculture, particularly the production of peanuts, which is the country's main export crop.

(16). The Gambian cuisine is diverse and includes dishes such as domoda (peanut stew), benachin (one-pot rice dish), and yassa (marinated meat or fish).

#Africa #Gambia

HISTORY LESSON

Thoth was most often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis. He often holds a scribe's palette and stylus but could also be depicted with an ankh (representing life) and a sceptre (representing power). Thoth sometimes wore a crescent moon on his head, but was also depicted wearing the Atef crown, and the double crown of Upper and Lower Kemet. When he was acting as the "voice of Ra", he carried the "Eye of Ra" (a symbol of the power of the sun). Occasionally he was depicted as an ibis, or a baboon. It is thought that the bird was associated with the moon because of its crescent shaped beak, and the baboon is nocturnal animal which has the peculiar habit of chattering at the sun every day before going to sleep.

Thoth was a great magician who knew "all that is hidden under the heavenly vault". He used his knowledge to help Isis after the murder of her husband Osiris by his brother Set. With the help of Anubis he created the first mummification ritual and helped resurrect Osiris (albeit in the land of the Dead). He also protected Isis's son Horus by driving a magical poison from his body when he was very young and supported him in his fight to gain the throne which was rightfully his.

Happy Youth Day South Africa 🇿🇦

On this day in June 16 1976 Soweto students embarked on a student protest against the use of Afrikaans language as a medium of instruction in school. Mbuyisa Makhubu is a significant figure in South African history, especially known for his involvement in the Soweto Uprising of 1976. This event was a series of protests led by black school children in South Africa against the apartheid regime's policy of enforcing Afrikaans as the medium of instruction in schools. The protests became a crucial moment in the struggle against apartheid.

Makhubu became internationally recognized after being photographed carrying the body of Hector Pieterson, a 12-year-old boy who was one of the first casualties of the uprising. The photograph, taken by Sam Nzima, became an iconic image representing the brutality of the apartheid regime and the struggle for freedom in South Africa.

After the uprising, Makhubu faced persecution by the apartheid authorities. He fled South Africa and sought refuge in various countries, including Botswana and Nigeria. For many years, his whereabouts were unknown, and there were numerous rumors and reports about his fate. In 2013, it was reported that Makhubu might have been found in Canada, living under an assumed identity. However, definitive confirmation of his identity and circumstances remained elusive.

Mbuyisa Makhubu's legacy endures as a symbol of the courage and resilience of those who resisted apartheid in South Africa. His actions on June 16, 1976, and the image capturing his bravery continue to inspire and remind people of the sacrifices made in the fight for justice and equality. #Africa

Saturday 15 June 2024

Amazing Facts About Malawi 🇲🇼 🇲🇼 🇲🇼

(1). Malawi 🇲🇼 is a landlocked country located in Southeast Africa, bordered by Tanzania, Mozambique, and Zambia.

(2). Malawi's official name is the Republic of Malawi 🇲🇼 .

(3). The official language is English and Chichewa.

(4). Malawi 🇲🇼 has a population of approximately 20 million people.

(5). The country's economy is primarily based on agriculture, with tobacco being the main export crop.

(6). Lake Malawi, also known as Lake Nyasa in Tanzania and Lago Niassa in Mozambique, is the ninth largest lake in the world and the third largest and second deepest lake in Africa.

(7). Malawi is known as the "Warm Heart of Africa" due to the friendliness of its people.

(8). Malawi gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1964.

(9). The country's flag 🇲🇼 features a full red sun with a rising rays on black field.

(10). Malawi has a diverse cultural heritage, with over 120 ethnic groups, each with their own unique customs and traditions.

(11). Malawi 🇲🇼 is also known as "The land of the lake".

(12). Malawi has a lot of natural resources like forests, wildlife, minerals, and water resources.

(13).  Malawi 🇲🇼 has a diverse range of fauna and flora, and it is home to several national parks and protected areas.

STEVE HARVEY

"The whîteman used to make our ancestors lose weight so they couldn't be strong enough to revolt before bringing them to America."~ Steve Harvey

"Every black person living should go to Ghana and see them slave castles, so you can see what they did to us. You've got to see what they did to us. You've got to see how they built these dungeons underground and they put these churches untop. And they dug holes in the ground to pump the music or what they call  their christianity into the holes. Let me explain something to you all, they walked our ancestors as far as they can first to make them lose weight. They put them in a room, they cut a door and after you've been in this room in two weeks, they walk you through this door. If you lose the right amount of weight, you fit through the door. If you don't fit through the door, you've to stay in the room. Then you go to a different room for another week and if you can't fit through the door, then you haven't lost enough weight. You've gotta go through four doors like this before you go through the door of no return where you become a slave."__American actor/TV host, Steve Harvey makes a shockîng revelatîon!!

Ghanaian slave castles include Elmina Castle and Fort Christiansborg. They were used to harbour enslaved Africans before they were loaded onto ships and sold in the Americas, especially the Caribbean. This "gate of no return" was the last stop before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

#Africa

TEACHING MOMENT THE GREEKS VISITED EGYPT (KEMET) AS STUDENTS TO LEARN ABOUT AFRICANS

◉ Plato studied in Egypt for 13 years.

◉ Pythagoras studied philosophy, geometry and medicine in Egypt for 22 years.

◉ Thales, the first Greek philosopher to study in Egypt for 7 years.

◉ Hypocrates, who is called father of medicine, recognised the Egyptian multi genius, Imhotep as the father of medicine.

◉ The "Pythagorean Theorem" used to build pyramids in Egypt 1000 years before Pythagorean was born.

◉ Plato said Egyptian education makes students more alert and humane. Plato told his students to go to Egypt if they wanted to study the minds of great philosophers.

◉ Heredotus, the Greek historian described ancient Egypt as the cradle of civilization.

Our ancestors opened the doors of our Nation to foreign people. These guests were welcomed with respect and honour according to our traditions but they used our kindness to destroy and cause division amongst Africans and our tradition.

This is what they don't teach in our schools. So, many people think that AFRICA history started from slavery 😭

LEAVE IT OR TAKE IT!

#Africa #Blackhistory #Kemet #Egypt

The book that will change everything you know about African history

When We Ruled by Robin Walker.

In 700 pages of groundbreaking research, Walker uncovers the hidden story of Africa's past.

If you don't have a couple of months to read it yourself, here are 10 important things I learned:

(1).  The Nubian Kingdom of Ta-Seti is the oldest kingdom on Earth.

(2). Sudan has more pyramids than Egypt.

(3). The libraries of Timbuktu housed more books than any European collection during the Middle Ages.

(4). In 951 AD, a cheque was written in Aoudaghost (Ancient Ghana) worth 42,000 dinars.

(5). Ile-Ife (Nigeria) had streets paved with maize cobs in 1000 AD - But maize comes from America and Columbus didn't get there for another 400 years 🤯

(6). Malian voyagers set sail for America in 1311 AD, 181 years before Columbus.

(7). The Malian Emperor, Mansa Musa, is the richest man in recorded history - On his journey to Mecca, he stopped in Cairo, and spent so much of his gold that Cairo's economy crashed due to the inflation, and didn't recover for 12 years.

(8). In the 14th Century, Timbuktu was 5 times larger than London.

(9). 15th Century manuscripts from Timbuktu show the planets revolving around the sun.  They were written over 150 year before Nicolaus Copernicus discovered this in 1543.

(10). The longest earthworks in the world carried out prior to the mechanical era are the Ancient Walls of Benin and Ishan, located in Edo State in present-day Nigeria. #Africa

THE ZULU PEOPLE

The Zulus were a part of federation under Dingiswayo, known as the Mthethwa Empire. "Mthethwa" means "the one who rules". It consisted of roughly 30 Nguni chiefdoms, lineages, and clans. Unlike its successor, the Zulu Kingdom, the Mthethwa Paramountcy was a confederation. The Zulu chiefdom was a vassal of the Mthethwa Paramountcy. The Mthethwas also had an alliance with the Tsonga people. 

According to Muzi Mthethwa (1995), the Mthethwas are descended from the Nguni tribes of northern Natal and the Lubombo Mountains, whose modern identity dates back some 700 years. They are among the first Nguni-Tsonga groups who left the Great Lakes in Central Africa between 200 AD and 1200 AD. On arrival in Southern Africa, they settled around modern-day Swaziland, mainly on the Lubombo Mountains, before leaving in the 17th century to settle in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal, in the Nkandla region.

In the Mthethwa Empire, which was a federation of Nguni communities, military training was required for initiation into manhood at age 15. Shaka first distinguished himself as a good soldier. 

He was elevated to the commander of his age set. When Dingiswayo died, Shaka Zulu became the leader. The Zulu kingdom therefore is actually just a continuation of the Mthethwa commonwealth, which dates back to centuries earlier. #Africa

Friday 14 June 2024

THE TALLEST MAN IN UGANDA

Here is the tallest man in Uganda by name Mr. Shipä. He is a source of tourism in Uganda 🇺🇬 as his height attracts tourists to come and take picture with him.

This is the results you get in your country when there’s peace and freedom of movement, tourists will even come to your area just to see your toilets and that’s generating of money for your country. 

#Africa #Uganda

PRESIDENT BASSIROU DIOMAYE FAYE

Senegal's President Bassirou Diomaye Faye has said profits from the sale of oil and gas will be “well managed” as the West African state started producing oil for the first time.

Australian energy giant Woodside described the extraction as a “historic day” and a "key milestone" for the company and the nation.

The Sangomar deep-water project, which also has gas, aims to produce 100,000 barrels of oil per day.

It is expected to generate billions of dollars for Senegal and boost its economy.

Thierno Ly, the general manager of the national oil company Petrosen, said the nation had entered a “new era” when production began on Tuesday.

"We have never been so well positioned for opportunities for growth, innovation and success in the economic and social development of our nation," he said.

Petrosen has an 18% stake in the project while Woodside owns the remainder.

Mr Faye, who was elected president in April, has been keen on renegotiating the deal as part of reforms he promised during the election campaign.

Speaking to students on Tuesday, he said that the earnings would be "well managed", and that an “inter-generation fund” had been set up for the benefit of "your generation and those to come”, the AFP news agency quoted him as saying. #Africa #Senegal

THE CHOKWE PEOPLE

The Chokwe people are an ethnic group of Central and Southern Africa. They are found primarily in Angola 🇦🇴 southwest parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo 🇨🇩 (Kinshasa to Lualaba), and northwestern parts of Zambia 🇿🇲 

The Chokwe, with an estimated population of 1.3 million people.

The Chokwe were once one of the twelve clans of the Lunda Empire in 17th and 18th century Angola.

Chokwe origin are said to be traced to the Mbundu and Mbuti Pygmies of Congo 🇨🇩

The Chokwe grow cassava, maize, yams, and peanuts. Sheep, goats, pigs, and chickens are kept as livestock.

Mwana pwo (young woman) masks, danced by Chokwe men at festivals for entertainment, are said to bestow increased fertility on the spectators. The masks represent female ancestors depicted as beautiful young women.

The traditional spiritual beliefs of the Chokwe center around ancestor spirits worship. In groups where chiefs exist, they are considered the representative of god Kalunga/ Nzambi, therefore revered and called Mwanangana or “overseer of the land.” With the colonial era, Chowke converted to Christianity yet the original beliefs were retained to produce a syncretism of beliefs and practices. They are another tribe which fused a colonial religion with their own indigenous spiritual practises. 

The Chokwe see Kalunga/ Nzambi the god of creation and supreme power, as well as of nature and mahamba (ancestral spirits). neglecting these spirits is sure to result in personal or collective misfortune. Evil spirits may also be activated by wanga (sorcerers) to cause illness, and this must be counteracted to regain health. The most common form of divination among the Chokwe is basket divination, which consists of the tossing of up to sixty individual objects in a basket. 

Male initiation sees young boys taken into the bush for a period of time. As the weeks go on, older men begin to train them in occupational tasks, as well as verbal abilities, sex education, psychological management techniques, and other skills they will need to be adult males and useful citizens. #Angola #Congo #Zambia

TEACHING MOMENT

Africa is not named after a Roman general! You have heard me say this before? If so, it is because I have pledged to repeat it again and again with the hope that it will someday sink in.

Africa is not named after Roman general Scipio Africanus. Nor is it named after Leo Africanus--a man who comes much later.  These are myths. I repeat, these are myths!

Scipio Africanus is the Roman general who engineered the defeat of the African nation called Carthage--centered in what is now Tunisia. Carthage was a colony from Phoenicia. It was established in 814 BCE. The Nile Valley was still thriving at this time and the civilization called Nok--based in what is now Nigeria--was rising up. The Phoenicians themselves had an African mixture and with the passage of time Carthage itself became increasingly African. Carthage means "the new town" and the most famous Carthaginian was General Hannibal Barca. The Romans called this entire area Africa. And so with the defeat of the Carthaginians Scipio is given the name "conqueror of Africa." So Scipio Africanus does not give his name to Africa. He gets his name from Africa! Get it? Make sense to you?

Now the man named Leo Africanus was himself an African. Indeed, his name means Leo the African!! He got his name from Africa.  He did not give his name to Africa.

Now before you tie yourself up in knots and begin to ask "Runoko Rashidi what was the original name for the continent of Africa" please ask yourself, "What makes you think that ancient people thought of themselves as living on continents?"

The notion of continents is a European notion and it is a relatively recent one at that. The word Ethiopian is Greek. It means land of the burnt faced people. And Alkebulan does not even appear to be an African word.

So why not start looking at things from an African perspective. Why not use our own frame of reference?

We need to spend more time educating each other. I try and do it each day.

MY OBSERVATION

I discovered that 100% of online racists who religiously believe incorrectly that black people have a lower IQ on average don’t actually know what IQ measurements are and the limitations.

Some people like to quote statistics but don’t actually have the wisdom to interpret the data correctly. This is what I have found when people make statements like “People from X have a lower IQ than ..”

The demography (the split of ages 0-15, 16-64, and 65+) is different from country to country, and continent to continent.

The concept of IQ tests was pioneered by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon in France in the early 20th century. Initially, their aim was to identify children who might need extra assistance in school. Their focus was on measuring a child's mental age in comparison to their chronological age.

Over time, IQ tests evolved in various ways. One notable change was the development of standardized tests, like the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), which provided a more consistent way to measure intelligence across different ages and populations.

Strengths of IQ tests include their ability to assess certain cognitive abilities and predict academic success in some cases. However, they also have weaknesses, such as cultural biases, as well as limitations in assessing creativity, emotional intelligence, and practical skills.

Valid measurements of intelligence go beyond IQ tests. Other methods include multiple intelligences theory by Howard Gardner, which identifies various types of intelligence (linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic). Additionally, assessments of emotional intelligence, problem-solving skills, and practical abilities contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of a person's capabilities beyond what traditional IQ tests measure.

Typically, children under 10 do not have the same IQ as adults aged over 18. IQ tends to develop and stabilize as individuals grow older. While some children may display high intelligence, their cognitive abilities are still in the process of development and are not typically at the same level as adults. IQ scores tend to increase as a person matures and gains more knowledge and experience over time.

In IQ testing, 100 is considered the average score. When someone scores above 100, it suggests they performed better than the average for their age group, and below 100 indicates they performed below the average.

Regarding the relationship between age group and an IQ score of 100, this number serves as a baseline or average score within a specific age group. For instance, a score of 100 for a 10-year-old means they performed at the expected level for a child of that age. Similarly, a score of 100 for a 30-year-old reflects an average performance for someone within that age bracket.

Comparing IQ tests across countries involves several challenges due to cultural, linguistic, and educational differences. One method used is to standardize the tests through extensive sampling and normalization processes. Researchers adapt tests to ensure they measure the same cognitive abilities across different populations. However, even with adjustments, cultural biases may persist, making direct comparisons challenging. Consequently, some researchers caution against making direct comparisons between IQ scores across diverse cultures and countries.

These strengths and weaknesses of the IQ test result in perverse results when scores are applied to Africa or quoted without context.

3% of Africa is over 65, whereas 40% is under age 15 (source: Statista 2022). In Europe 19% are over 65, while 16% are under age 15 (source: Statista 2022). In Asia, 10% of the population is over 65, while 24% are under age 15 (source: Statista 2022). The population of Asia is 4.6 billion, out of the world’s total population of 8.0 billion (57.5%). The global age percentage of the population under 15 of 25% and over 65 of 10% is therefore determined based on weighted averages by Asia.

Imagine for instance that a French person would never take an IQ test in Hausa. A German would never take an IQ test in Twi. Without 15 years of training, a French citizen would not be able to demonstrate the same level of verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, working memory and processing speed as a fluent Hausa speaker if they had to take the test in a foreign language.

Imagine also that a child is generally not smarter than an adult, which is why in most countries they can’t drive, drink, get married, work, vote or have sex until a certain age. Yet the average iQ of a continent with 40% children may be casually compared with a continent with 16% children, without any further explanations that an IQ score is not meaningful if it is not adjusted for age, culture and language fluency.

Moreover, the assertion that racial disparities in IQ within Western countries eliminate cultural biases is incorrect. Even within the same country, socio-economic factors, educational quality, and historical disadvantages play significant roles in shaping IQ scores. Black individuals in the US, for example, often face systemic barriers that impact their educational and cognitive development, making direct comparisons with other racial groups problematic. That is documented, and not disputed.

I wrote this reply to provide a comprehensive understanding of the complexities and limitations when comparing IQ scores across different populations, especially when making claims about the IQ of Africans or any other specific group. It highlights the historical context of IQ tests, their strengths, and limitations, emphasizing the importance of considering cultural, linguistic, and age-related factors.

I point out the challenges in directly comparing IQ scores between individuals or groups from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds, as well as the significant impact of age demographics on such comparisons. Additionally, it addresses the issue of language proficiency and its influence on test performance, underlining how individuals may perform differently when taking tests in their non-native languages.

Furthermore, I emphasize the importance of understanding that IQ scores are not standalone measures of intelligence but need adjustments for factors like age, culture, and language fluency to be meaningful in comparative analyses. Overall, this analysis provides a nuanced view, cautioning against oversimplified or generalized claims about IQ scores across diverse populations.

THE KANDAKE WARRIORS

The Kandake warriors of Kush were one of the most, if not the most, powerful group of woman in the history of the world. Also known  as Queen Mothers, controlling and ruling over territory in Ethiopia, Sudan, and parts of Egypt. Kandake was often used as a royal title or dynastic name. It is translated into English as “Candace”.

The kandake Queens would sometimes rule on their own or with their husbands. The queen would share an equal role with the king, or reserve most of the decisions making for herself.

In many situation the Kandakes had absolute authority and were tasked with creating their sons as rulers. Similar to the Hatshepsut situation in the 18th dynasty of Kemet. Where she took on a leadership role after her husband  died, and made sure his son,Thutmose III, received adequate training to prepare him to be the next Nswt in Kemet.

These Queen Warriors also played a significant role in spirituality, having pillars,  pyramids, engravings, ect erected in their honor. Shanakdakhete’s was one of the most prolific Queens of Kush owning one of the largest pyramids built by the kings of Kush. The pyramid featuring a unique chapel has two rooms and two columns.  Landscapes in the chapel depicting military campaigns to the south show large numbers of livestock and prisoners.

Amanishakheto was the most powerful and wealthiest among the rulers of Kush. There are several monuments of her and she is mentioned in the Amun Temple of Kawa.  She built a considerable amount of pyramids and temples at Wad Naqaa, where she resided and where she was buried with valuable treasures of the Nehesu.

VICTORIA RUBADIRI

Victoria Rubadiri comes from the lineage of the great Malawian diplomat Prof David Rubadiri. Her grandfather was a renowned poet, playwright and novelist.

The award winning journalist studied Forestry at Masinde Muliro University and later a Bachelor of Arts in Broadcast Journalism at Temple University in Philadephia, Pennsylvania.

Vicky as she is known in media circles worked in public relations before joining Capital FM as a business reporter. Her keen eye for details, nose for news, intellectual depth and delivering cutting edge content are the hallmarks of her illustrious career in media.

She started off as an intern at NBC in Linwood, New Jersey. She lived in the US for 14 years and gained valuable inter cultural experience across races and class, an ingredient that has enabled her tell exceptional stories on radio and on screen.

In 2020 she won the Komla Dumor Award. This award is given to individuals living and working in Africa with strong journalism skills, on air flair and exceptional talent in telling African stories..The reward is a 3 month training at BBC World News. The only other Kenyan  recipient is his former colleague Waihiga Mwaura in 2018. Vicky  is also a recipient of the KUZA Award by Communication Authority of Kenya.

Victoria Rubadiri has worked with NTV where she hosted Weekend Edition. Royal Media Services gave  a lucrative offer and she crossed over to Citizen TV as Senior Anchor and Reporter. She lastly co-hosted Sunday live with Jeff Koinange. As her star continued to shine, Victoria Rubadiri was recently head hunted for the enviable  assignment as CNN's International Connecting Africa Correspondent.

The eloquent and assiduous journalist is a mother to a daughter, Neema, who joined university in Aug 2023. Vicky's father is a long serving pastor at CITAM Valley Road, Rev. Kwame Rubadiri.

Victoria Rubadiri is a Conference Moderator, Corporate Events EmCee and runs a Mentorship program, Girlfriends Confidential Talk.

Photo Courtenay/Victoria Rubadiri Instagram

THE DOGON TRIBE AND THEIR MYSTERIOUS CONNECTION TO SIRIUS👽

Sirius the brightest star(s) in the sky, its name  comes from the Greek language and is translated as the glowing one or bright one. And what might appear as a single star is in fact a double or even possibly Triple Star System according to observations made in the 1920’s. A chunk of knowledge well known to the Dogon tribe in Africa.

According to the Dogon, the “instructor” gods descended from Sirius and brought knowledge and wisdom. What is interesting is that the Dogon knew about Sirius and its “Triple” Star System way before “modern” science found out its existence. According to studies, it is believed that Sirius C, the third system, is a red dwarf star a hundred times less massive than our own Sun, and a lot less bright making it hard to see with our equipment, thus the discovery is still awaiting confirmation from the astronomic community.

The Dogon are an extremely interesting tribe, their most sacred and most ancient traditions speak of a star that is accompanied by the planetary system Sirius. The Dogon believe the existence of a third star which they called “Emme Ya'.

So how did they do it? How is it possible that these incredibly intelligent people known as the Dogon tribe knew all these extensive astronomical details? How is it possible that the Dogon had all this astronomical knowledge without the tools to observe the sky properly? Apparently, we have to understand that there is a thin line between mythology and reality, it’s just a matter of interpretation.

MANY VERSIONS OF YORUBA DIALECT

All Yoruba cities, towns, and Villages referred to version of Yoruba they speak as the name of the towns, cities, or villages, isn't just Yoruba, the pattern is common among many people of the world.

Even the Bini language takes its name from Bini people.

What we call Yoruba people  today is the clusters  of different tribes that speak the same language and proudly  believe  they originated from the same source.

While the name "Yoruba" might be recent, it doesn't mean the people are.

For example: before the entirety of England was referred to as "English," the term originally applied to the Anglo-Saxon peoples and their culture.

Before the entire Yoruba was called Yoruba , it applied  to  people  living in the Oyo  area, which gradually  evolved  to all the people  that we called Yoruba today;this is called evolution. 

Yariba” is not a word— and doesn’t mean anything— in either the Fulani language (also called Fulfulde) or the Hausa language. Nor does it mean anything even in Songhai.

Can you speak Ife, or can you speak Ijebu? If you can't speak Ijebu, can you speak Ekiti? OK, you can't speak either of these dialects. But surely you can speak Eko.

Eko is another dialect of what we know as Yoruba today, the reason why the town is called Eko.

This is Copy and paste Below of the introduction  of  1858 dictionary:

"THE Yoruba country includes all the territory which is inhabited by people who speak the Yoruba language. It is bounded on the East by Ibinin or Benin and the Niger, on the West by Dahomi and Mahí, on the North by Barba (Borghoo) and Nufe, and on the South by the Bight of Benin. At the present time it is divided into eight independent kingdoms, as follows: 1. Iketu, situated immediately east of Dahomi, of which the extent is two thousand square miles, with a population of about one hundred thousand; *capital, Iketu. The surface of the country is level; timber and water are scarce, and the soil rather poor. Still this little kingdom has sufficient resources to repel the power of Dahomi, which it has done on two occasions.

(2). Eko, or Lagos, situated immediately on the sea coast, has an area of about four hundred square miles, and a population of thirty thousand. The greater part are in Lagos, the capital, which is situated on a small island in the lagoon or bay , called Osa by the natives, and Cradoo by the English . Lagos claims all the coast to a point some miles west of Badagry. If this claim be allowed, the area and population of the kingdom are two or three times greater than above stated. For many years Lagos was a stronghold of the slave trade. It was then nominally dependent on Benin; but the turbulent chiefs and people seem to have paid little regard either to Benin or to their own kings, who were frequently deposed and banished. Lagos is now under the protection of the English, but they claim no jurisdiction over the soil or people. It is the residence of several European merchants and missionaries, and bids fair to become one of the most flourishing towns in western Africa. The people speak the Yoruba language, which they frequently call the Eko; just as the Iketus, Egbas, & c. , call it, after the name of their own tribes, the Iketu, the Egba, & c. By Europeans it is generally called the Aku language .

(3). Egba is a small kingdom on the south of Yoruba and east of Iketu, lying on both sides of the Ogun river, but principally on the east . The whole area, including the fallen kingdom of Ota, is about three thousand square miles, with a population of one hundred thousand; the capital, Abeokuta, has a population of eighty thousand souls. The surface of the country is generally hilly, especially east of the river; the soil is unusually fertile, and the whole region well supplied with streams of clear water . In ancient times, as the Egba people relate , their country was a province of the Yoruba kingdom. After obtaining their independence, they were governed by a king of their own; but finally growing weary of monarchy, they determined that every town should be ruled by its own chiefs. This led to mutual jealousies and dissensions. About fifty years ago, these dissensions, stimulated by the slave trade and by the machinations of the Idźebus and Yorubas, resulted in civil war. The Egba country then contained more than a hundred towns, some affirm nearly three hundred, several of which were very populous. In the course of twenty - five years, every one of these towns was swept out of existence, with the single exception of Ọbà, which is yet standing, about ten miles south - west of Abeokuta. It is probable that five hundred thousand people perished by sword and famine. Many thousands were sold to the slave ships, and the remnant of the tribe was scattered abroad. The city of Abeokuta is situated on the east bank of the Ogun river, among twenty or thirty immense masses of granite, several of which rise to a height of two or three hundred feet. Forty years ago, a grotto or cave under one of these rocks, which surmounts an abrupt hill, was inhabited by a band"

-introduction of  Yoruba Dictionary 1858

Eko is a dialect and people, just like Ife is a dialect and people. In the 19th century, the island only comprised 30,000 people , relatively small compared to other Yoruba towns.

The language spoken in Eko is a version of Yoruba, not a version of Bini .

The argument is whether bini invaded the Island and had some influence, The argument is, did  Bini create and name the island.

Eleko ti Eko is actually  the Title of oba eko.

Thursday 13 June 2024

NANCY GREEN

The world knew her as "Aunt Jemima," but her given name was Nancy Green and she was a true American success story. She was born a slave in 1834 Montgomery County, KY... and became a wealthy superstar in the advertising world, as its first living trademark.

Green was 56-yrs old when she was selected as spokesperson for a new ready-mixed, self-rising pancake flour and made her debut in 1893 at a fair and exposition in Chicago. She demonstrated the pancake mix and served thousands of pancakes... and became an immediate star. She was a good storyteller, her personality was warm and appealing, and her showmanship was exceptional. Her exhibition booth drew so many people that special security personnel were assigned to keep the crowds moving.

Nancy Green was signed to a lifetime contract, traveled on promotional tours all over the country, and was extremely well paid. Her financial freedom and stature as a national spokesperson enabled her to become a leading advocate against poverty and in favor of equal rights for folks in Chicago.

She maintained her job until her death in 1923, at age 89.

AFRICA 🌍

Africa is a continent rich in history, culture, and diversity. From the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Ethiopia to the colonial era and struggles for independence, Africa's history is a tapestry of triumphs, challenges, and resilience.

The history of Africa dates back thousands of years, with evidence of early human ancestors found in regions such as the Great Rift Valley. Ancient civilizations like the Kingdom of Kush, the Mali Empire, and the Kingdom of Aksum flourished, leaving behind impressive architectural wonders and cultural legacies that continue to inspire awe today.

The continent's history was forever changed with the arrival of European colonizers in the 15th century. The scramble for Africa led to the exploitation of its resources, the imposition of colonial rule, and the devastating effects of the transatlantic slave trade. Despite these challenges, African nations fought for independence in the 20th century, leading to the birth of new nations and the struggle for self-determination.

Today, Africa is a continent on the rise, with a vibrant cultural scene, economic growth, and a young population driving innovation and change. As the cradle of humanity, Africa's history is a testament to the resilience and strength of its people, and a reminder of the rich tapestry of cultures and traditions that make the continent a truly unique and diverse place. #Africa

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