Saturday 27 August 2022


Ika Ofun, ika funfun

Divine for sixteen elders.

They were going to Ile -Ife to ask for long life.

Would they live as Olodunmare (The most High) decreed, was their question to Ifa?

The diviner told the sixteen elders that they would live long in good health, but they must respect and obey Ifa guiding SIXTEEN LAWS --


1 .You should not lie

2 .You should not perform initiation/ebo/divination without a complete knowledge.

3. You should not mislead people with wrong informations.

4. You should not deceive people (financially or spiritually).

5. You should not claim a wisdom that you are not entitled to.

6. You should humble yourselves and not be Egocentric.

7. You should not be treacherous.

8. You should take Taboo/s seriously.

9. You should not break Taboos.

10. You should always be trustworthy.

11.You should not take a walking cane from a blind - respect Obatala creations, the individual with disabilities.

12. You should not take a cane from an Elderly - Respect Your Elders.

13. You should not take an "Ogboni's Wife / Husband" - Respect the Moral Laws.

14. You should not sleep with your friends Wife or Husband - Do not betray your friends.

15. You should not go behind and discuss secret - not to betray trusts.

16. You should not disrespect a TRUE BABALAWO/OLORISA.

These 16 laws from the Odu Ika Ofun became the basic fundamentals among several Ifa laws that guide Babalawos /Olorisa and followers of Orunmila.

The laws also transcend to everybody in the Yoruba Traditions.

Friday 26 August 2022

Krobo People of Ghana

Krobo People can be found in Ghana and they are part of the Ga Adangbe ethnic group and also one of the seven Dangme ethnic group. 

Krobo beads which include beads necklace, beads waist dates far back to the 9th Century AD it originated from ile ife in the Western Nigeria where the Oni of Ife is located or residence at it is said they have used the beads and attached much important to beads, just like the ancient civilizations of Kemet Present Egypt and Mesopotamia the beads markers are known for their colorful powdered glass beads according to the beads markers it is made up of recycle glass, it is produced in open sides, thatched roofed huts and used traditional labor intensive and they used larger mortar, pestle later first pounds the sheets and shards of the glass into a fine powder after sifting the powder to remove any chunks then less often add small amounts of ceramic powder to intesify the base color of the beads. 

According to Anthropologist Enock Azu, Reindorf, Huber, Field, Kropp Dakubu, Wilson and Odonkor they claimed the Krobos migrated from Present day Eastern Nigeria then crossed Sameh in Dahomey Present day Benin along with other proto Dangmes others said they migrated from ille ife Western Nigeria located  where the Oyo Kingdom was founded and they traced to ille ife and to South west of a river called Ogun others claimed they might migrate around Nigeria and crossed the savannah west ward through river volta and settled at tagologo plains within Accra plains later became known as Lolovor around the 14th Century.  

Under the leadership of Madza and Aklo Muase they settled at the mountain which they lived about more than 4,00 years ago and escaped from tribal wars between 14th- 16th Century later in 1858 a rebellion was led against the government and in the earlier year the Manya Krobo were known as Eastern Krobo, Yilo Krobo were known as Western Krobo they have been administered as separated into 2 states which is Manya, Yilo followed by Ologo patu the dipo intiation ceremony plays a big role is quite similar to the Kabiye/Kabye People of Northern Togo initiation, young girls undergo dipo in their late teens because of modern pressure, some parents also put their daughters through Dipo the intiation ceremony used to last very long time there was no formal education and it served as vocational training for matured girls it depends it could even last up to several months or a years, girls go through several process in form of curriculum for training they are taught how to tend a farm, collect fire woods for cooking they could have visitors at night they fetch water , doing dishes, washing their clothes to prevent personal hygiene and sent to the river side,  pounding fufu are taught and how to severe food to their husband to be extended family when married. 

Beads are worn and waist beads as they undergo puberty rites as every ethnic groups in Africa carved masks the krobos do carved masks but not well known for mask their mask is made up of wood which is hand made along with a woman sculpture.

The Udiroko Festival

Celebrating the Udiroko festival with His Royal Majesty Oba Rufus Adeyemo Adejugbe Aladesanmi III (CON, JP), the Ewi of Ado-Ekiti and the people of Ado-Ekiti.

The Udiroko Festival was established in 1310 AD during the reign of Oba Awamaro, the first Ewi of the present-day Ado-Ekiti. The name, Udiroko, was derived from the venue of the first festival, which was held under an Iroko tree in the Ewi’s Palace. The event plays a pivotal role in the life of the people of Ado Ekiti. 

The event also symbolized the first meeting held by the ancestors of Ado when they assumed the town after a long journey from Benin.

The monarch and his subjects set the day aside to give thanks to their creator, Olorun. Hence, it is nicknamed, “the Olorunborun festival”. 

It marks the beginning of a new year for the people. It is also a platform for unity and assemblage of all sons and daughters of Ado-Ekiti across the globe. 




We lost our morality and spiritual coordination when the material for instruction towards our morality changed from Ifá to Bible/Koran.

Ifá was written in our own native tongue, containing lessons, wisdoms and solutions in our immediate environment; the Bible and Koran were translated and imposed on us. It became what we had to memorize first, then understand much later.

That is responsible for our loss of coordination. This is why we can be so described as the "scum of the earth".

If you look at the political and economic side, you will see that Christians are citizens who market and buy their life solutions from western countries while Muslims do buy their solutions from Arab nations - because they have been sold the worldview of those nations as valid.

For instance, for Christians, medicines will be solutions approved by western nations who own the approved academic contents.

This will make them shun native African herbal solutions thereby spending scarce currency on foreign solutions when home solutions remain untapped because they have been demonized by the Christian and Islamic religious institutions as satanic or barbaric, when we know that all our medicines come from the things that grow from the earth.

All our solutions are on our lands, we started dying when we looked abroad for our savior.

Before Christianity and Islam came, we were not people that needed to be saved from animalistic devilish behaviors, we were Ọmọlúwàbí before we met Europeans and Arabians. #FACT.

He who has an ear...

Pic: Ikin Ifá.

This is what is most sacred to the Babaláwo, it is the greatest treasure of humanity in my estimation of it. The knowledge Ikin stores/shares with the Babaláwo, does not exist anywhere that I know of. Priceless.

You may wonder, how can this piece of black thing speak or even hear, well, if you may know, this is the "thing" behind names like Faleti (Ifá has ears with which it listens), Faapohunda (Ifá didn't change what it had said), Faasoranti (Ifá does not fail in solving a problem), Falade (Ifá is the crown), Faleyimu (Ifá pursued and rescued this), Falana (Ifá made the path), Fagbenro (Ifá sustains me) and several other Ifá beautiful names too numerous to mention. It is this "black thing" that birthed all those names. If you have a name like that, it means your family lineage is a family of philosophers, teachers and doctors of original Africa.

If Christianity and Islam make you think that you are an offspring of fallen angels, then you have been robbed. And I say that the act which converted you is an act of terrorism.

By Abayomi Ogedengbe

Odù Ifá Ọ̀bàrà Méjì

Looking at the Odù, Ọ̀bàrà Méjì cast for today's Ọ̀sẹ̀ Ifá, I quickly remember the song of the legend, late Hubert Ogunde from the album, "Onímọ́tò" where he sang as follows :-

Asúrétete ò màní kọ́já ilé

Arìngbẹ̀rẹ̀gbẹ̀rẹ̀ ò màní sọnù sọ́nà...

Impatient fast runner will not pass home 

Slow walker will not get lost on the road

Now let's bring it home. Why are we always in a hurry? Just listen to the stanza.

Ìkánjú ò ṣe jayé

Wàràwàrà ò ṣe jù s'ápò

Gbogbo ohun t'Ọlọ́run bá fún wa làágbà

Adífá fún Èyí t'ó ń rìn ọmọ Èjìọ̀bàrà

Èròpo èrò ọ̀fà bó pẹ́ títí èèyàn t'ó tí ń rìn a dé'lé mọrẹ

Hastening doesn't guarantee life enjoyment

Dangerous hurrying is not habitable

Whatever the Almighty Creator gives us should be accepted in good faith

Cast divination for a walker, the child of Ọ̀bàrà Méjì

People of Òpo and Ọ̀fà ( representing the world), let it be known that no matter how long it takes one to walk, one must surely get to one's destination (home).

My people, EASY DOES IT.

Ẹni t'óbá l'étí k'ógbọ́

Those who have ears let them hear.

Stay blessed.

From Araba of Oworonsoki

Tuesday 23 August 2022


Let us give explanation of ile ori [the sacred vessel which enshrines within itself the sacred Ori divinity] which is supposed to keep, protect, serve as a pride, honour, sign of respect, even beautify the kings head, but things have changed as centuries passed. Ile-ori later undergoes many artful transformations to become a crown today. Nowadays, ile ori has been designed in the form of a crown but not as a functional crown because no one wears it. It consists a very wonderful leather work decorated with cowry shells, the model of this exists as the crown of the Alafin of Oyo. No oba has been permitted to wear such a crown, though the Timi of Ede has a simple model of it. The story of the type of crown supported by the history of Oyo Empire is used to make Alafin as the head of the Obas in Yoruba land.

The controversial claims Ooni is the head of the Yoruba obas. All the stories and legend are used to prove that Oduduwa is the aborigine of Yoruba. The Yoruba needs some legend or grounding myth that all the Yoruba belonging to the same origin. Later this became the cause of many disputes. This is the root for describing the Yoruba as homogenous group.

There are now different types of crowns and legends existing in Yoruba land. Ifá, the accepted authority's claim about the origin of people of the Yoruba land is now disputable.

Ori is now recognized as what we can see as the physical head [and what we can experience as the inner spiritual head], and much of these attributes are claimed to belong to that of Olódùmarè, for example "Eleda" as expressed thus "Ori mi (my head) Eledami bamise o (help me my ori)".

The only statement that shows the accepted homogeneity of the Yoruba people is the phrase "Eku" appearing in almost greetings of the people.

Occasion, whether happy, sorrow,  enjoyment, for sickness, for victory, accident, giving birth, defeat, decease, good or bad luck, example are:

Eku owuro (good morning), eku osan (good afternoon), eku role (good evening), eku ale (good night) for the period of the day, for performance at duty you have "Eku Ise" (welldone), For those performing and "Eku ile" (welcome) for people coming in, "Eku Iroju" for those active and those tired, "Eku Iwaju" for those you meet on the road, or at a ceremony, in the igbomina area, "Ooku" is used.

They settled in small towns identified by the original ancestors, like Ago, Egba, those in Egbaland, Abule Ijebu, Abule Ijesha.


Ile Ori has been designed in the form of a crown but not as a functional crown because no one wears it. It consisted a very wonderful leather work decorated  with cowry shells, the model of this exists as the crown but

No oba has been permitted to wear such a crown.

Do you know any oba wearing such crown?

For example, I have one first class oba that uses to wear such crown. In fact the palace is close to where I live. Mostly especially during Odun Aje.

What's the implication Please?


The Yoruba needs some legend or grounding myth that all the Yoruba belonging to the same origin. Later this became the cause of many disputes. This is the root for describing the Yoruba as homogenous group.

I was at Obatala's temple few days ago and Obalesu said same thing. He said we are not all Yorubas because the so-called Yorubas were not from same race and that the Hausa gave us the name. 

Do you agree or disagree?

By Dr. S M Opeola


The Man Who Paid Tax for The Whole of Ibadan:

If ever there was a man who left indelible marks on Ibadan’s landscape in commerce, engaged in philanthropy and humaneness in the late 19th and 20th centuries,that man was Sanusi Adebisi Idikan.

Born in 1882, in Ibadan during the reign of Aare Latoosa, the Baale of Ibadan to Adesina, an Ofi clothe weaver- a traditional Yoruba cloth maker- who had migrated from Efon Alaaye (Ijesha Stock) in present day Ekiti State.

Adeshina had moved to Ibadan with his paternal half-brother- Alabi and settled in Aremo, in the household of Lanase. Adesina whilst plying his trade of Ofi weaving, was also spiritual consultant to Alaafin Atiba,who had betrothed his most precious daughter- Princess Ogboja to him, in recognition of Adesina’s great spiritual impact in his life.

Adesina got married to Ogobja and begat three children- Adetinrin, Adeoti and Adebisi. Although, Sanusi Adebisi was the last child and started out hawking Ofi clothes with his siblings in Ibadan, he expanded to surrounding towns before the age of 18, became an instant success and even retired his siblings from the business.

He thereafter ventured into large scale farming, with a cocoa plantation in Ashipa village, Mamu and soon acquired about 200 Acres of land in Apata Ibadan, where he developed another cocoa plantation.In no time, he was made the Giwa Egbe (head of the society) by his other successful merchants, like Otiti, Ekolo, Afunleyin, Ladimeji from Isale Ijebu and Adeyemo Owonbuwo from Oopo-yeosa.

At a point in time, tax payment became such an issue that a Balogun of Ibadan- Balogun Ola, son of Baale Orowusi, would rather commit suicide, than to see Ibadan Young men in perpetual tax agony and detention. Payment of tax became a social symbol and tax defaulters were usually mocked and despised by the popular song-”Owo ori ti d’ ode o, o o’ode o baba wa loko san” –”payment of taxation has come, our fathers were the first to pay, the idiots and lazy ones who have not paid are in detention in Mapo”- “Awon ode ti o le san o, wonnbe lati mole ni Mapo.” Sanusi Adebisi was at this one of thefirst set of Ibadan elites, perhaps ifnot the first person, to ride a car, apart from his hordes of horses.

Uncomfortable with the situation, he drove to Chief Tax Officer for the Ibadan Colonial Office, Mapo. In his meeting with the officer in the colonial office, he brokered an understanding- “I want to be paying tax on behalf of every taxable adult in Ibadan”. The officer was shocked, nonplussed and asked him, if he knew the financial implication of his gesture? But he still insisted on paying.

Henceforth, the colonial officer would calculate the amount of tax expected from all Ibadan taxable adults and would go to Adebisi Idikan’s residence to collect the money.

On the 26th of November, 1926, Adebisi was installed, the Ashaju Baale of Ibadan, jumping about 10 lines on the rung of the ladder- Otun Olubadan (civil) line. Money “is the god of the world” hapsodised Akinpelu Obisesan Sanusi Adebisi was a man of excessive generosity, whose milk of human kindness was ceaseless.

Coming from a visit from Ede, where he had gone to see the reigning Monarch- the Timi of Ede, he saw a handcuffed man, being taken to the Agodi prison yard Ibadan, by some prison warders. He stopped to ask for the man’s offence- he was a debtor. Adebisi there and then instructed the warders to follow him to collect the money and release the debtor.

Despite Adebisi’s intervention, the freed debtor, refused to leave Adebisi’s household and stated that he would rather remain and live with him, as one of his boys and this Adebisi gladly obliged. Adebisi had a legendary style of writing off debts, without being prompted. He would ask his secretary / personal assistant- Adesokan, to read out the names of debtors and how much they owed.

He would tear the pages and order for a match stick. He would strike the match stick and burn all the papers containing the debtor’s names. He would write off the debts whilst saying- “nobody likes to be a debtor”. 

He also became the President of the Ibadan Land Court in 1936. Adebisi in ill health, had visited the then renowned surgeon- Dr Doherty in Lagos. Advised to stay in Lagos to recuperate, he bought a house at 34, Whitman Street, Ebute Meta in Lagos, to enjoy a well-deserved rest.

In January, 1938, in his last few moments, he brought out money to assist insolvent debtors. He brought out the papers containing the debtors’ names, tore and burnt them, without anyone noticing any premonition. After a brief illness of some few hours, he bade mother Earth goodbye on Friday June 21, 1938, at the age of 56 Years, and such was the glorious exit of the-unparalleled, uncommon benefactor and philanthropist.


Looking at the Odù, Òtúrá Ọ̀wọ̀nrín/Òtúrá Ìmẹ́lẹ́/Òtúrá Alákétu cast for today's Ọ̀sẹ̀ Ifá, I can say that good Babalawo/Ifa Priests/Orisa Priests and Priestesses shouldn't mind what they call us. The ignorants think we don't do anything but sit at home waiting for goodness. Yes we are, thanks to Olódùmarè and Ifá.

Ọ̀nà tó tàrà mọyà

Adífá fún Ìmẹ́lẹ́ Olúfẹ̀ mẹ́tẹ̀ta

Ìmẹ́lẹ́ jí ìmẹ́lẹ́ ń lówó

Èròpo èrò ọ̀fà ẹ wá wo iṣẹ́ ìmẹ́lẹ́ ń ṣe

Ìmẹ́lẹ́ jí ìmẹ́lẹ́ ńní ire gbogbo

Èròpo èrò ọ̀fà ẹ wá wo iṣẹ́ ìmẹ́lẹ́ nse

Ọ̀nà tó tàrà mọyà (Name of sage)

Cast divination for 3 lazy Priests of Olúfẹ̀(King)

The lazy wakes up, the lazy is blessed with money

People of Òpo and Ọ̀fà, representing the world

Come and see the work the lazy is doing

The lazy wakes up, the lazy is blessed with all good things of life. 

People of Òpo and Ọ̀fà, representing the world

Come and see the work the lazy is doing.

Yes Olódùmarè has made our services to mankind easy. Here referring to proficient Babalawos who have studied well and enjoying the fruits of their labour and not those who want to reap where they never so, the liars and fraudsters.

Stay blessed.

George Darling with Oba of Lagos, HRM Musendiku Buraimoh Adeniji Adele II, KBE (November 13, 1893 - July 12, 1964) at the Iga Idunganran Palace

Date: 18th October 1962

Musendiku Adeniji-Adele II(1893- 1964) Oba of Lagos from 1949-1964. 

He was born in Lagos and attended Holy Trinity School and CMS Grammar School Lagos. He trained as a Surveyor and draughtsman. after a brief stint in the Army Royal Engineers, he worked as a Tax Clerk. Also a prolific writer, he won a Colonial Gold medal for a novel he wrote in 1927.

Adeniji -Adele was a heartfelt ‘Lagos Islander’ and kept many issues affecting Isale-Eko close to his heart. His brand of populism was value-based. He was Mogaji Adini of Lagos Central mosque and patron to many Muslim societies all of which he was very proud of.

George Darling, Baron Darling of Hillsborough, PC (20 July 1905 – 18 October 1985) was a politician in the United Kingdom. He was Labour Co-operative Member of Parliament for Sheffield Hillsborough from 1950 to 1974.

Monday 22 August 2022


What does it bring to go down as an extraordinary pioneer on the African mainland? Maybe it requires diligence and commitment. And obligation? Doubtlessly, with colossal power comes extraordinary obligation. These African people had the most noteworthy awareness of others' expectations blended in with weighty portions of selflessness.

Legends and courageous woman of their times, these pioneers were able to risk all that to experience the obscure and explain change in Africa. Go along with us as we bring an excursion through a world of fond memories to investigate the 10 biggest African heads of the contemporary time.


Nelson Mandela was one of Africa’s finest citizens and statesmen. Prior to becoming president of South Africa (1994-1999), he sacrificed a great chunk of his life fighting against the apartheid political system in the country. As South Africa’s first black president, his government tackled key racial systems that segregated and tore apart the country’s diverse races.  Mandela was a revolutionary who got imprisoned on several occasions for his activism. Upon his release, after 27 years behind bars, his African National Congress (ANC) party won the 1994 general election (South Africa’s first free, multi-racial and democratic election). Affectionately referred to as “Madiba” (his traditional Xhosa clan name), Mandela forgave all his enemies and created a reconciliation commission, which was chaired by Anglican Archbishop Desmond Tutu, to probe past human rights violations during the apartheid era. He won a Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for his peace-loving life and the various projects and works to end the brutal decades of Apartheid in South Africa.


Haile Selassie, also known as Ras Tafari Makonnen, was an Ethiopian ruler (1916 to 1974) and emperor (1930-1974). Undoubtedly, Selassie was one of the biggest sons of Africa whose name can never be erased from history. Even at a young age, Selassie showed promising intellectual capacity. His intelligence quickly earned him political appointments from the Ethiopian emperor. Selassie eventually became emperor of Ethiopia upon the death of his father-in-law. During his reign, several schools were constructed, social injustice fell, and the security forces of the state were strengthened. Selassie used his immense influence on the continent to push for a more united Africa. He went on to build an extensive network of ties with African communities in the diaspora as well as other Caribbean islands. Up to this day, some circles within those communities (particularly the Rastafari community) often regard him as the reincarnated messiah.


Kwame Nkrumah is a highly revered Ghanaian politician who led the country in 1957 (formerly Gold Coast) to gain independence from the country’s colonial masters (Britain). One can conclude that he was the founder of Ghana, without being too wrong. Nkrumah was the first president and Prime Minister of Ghana. He was a Pan-Africanist who co-founded the Africa Union (A.U) (formerly the Organization of African Union). Nkrumah returned to Gold Coast after studying abroad for 12 years. He became a revolutionary who got arrested for causing political riots. His tenure as president saw massive developmental projects across the length and breadth of Ghana. Nkrumah’s legacy in Ghana, and even beyond, is unparalleled.


Julius Nyerere is another unforgettable hero of the African continent. He was the first president and Prime Minister of Tanzania (formerly Tanganyika). His rule as a statesman lasted from 1961 to 1985. As an intellectual who had masters degrees in economics and history, Nyerere was an African nationalist and a socialist. In 1953, Julius Nyerere co-founded the TANU (Tanganyika African National Union). As president of TANU, Nyerere piled a lot of pressure on Britain for self-rule and governance. His efforts finally paid off on 9th December 1961, as Tanzania gained independence.


Lumumba was a revolutionary Congo politician who helped the country to gain independence. He was the first Prime Minister of the Republic of Congo (now called D.R. Congo) from July to September of 1960. He acquired Belgian citizenship and worked as the president of a Congolese trade union. When he came back to Congo, Patrice Lumumba founded the Congolese National Movement (MNC). Lumumba used Pan-African ideologies to push for independence for his country. Congo gained its independence from Belgium on June 30, 1961 largely due to Lumumba’s struggle. He garnered a lot of public support for his excellent personality and good communication skills. Sadly, Lumumba was ousted from office by Colonel Mobutu and later assassinated in January, 1961. The Congolese nationalist and Father of Congolese Independence Movement was just 35 at the time of his brutal execution.


Kofi Annan’s name cannot be skipped in any important list of African leaders. Even though he wasn’t a mainstream politician, he was a world leader from Africa. Kofi Annan was a Ghanaian diplomat who led the United Nations (UN) as its 7th Secretary-General from 1997 to 2006.  When he was in charge of the UN, Annan tackled the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa. He worked to resolve a lot of conflicts in the world. He and the UN were awarded a Nobel Peace Prize in 2001. His post-UN Secretary-General years were also very successful. He served as special envoys and headed several organizations in countries such as Syria and Myanmar. The Kofi Annan Foundation, a charitable and global policy think-tank, is just one of the numerous legacy works that owe its existence to Annan.  In the early hours of 18 August 2018, news of Annan’s death broke out. The distinguished diplomat passed away at the age of 80. Annan will be forever be etched into our memories as a great leader who tirelessly fought for global peace and hunger eradication.


Thomas Sankara is widely regarded as one of Africa’s political heroes. He was a revolutionary who became Burkina Faso’s president from 1983-1987. Sankara was a strong Pan-Africanist and a supporter of Marxism. He is generally viewed as an icon of revolution or the Che Guevara of Africa. When he was 20, Sankara joined the army and got trained in Madagascar in 1970. That was where he observed how students revolted against the Madagascan government. This experience changed his life forever. Sankara returned to the Upper Volta in 1980. He went on to seize power in 1983 and changed the country’s name from Upper Volta to Burkina Faso. Sadly Sankara’s pursuit of growth, gender equality, and social justice came to an end in 1987. On October 15, 1987, Sankara was brutally assassinated at the age of 37 by his former friend (Campoare), in a military coup.


His name is one of the biggest in the history of African politics. Jomo Kenyatta was an anti-colonial activist who rose to become the first president of Kenya. He was also the first Prime minister of Kenya (1963-1964). Kenyatta played a big role in ensuring that Kenya freed itself from colonial rule. He was the front line politician in the Kenya National African Union (KANU). His ideologies are that of a nationalist and a conservative. Kenyatta also promoted peace between the country’s ethnic groups. He was the one who registered Kenya with the African Union.


Kenneth Kaunda is a Zambian retired politician who became the country’s first president from 1964-1991. As a teacher by profession, Kaunda gained a lot of political experiences when he served as a foreign affairs interpreter and adviser in 1949. He worked under Sir Stewart Browne who was a liberal white colonist. Kaunda later joined the African National Congress and took top positions. Leading the socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP), Kenneth Kaunda used peaceful protests and negotiations to secure independence for Zambia on October 24, 1964.


Africa’s first female head of state’s name cannot be omitted from this list. We still have some space to honor her and also to balance the political equation. Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, commonly known as “Africa’s Iron Lady”, is a former Liberian president who was in office from 2006 to 2018. She is a Harvard graduate with an economics degree who fought hard from prisons and exile and became an inspiration to many young female politicians. By the way, she got a Nobel Peace Prize for laying a suitable foundation for women to establish their future. 

The one thing that separates the above chiefs was their determined quest for progress and tranquility on the landmass. Regardless of the gigantic difficulties that they confronted, they generally positioned themselves at the very front of formative issues and success in Africa. The various steps that Africa has made, concerning orientation value and civil rights, can solidly be ascribed to the 10 incredible personalities above.


The Nigerian Civil War, popularly known as the Nigeria-Biafra War which lasted from 6th July 1967 – 15th January 1970 almost destroyed the unity of Nigeria.

The Civil War was fought to reintegrate and reunify the country. It was a result of the Nigerian government’s efforts to counter the struggle by the Igbo people of the Eastern region to break away from Nigeria under the new name – The Republic of Biafra led by a military officer and politician, late Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu.

It is believed that the war became inevitable because the Igbo people felt they could no longer co-exist with the Northern-dominated Federal Government of Nigeria.

The Nigerian Civil War which broke out on 6 July 1967 and lasted until January 15, 1970, was the culmination of uneasy peace and instability that had plagued the Nation from independence in 1960.

It was a result of a long period of alleged political, economic, ethnic, cultural, and religious deprivations, which had its genesis in the geography, history, culture, and demography of Nigeria.


When you talk about Biafrans you are referring to the inhabitants of South-East Nigeria who are mostly the Igbos. The group pursued their desire for secession due to economic, ethnic, cultural, and religious tensions among the various people of Nigeria.

Biafra as a territory existed long before the amalgamation and independence of Nigeria as a republic but it will be said that the group fully came to the limelight on May 30, 1967, when it publicly declared her secession from the binding forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

The Biafran nation had a total number of 25 provinces covering the following Nigerian states: Abia, Anambra, Delta, Ebonyi, Imo, Bayelsa, Rivers, Cross River with Enugu state serving as its capital.

Little is known about the literal meaning of the word Biafra. But it is widely believed that the word Biafra is likely derived from the subgroup Biafra or Biafada of the Tenda ethnic group who reside primarily in Guinea-Bissau. Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu who was then the military governor of the Eastern Region and also seen by the Igbo People as “the man in power”, was mandated by the Consultative Assembly of the Biafrans, to declare Eastern Nigeria a free sovereign and independent state by the name and title “the Republic of Biafra”.


The immediate cause of the civil war may be identified as the coup and the counter-coup of 1966 which altered the political equation and destroyed the fragile trust existing among the major ethnic groups.

Before the full-blown war, there was a military coup in 1966 (carried out by Maj. Nzeogwu which led to the death of Tafawa Belewa, among others), a counter-coup (led by Gowon, which led to the brutal murder of Aguiyi Ironsi, Fajuyi, among others) and persecution of the Igbo people living in Northern Nigeria, forcing them to return home. Even on their way home, many of them were killed in disturbing circumstances.

There have been divided opinions on the 1966 coup as some argue that corruption among the civilian ruling class pushed the military to organize the coup, while others opine that the control of oil production in the Niger Delta was also a major factor.

In May 1967, the Federal Military Government divided the country into twelve states from the original four regions, but the former Eastern Region under Lt. Col. Ojukwu saw the act of the creation of states by decree “without consultation” as the last straw, and declared the Region an independent state of “Biafra”.

Consequently, the Federal Military Government saw this act of secession as illegal. Several meetings were held to resolve the issue peacefully without success.  To avoid disintegration of the country, the central government was left with no choice but to forcefully bring back the region to the main fold.

As soon as the war began, the  Federal Military Government of Nigeria led by General  Yakubu Gowon surrounded the Biafra territory and captured the oil–rich coastal areas.

The blockade imposed during the war led to severe famine such that within the two and half years (30 months) the war lasted, there were over 100,000 overall military casualties, while nearly two million civilians died from starvation, which was a deliberate policy adopted by Nigeria to bring the people on the Biafra side to their knees.

Western powers were also involved in the war, with Britain and the then Soviet Union backing Nigeria, while France and a few other countries supported Biafra.

How The Biafra Civil War Ended

At the orders of the Federal Military Government, the Nigerian federal troops marched in two divisions into Biafra on the 6th of July, 1976. Division 1, led by Col. Shuwa operated through the north of Biafra, while the second Division advanced on Nsukka which later fell on July 14.

On the 9th of July, the Biafrans led by Lt. Col. Banjo retaliated by marching into the mid-western region of Nigeria across the Niger River, passing through Benin City and later stopped at Ore on August 21.

The Biafran troops captured the mid-west easily because there was little repulsion from soldiers guarding the region. This infuriated Gowon and he asked Col. Muhammad Murtala to form another division (Division 2) to drive the Biafrans out of mid-west and attack Biafra as well. The mid-west region was recaptured by the Nigerian army on the 20th of September.

Enugu was made the capital of Biafra, and later when Enugu was captured in October 1967, Aba, Umuahia and Owerri served successively as the provisional capitals.

Within a year, the Federal Military Government captured the city of Port Harcourt and many other coastal oil facilities. The Federal Miltary Government blocked all the routes for transporting food into the Republic of Biafra which led to severe starvation.

The FMG saw this as a war strategy and a way to keep Nigeria united, while many people around the world saw this as nothing but a genocide. The food flown in by foreign mercenary pilots was very little and couldn’t solve the starvation Biafra was facing. Over 2 million Biafrans died of starvation.

By the end of the year 1969, it was obvious that the war will soon come to an end. The FMG launched its final operation known as “Operation Tail-Wind” on January 7, 1970.

The operation was carried out by the 3rd Marine Commando Division and supported by the 1st and 2nd Infantry Division. Owerri was captured on the 9th of January, while Uli fell on the 11th of that same January.

Aware of the hopelessness of the situation, the self-acclaimed Biafra head of state, Lt. Col. Ojukwu fled the Republic immediately with his family on the 10th of January 1970.

The commander of the Biafran army, who was left with the administration of the Republic later surrendered to the Federal Government on the 14th of January, 1970, thus bringing the civil war and bloodshed to an end. The war officially ended on the 15th of January, 1970.

The sudden end of the war in 1970 was a big relief to both sides and the entire world was elated when General Yakubu Gowon said there was no victor, no vanquished. His government also introduced the popular three ‘Rs’, which stood for Reconciliation, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction.

At the end of the civil war, the Federal Military Government ordered that all Biafran currencies must be deposited into a bank account immediately or they would become worthless.

After everyone complied with the directive, they again ordered that every former Biafran account holder will receive only the sum of 20 pounds regardless of how much they had in their account.

This most Biafrans believed was an unjustified act of the civil war as heads of households were forced to rebuild their financial holdings as well as support a typically large African family with only 20 pounds.

Source: Gossip House

Akebu People of Togo, Benin and Ghana

Akebu People  also known as Kebu can be found in mostly Togo, Benin and some parts of Ghana in the Volta Region, they are part of the Niger- Congo speaking people and they speak Lelemi language. 

Akebu ethnic group is a mixture of Ewe, Anyanga, Mina, Adja and Ntribu which make up Akebu, they grow crops such as yam, manioc, taro, coffee, cotton, rice, corn and they rear sheep, goats, donkey, fowls, ducks, pigeons and pigs. The main method of hunting is the bush hunting, practiced for many years It is said women cook on remarkable stoves that have a place for two huge pots over fire.  

During the rainy season, they do their cooking inside , their traditional kitchen house is a work of art and very well equipped and organized . Every kitchen utensils has Its place, Akebu language is combined or mixed with Ewe, Anyanga, Mina, Adja and Ntribu .  They are also known as Akebou, Gakagba, Kabu and Kekpeeke, It is believed they considered themselves as Egbetebe and Akebu’s Urdorf is called Kesengbe near Kougnohou the capital of Canton Akebou in Present day Togo, It is said there is a very old mud house, which is the first house of their ancestors and According to myth, It is believed they descended on a rope from the Sky around Urhaus in Kesengbe in 1988 , polished small stone axes were observed lying on the ground and they are still some houses which may be dressed for cultural reasons only with a Pagne, dressed in a traditional robe and barefooted.  

The associated Village of Kesengbe in 1998 next door is now a piece further built, they practice only their Indigenous spirituality but few practice Islam and Christianity. Akebu used to build round houses with wooden stands and mud walls, In between they build small storage buildings, the round design of most houses differs from the angular constructions.  

According to Akebu People of Togo, Benin and Ghana migration,  It is believed Akebu migrated from Nubia Present day Sudan, settled in Eastern part of Present day Nigeria between the 6th and 10th Centuries and finally settled in Present day Togo later came and settled in  Present day Benin and Present day Ghana , Guins who are descendants of Ga Adangbe and Fante people arrived in the 17th Century from Gold Coast Present day Ghana and Tchokossi from Present day Ivory Coast and Moba from the Sahel regions .  Akebu are located in regions in Togo such as Kougnohou , Djon , Kamina , Seregbene and Yala , the first Akebu script was Introduced in the 1900s and they celebrate annual traditional festival with Akposso and the calendar has 6  days  week, they celebrate Ovazu, the word “ Ova” meaning corn and “ Zu” meaning festival.  During the celebration of Ovazu festival corn is being used It is celebrated every 2nd Saturday of the month December. According to other accounts on Akebu history, Akebu and Akposso came from Ancient Egypt and settled in Present day Togo following an exodus that led them to Present day Benin and Ghana , In their tradition they traced to both Matrilineal and Patrilineal lineage, In the past, one girl always married from another Akebu clan but they still intermarry with other ethnic groups.

It is said Animere language is mostly related to Akebu and It is classified as members of Ka- Togo,  they carved wooden sculptures and basket weaving, they celebrated a traditional fighting or wrestling festival in Togo that last for 10 days their local dishes  mashed yam, fufu, konkonte and other local dishes.  They usually have two or three meals per day, each consisting largely of a starch product such as cassava, maize, rice, yam, or plantains.

A hot spicy sauce is served with midday or evening meals, goats, beans, or beef and often rice in palm kernel oil or peanut also known as groundnut paste, fruits and vegetables. Food crops such as cassava, corn, millet, yams are grown on farms owned mainly by groups of families, people live in compounds or groups of huts enclosed by walls. During the 18th Century the coast was occupied by Danish Colonists, by the late 19th Century, Denmark had been replaced by Germany, which established Togoland protectorate and the administration was overthrown by Anglo- French force early in WWl in 1922, Togo was divided into French controlled eastern region sector and British controlled western sector. Akebu performed traditional dances such as Danse Assafo which is Akebu Asafo dance, Kparou Kparou, Badlou, Atchina, Epkesssoso and others.

Sunday 21 August 2022


Alaiyeluwa Oba George Albert Olusile  OLUSILE 1 The Ogu'ja Olu-Isa ( Olisa) of Ijebu-Ode (FEBRUARY 1929 - AUGUST 20TH 1942).

He was born in 1872 due to regberegbe arrangements the exact date of his birth is not in record but was he was born in Ijebu-Ode.He was blue blood born of the two Royal Dynasties in Ijebu-Ode the Awujale -(Ajana which is now deteriorated due to Adidaga system of that time) and the Ogu'ja Olu-Isa (Olisa)of Owojobi ruling house .

His choice of candidacy was formed by the unanimous decision of the his family, as well as of the Kingmakers upon their consultation of "IFA ORACLE". 

Alaiyeluwa (Oba)George Albert Olusile ascended the throne of his Ancestors in 1929 during the times of the  British Administrator  Major W. Brirrel Gray, and Mr. Walter Morgan who at the time was Acting secretary for Native Affairs.

Walter Morgan dethroned with regrets the Awujale of Ijebu-Land Theophilus Adenugba Folagbade. This affected the office of Alaiyeluwa (Oba) Disu Olubajo the 25th Oguja Olu-Isa (Olisa)of Ijebu-Ode.

Alaiyeluwa Oba George’s working experience warrant his family to appoint him with the support of "IFA ORACLE".

He joined Nigeria Police as Constable in 1904 .He became a sanitary Inspector in 1914 and worked as such for some 15years .He worked in Lagos,Ebute -Metta, Badagry and Ijebu-Ode, Ijebu-Ode was his last station.

Alaiyeluwa (Oba)George Albert Olusile left service with clean record to became 26th Ogu'ja Olu-Isa (Olisa)of Ijebu-Ode in 1929.

During his life time, he was married to 4 women and blessed with 13 children. His surviving child is Prince Wilberforce Kehinde Olusile now late who is now the head of the ruling house of Owojobi lineage of Ijebu-Ode.

One of his achievements when he was in office as Ogu'ja Olu-Isa (Olisa) of Ijebu-Ode was that he inspected and signed the documents of resuscitation of the Awujale Gbelegbuwa ruling house of Ijebu-Ode as he was the chairman of chieftaincy committee of Ijebu District Council that is now Ijebu Traditional Council.

Oba George Albert Olusile was among important prominent chiefs that gave evidence during commission of inquiry into the claim of the Akarigbo in Ijebu-Remo for independence in late 1937.  

He also was the one championed the abolition of oppressive taxation against market women in Ijebu-Ode when he was only a year in office.

It was in his rule  that the palace messengers ( ODIS) were  allowed to built house in Ijebu-Ode because most of them lived in the remote areas (Agure).

Its also noteworthy to state that his accession to the Royal stool of the Ogu'ja Olu-Isa (Olisa) of Ijebu-Ode made him the 26th Ogu'ja Olu-Isa (Olisa) of Ijebu-Ode according to the available records.

He was also the third occupier of the throne from the Owojobi lineage coming after the Alaiyeluwa (Oba)Olu-Adebo who reigned as the 19th Ogu'ja Olu-Isa (Olisa) of Ijebu-Ode.

Alaiyeluwa (Oba) George Albert Olusile with Ex. Awujale of Ijebu-Land Theophlus Adenugba Folagbade are in case eleven accused , which are all charge under section 324 of the criminal code with conspiracy to murder Awujale Jade Daniel Adesanya from Gbelegbuwa ruling house.

The trial which opened at Ijebu-Ode on Friday 1st, of February 1935 , 11 men accused of conspiracy and the case of conspiracy was discharged and acquitted by the West Africa court of Appeal (Ghana) WACA.

May his departed dutiful soul continue to rest on eternally -Aasee wa.

Researches Links Was Conducted By: Otunba  Ladipo Olusanya Adeokun "Otunba Olaboyede of Ijebu-Ode"


Every August, lots of people from around the world throng to Osun State, Nigeria, to attend and participate in the famous, two-week long Osun-Osogbo Festival. 

It is held at the illustrious and sacred Osun Grove, which was named as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005. Although a sizable number of the participants are Osun indigenes, the festival has, over the years, morphed into an event that attracts the attention of tourists and visitors from other parts of the world.

According to legend, the festival was borne out of the yearly sacrifice done to celebrate the river goddess, who serves as the protector of the the clan. 

The legend goes thus: about seven centuries ago, when the current Osogbo community was founded. The river goddess assured the people of her protection and promised to bless their women with fruitfulness of they would offer a sacrifice to her annually. The contract was sealed and the sacrifices and ceremonies became a thing - or so the legend goes.

Saturday 20 August 2022

FON royal crown from Republic of Benin

From the reign of King GLELE, 1858 to 1889.

While the style of this crown is distinctly Yorùbá , the tradition crowns in this area is set to date back to the beginning of the Dynasty.

The Priestley head, DAHO, also wears such a crown, as do high-ranking members of the royal AGASU priesthood.

It’s somewhat similar beaded crown, now in a private collection in France, once belonged to King GBEHANZIN, 1889 to 1894.

Crowns of this sort appear to have been rarely worn in public, for early descriptions or illustrations of the kings do not mention them.

Photo credit: MUSEE DE L‘HOMME, Paris. 1975

#yoruba #fon #dahomey #vodun #orisa #orishas

Friday 19 August 2022

WHAT WAS HAPPENING IN IGBOLAND 40,000 YEARS AGO.....(source:African research institute)

(This is based on verifiable research work).

According to a research done by The African Genome Variation Project (AGVP), The AGVP found evidence of widespread hunter-gatherer ancestry in African populations, including ancient (9 ky) Khoesan ancestry in the lgbo from Nigeria"...I ky(kiloyear):1 000. So 9Ky:9000 years. 

Another genetic Analysis found the Y chromosome of igbo genetic makeup which gives a haplogroup EM2 predominace, with the time of origin being 39,300 years BP which puts it at 37350BC. With all these, we should not be in doubt that igbos have been on their land for thousands of years.

The archaeological findings scattered all over igboland, the acheulien handex at ugwuele uturu, the Afigbo pottery findings all dating thousands of years also supports igbo antiquity and evolution on their land. The discovery of these genetic make among igbos and not on her neighbours, all indicate igbos were either the first to arrive in this part of the world ,lived side by side with the pygmies who are said to have inhabited this part of the world or  there direct descendants.

Haplogroup E-M2,subclade-E1b1a1a1f1a (YCC E1b1a7)  is the predominant Y-chromosome and Igbo genetic  marker.

According to Montano et-al who conducted the research, He found  that the E1b1a1a1f1a (YCC E1b1a7) is defined by marker M191/P86 and is distributed   in Nigeria(igbos) Gabon, Cameroon and Congo. M191/P86 positive samples occurred in tested populations of Annang (38.3%), Ibibio (45.6%), Efik (45%), and Igbo (54.3%) living in Nigeria, West Africa.

The time of origin of groups with such DNA is 39,300 years BP(37,350BC) and period of Coalescence age is 15,700 years BP.

This genetic findings, together with the various archaeological findings of late stone age in Afigbo (3000BC), Ugwuele uturu further proves that ancient igbo ancestors evolved in their land ,inhabited within the numerous caves in Igboland from late stone age. The ancient evolution of Igbo ukwu culture (8TH-9TH century) which is centuries older than Ife and Benin attest to the  ancient Igbo habitation,second only to Nok culture.

Archeological and linguistic sources suggest that foragers occupied Igboland during the Middle LSA (8000 b.c–3000 b.c.). The sources also affirm that some foragers from the Igbo area as well as from other parts of southeastern Nigeria, inhabited by the Bantu, had started to migrate in waves from their homeland to populate most of sub-Saharan Africa between 5000 b.c. and 4000 b.c. Oral traditions of the early Igbo dealing with foraging are lost to memory. The Nri, for example, give faint hints of the foraging era by claiming that their mythical founder, Eri, descended from the sky to the Anambra River when yams and other crops had not been domesticated in the area. There are similar traditions of autochthonous groups who had occupied different parts of the Igbo hinterland in ancient times, saying that they “sprouted from the earth.” Their movements across the dense tropical rain forests were probably facilitated by “elephant paths.” Although the tradition of Aba town, for example, deals with a later period, it claims that the progenitors of the town, from northern Ngwaland, used elephant paths to migrate and settle near the Aza River. Hence, Aba is popularly called “enyi mba” (lit. the elephant town). The traditions and P. Manning’s study of human migrations suggest that riverbanks, seashores, and lakesides were among the early zones of human habitation in Igboland during the foraging era. Their strategic locations enabled foragers to sustain themselves with the resources of both the riverain and forest ecological zones. In addition, it was easier, faster, and safer for them to travel on the rivers than through the thickly forested areas populated by wild and dangerous carnivores.

Foragers possessed tools that enabled them to carry out their daily economic activities. They used Archeulian hand axes (egbugbu) for hunting, “woodworking, scraping skins, and especially skinning and butchering animals.” 6 Other tools were traps (onya), and bows (uta) and arrows (aku) for hunting and for defending themselves against carnivores. Their tool kits also included sharpened sticks (mbazi) for hunting and for digging up wild growing yams (adu), cocoyams (ede inyamkpe), and other root crops. Those who lived near riverbanks manufactured nets and boats made of reed and tropical bamboo rafts for fishing.

For those shouting Igbos migrated from Israel,sorry to disappoint you, Igbos are aboriginal Africans that evolved in their land. And even if anyone came from Israel or elsewhere, they came and met Igbo ancestors on ground and inter-married .


■The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans.

■ Powell A, Plaster CA, Zeitlyn D, Mendell NR, Weale ME, Bradman N, Thomas MG (March 2010). "Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria".

■ Political Organization in Nigeria Since the Late Stone Age, A History of the Igbo People by :John N Oriji.



#Igbo people, #VoltaNiger, South-East Nigeria.

Our Ancestors were the greatest scientists and alchemists ever lived

Are You Still Taking Pap (Akamu)? See What It Does To Your Body Each Time You Take It.

Corn pap is a Nigerian fermented cereal pudding made from maize, also known as akamu, ogi, koko, or eko. This super light food has been around for decades now and a lot of people in Nigeria are eating it.

A study in 2018 on the Nutritional composition of pap found that pap is rich in essential properties, including carbohydrate, Vitamins [A, B5, B3, B1, riboflavin, C), folic acid, potassium, chromium, selenium, zinc, phosphorus, and magnesium. It also contained high contents of amino acids such as tryptophan, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, and valine. The calories in one serving of pap are 152.

Now, I know that daily a lot of people still take this meal called Pap. I will tell you in this article what pap does to your Body each Time you do. Read carefully now to see what pap is doing to your health:

1. Regulates Blood Pressure:

Pap is an excellent source of potassium and contains zero sodium content, making it a good diet for people with high blood pressure and those who want to maintain stable blood pressure or prevent hypertension production. Another benefit of taking potassium-rich foods such as pap is that it helps to lessen the effects to sodium in your body while also relieving discomfort in your blood vessel walls, thereby protecting you from myriads of health problems that might have to sprout.

2. Lowers LDL Cholesterol:

There are two primary forms of cholesterol in the body, low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL], respectively. The former, LDL, is also considered to be 'poor' cholesterol since having excess cholesterol in your body will cause plaque to grow in your artery walls, making circulation a problem. It may also result in undue heart strain, and can even lead to high blood pressure, stroke, or heart attack.

On the positive side, pap contains a decent deal of chromium, zinc, magnesium, and some other active properties that help minimize the body's cholesterol levels of 'poor' LDLs.

In pap, chromium is found to be involved in lowering LDL cholesterol levels as well as inhibiting atherosclerotic plaque formation in the body. This same mineral is also linked to improved levels of blood sugar, reduced risk of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, reduced depression, increased levels of energy, increased regenerative capacity, to mention but a few. Again, pap's zinc and magnesium content are also considered great for lowering the body's LDL cholesterols, as they possess potent properties that are useful for this.

Having said that, some of the best ways to help raise your 'healthy' HDL cholesterols and lower your 'poor' LDL cholesterols include – moderate caloric intake, daily physical activity [exercise], reduced smoking, reduced sugar intake, and trans fats, to name just a few. Eating Nigerian foods with low cholesterol, too, will be perfect.

3. Highly beneficial for nursing mothers:

Have you ever wondered why pap is one of the most popular nursing mom foods?

Pap contains a high amount of water and some other components which facilitate the adequate flow of breast milk for mothers who are lactating. It also helps to recover strength after having suffered from one disease or another, not forgetting that it is again an easy-to-digest food – a friend of the digestive system.

4. Good source of energy:

Pap is an excellent source of carbohydrate, one of the nutrients on which your body strongly relies on adequate energy. Carbohydrate-rich foods such as pap not only provide the body with energy but also encourage mental sharpness and improve fat for energy metabolism.

5. Easy to digest:

Pap is one of the easy to digest foods that we have around us. This helps the body to get rid of unnecessary contaminants and chemicals quickly by simply increasing the pace you urinate at. Another advantage of eating easily digestible food is that it puts less stress on the digestive system and is good for people recovering from illness. In addition to the above, people with digestive disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome ( IBS), irritable bowel disease (IBD), or a sensitive stomach, may enjoy consuming easily digestible foods such as pap as they function on the digestive system quite carefully and seldom trigger issues.

6. Boosts the kidney’s health:

The kidneys are among the body's most important organs, so any disruption that can cause adverse effects in the human system in this area. Many of the things that can destroy this vital organ are uric acid, urea, toxins, waste, and other hazardous substances. The great news, however, is that drinking pap can get rid of these substances because it helps remove harmful contaminants in the body by urine. If you're drinking pap you appear to urinate more.

7. Promotes healthy pregnancy and lowers the risk of neural tube defects:

One of the main products pregnant women need to have a successful pregnancy is folic acid. This acid deficiency may contribute to the birth of underweight children, or may even cause neural tube defects in newborn babies. Pap is high in folic acid on the plus side making it a perfect and safe food for expectant mothers. Apart from that, you'll be surprised to learn that the same paper also encourages breast milk development after childbirth-what a healthy meal!

8. Akamu is good for babies and toddlers:

Pap is one of the safe foods for children in Nigeria. In Nigeria, it's a common weaning meal introduced to infants. While being highly economical, simple to prepare and easy to digest, it is also very nutritious to growing children. Brown pap is the best form of baby pap. Brown pap consists of carbohydrate, millet, and guinea corn which provides some proteins, vitamins, and minerals that are very important to the growth and overall development of babies.

((((((Bottom Line))))))

Pap isn't like some people believe it to be a 'normal' food. But it is filled with many health benefits, including reduced risk of hypertension, improved digestion, sufficient breast milk flow, improved health of the kidneys, to name but a few.

Jaja of Opobo was killed with a cup of tea in 1891

King Jaja of Opobo (1821-1891), the wealthiest and most powerful monarch in the Niger Delta and sole founder of Opobo, was Igbo.

Born in his native Umuduruoha, Amaigbo, present-day Imo State, and named Mbanaso Okwaraozurumbaa at birth, he was captured by slave traders and sold into captivity in Bonny at the age of 12, where he earned his way out of slavery having also adopted the Ijaw-Ibani culture.

Though he generated astounding wealth for Bonny, when that kingdom's throne became vacant, his quest to vie for it was politically checkmated by a fellow wealthy slave (wealth was a deciding factor in monarchy).

Thus, he left with his supporters to establish a new town, Opobo, near Andoni. Bonny and its affiliated British merchants would come to regret that day.

The new development Jaja (aka Jubo Jubogha) relocated to in 1869, was named Opobo and the location was strategically positioned that he could transact first-hand with both national and international merchants, effectively becoming a monopolist in the oil palm trade.

Trade and the resultant wealth exploded so much so that his former British trading partners lost £100,000 (in 1870), and Bonny pleaded with him to return (which he refused).

He then came to the attention of Queen Victoria who, impressed by his influence, recognised him as King of Opobo in 1873 and also personally presented him with a sword in Buckingham Palace in 1875 after he sent troops to assist Britain in the Ashante War.

The Scramble for Africa began in the 19th century. Jaja was infamous for resisting foreign political and economic influence and he kept taxing the British merchants much to their indignation.

Greed and the fear of Jaja's influence led the new Consul-General, to invite Jaja out of his kingdom and on board a ship, ''The Goshawk'', for trade discussions.

Once on board, a deportation order was served on him. He was illegally tried and convicted in Gold Coast, present-day Ghana, in 1887, and exiled to Saint Vincent in the distant West Indies and to be later relocated to Barbados.

His pleas to return to his kingdom were granted in 1891. Unfortunately, he died in Tenerife, en route to Opobo, after being allegedly poisoned with a cup of tea. After his death, the influence of Opobo died with him.

Jaja's body was received with much sorrow by his people who gave him a full, honourable royal burial. He was 70.


Aweland is a vast expanse of land part of which had earlier been occupied by a group headed by ladun who is an ijesha man that setteled at Olaromi by the 13th century. Prominence was not given to the history of the settlement until when a more dynamic group came to settle in the area in the 17th century headed by Ilemolu Olutokun, Ladokun, Ikumawoyi and Mafile. They were Ife princes who had moved out of Ile Ife after some misunderstanding on crown distribution. They settled at Egba Gbagura for some period, ruled under the kingship of Ilemolu who led his junior princes out of the town again because of some injustice. They then decided to come back towards Ife snd got to the area where ladun and the other have settled.

They moved farther afield and got to the place where Ifa told them to settle, that is, beside an Aruwewe tree from where the name Awe had derived. Later they persuaded the other group come over and take shelter in the Awe kingdom. Thus Ladokun, the second in command was made the Alaawe because Ilemolu who had reigned before decided to concede as a result of old age thus acting as the father of all. Ikumawoyi was made to assist and understudy Ladokun in the palace. By 1750, Ladokun had been firmly established on the thorne and in command of all the areas now known as Aweland.

After they had settled down, they decided to invite Ladun (the Ijesaman) together with his group to move down to Awe for maximum protection, and possibly in order to make sure that there is also maximum co-operation in the area.

Awe as a town was organised by Alaawe Oladokun I who can be regarded as the first Alaawe of the organised Awe. He appointed the Chiefs, built the town wall known as Odi Amola/Odi Amolu and organised the town into four quarters after the important chiefs in the town viz Oke Abata, Baasi, Alaawe and Odofin quarters.

It could be seen that Awe people had settled in this area by the 16th century, i.e. two century, i.e. two centuries before Oja (Who later became Ashipa of Oyo) arrived in 1792. As the first set of settlers were law abiding the then Alaawe, Beyioku, accommodated them at Awe and later resettled them near the Ogun shrine and farm which belonged to Awe prince, Fakanbi, Alias "AWUYA". This is the area now called Ashipa area of Isale-Oyo. Atiba later came in around 1830 perhaps having learnt that Oja while in OBATE his father-in-law secured a friendly place for settlement, and hunted by the atmosphere of the pressures mounted by the Fulani calvary. 

He too was granted refuge, first accommodated at Asoju Compound Awe before being transferred to Alagbaa compound. When their number swelled and control became more difficult, due to their anti social activities they were sent outside the walled city of Awe. Oja's initial Settlement was originally known as "Ago Oja" that is, Oja's tent. As time went on it became Ago d'Oyo and finally Oyo. This settlement of Oja in this area, which also gave him advantrage of land acquisition, has been the age-long source of difference between the Alaafin and Ashipa.

Thus it can be seen that there is no way the Oyo people through the Alaafin can claim to be landlord over OJa talk less of Awe from the fact of history and there cannot be a master-servant relationship. This position had been supported by all legal battles (court cases) on landed property between Awe and Oyo and also supported by the most acknowledged History of Yorubas by Revd Samuel Johnson.

The Awe side of the Ibadan-Oyo-Obgomoso road and beyond Odi Amola/Odi Amonu to Iwo boundary was not ceded to Oja/Oyo people. However, they were allowed to farm on part of this extensive land. The Oyo people were therefore tenants on Aweland and it is unfortunate that these tenants, with the death of original Awe ancestors, are now arrogating to themselves unimaginable rights and calling their settlements enclaves or homesteads forgetting that their original homestead is Oyo-Ile near Igboho.

Source: Gossip House

Thursday 18 August 2022

Know this :

Understand that Ifá deities are not Yoruba deities.

The deities are the ancient Yoruba ancestors' way of conceptualizing cosmological forces. They are universal forces,  not Yoruba forces.

Some people think from the angle that these deities are Yoruba deities and are supposed to have protected Yorùbás against invaders. This is faulty understanding.

These deities are entities that operate on divine principles, Ọ̀rúnmìlà is the prophet who taught the Yoruba ancestors how to live in harmony with these universal forces, but Ọ̀rúnmìlà is not just a prophet for Yoruba, he is a prophet to human race, so he has no personal bias towards any race (same as the other deities), they do not have a bias to any race, they are universal forces on universal assignments and will support whoever plays to the tune of the universal principles that Olódùmarè commissioned them to superintend over.

If a White man keys into the principle of the Òrìṣàs and the Black man doesn't, the Òrìṣàs will support the Whiteman against the black.

Truly, it was the Blackman that first conceptualized the universal energies and codified it into what is called Ifá, but the Whiteman uses the principles more deliberately than the Blacks today.

Ẹní rúbọ l'èṣù ń gbè.

The Whiteman offered the sacrifice required of him when he planned to come and invade the black man, the black man didn't offer sacrifice to prevent the invader from coming in.

That's why we are where we are today.

By Awo Ayobami

Wednesday 17 August 2022

Research Notes: About the Name Yoruba

"A curious debate is going on about the group name of the Yoruba nation, the name ‘Yoruba’. All sorts of strange and fanciful things are being said about this name. Also, many people are calling on me to intervene in the debate. I therefore hereby intervene.

But I cannot participate in the more flippant levels of debate over this or any matter; I can only make known the results of my serious research. I might add that what I reveal here is a small peep into a very important body of research on the Yoruba nation, a body of research. ....

In 1963 also, in the course of an interview of a group of Ìkìrun Chiefs and Elders in Ìkìrun (mostly about Ìkìrun’s role in the 19th century Yorùbá wars), I learnt about an old local ruler, Oḅa Adékans̀ọ́la,́ the Oḷóbaagun of Oḅaagun, near Ìkìrun.

Oḅa Adékaǹsọlá was locally reputed to be much informed about Yorùbá history and traditions. Next morning, I went to interview the Oḷoḅaagun. He was a man of advanced age, mentally alert, well-travelled, and remarkably knowledgeable about Yorùbáland and Yorùbá traditions.

In the course of a long and richly informative interview, we came to the issue of the name Yorùba.́ The Oḷọ́baagun stated that this name was the common name for the entire Yorùbá people from ancient times. He added that according to traditions that were still alive in some parts and among some traditional elite elements in Yorùbáland, the name was first applied to the early Yorùbá traders who used to go and trade in the countries of the Upper Niger (roughly modern Mali).

Most of those early traders were from the early group of settlements in the Ife area – before all the settlements in that area merged together to form the town of Ile-Ife and the kingdom of Ife. The name, he said, became, in the marketplaces of the Upper Niger, the name for all traders who spoke various dialects of what we now call the Yorùbá language and who came from the same distant forest homeland in the southeast of the Upper Niger.

Over time, the name came home with the traders. He added that by the time, later, when Arab traders began to come south across the Middle Niger to trade directly with Yorùbá people in the ancient settlements of the Ifẹ̀ area, Yorùbá people in general were already loosely known as Yorùbá or Yariba – and that that is why Yorùbá people call the Arabs Laŕúbaẃa.́

Asked to explain the point about Lárúbáwá, he answered, “We were known as Yorùba,́ but when the Arab traders came, they called us Yárúbáwá which means ‘Yorùbá people’ in their language. In our marketplaces, our people turned that around and called them Alárúbáwáor Laŕúbáwá. – meaning ‘the ones who say Yárúbáwá’, or ‘the ones who call us Yárúbáwá’. We still call the Arabs Lárúbáwá today, and I have been told that we are the only people in the world who call them so”.

By Stephen Banji Akintoye, Retired Professor, Department of History, University of Ife

•undated photograph of Balogun Kuku (identified by Mo Merriman-Johnson)

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