Wednesday 3 August 2022

African Patois in Africa and the Diaspora the language and its African roots

Patois in Africa is referred as Pidgin, Patwa or Creole,  there is an ethnic group also known as Krio they speak Krio in Sierra Leone and Gambia, Patois is a language combined with African languages, English, some French and Portuguese languages. Krio is a Sierra Leonean Patois spoken throughout Present day Sierra Leone,  Krio is also spoken by Aku ethnic group in Gambia,  they are descendants of Africans captured as slaves who returned back and settled in Gambia and Sierra Leone,  Krio was brought by Maroons from Jamaica, African Americans, Nova Scotians, Nova Scotians are Africans captured to Britian later they   left U.S. returned back to the land of their Ancestors and founded the country Sierra Leone this include Lawrence Hartshorne a Quaker who was a Chief and assistant known as John Clarkson, Freed Africans including Maroons, Africans captured to U.S. had Strong Influence in Sierra leone and Liberia as well and among the Krio People.   Krio is considered as Patois which is mixed with English, Yoruba, Igbo they used words like Pikin meaning Small and Gentri meaning Wealth, Patois or Creole can traced its Origin in Sierra Leone back to the 17th- 18th Century It is said Freed Africans arrived in between 1787 and around 1885, Afro Brazilians were referred as ” Ciroulo” they were of African ancestry born in Brazil and their language has Patois Influence as well.  Krio is mostly widely Spoken language in Sierra Leone and It was originally brought by Freed Africans from Britain,  Jamaica, USA and other parts of West Indies , Krio Influence comes from Yoruba, Igbo, French and Portuguese but It is believed Krio language originated from West Indies .  

Europeans brought the Bible and there is no Bible written in Krio and not even translated so In the  1990s It was translated to Krio and was used throughout Present day Sierra Leone, Nova Scotians were Freed Africans who left London in Britain they were Mande, Temne and Limba, Krio have a community in Gambia, Cameroon, Guinea and Equitoral Guinea, It is believed Liberated Africans settled in Present day Nigeria in 1830s from U.S. , Cuba, Brazil, Chile, Haiti and other parts of Latin Americas then Saro Creole was introduced which is combined with Yoruba, Efik, Igbo and Hausa later some migrated to Gold Coast Present day Ghana known as Tabom, African Americans, Afro Carribeans, others who settled in Ghana brought their Creole with them mixed with English and Twi and made Ghana their home this modern day Ghanaian English Pidgin is spoken by Ghanaians in the late 1900s .

Saro Creole originated from Krio words such as Sabi and wetin, Thomas Decker a Freed African of Nigerian- Sierraleonean Ancestry translated Shakespeare’s play in Krio, Nova Scotian lived in a town known as Freetown and was founded by Lt. John Clarkson and Freed Africans settlers in 1792.  According to other accounts the language known as Krio is based on Jamaican Patois, Bajan Creole,  Pichinglis, Gullah and Carribean Creoles words from Patois or Pidgin spoken in other parts of Africa such as for go,  don go,  don de,  go, udat,  wetin,  ustem,  ussay,  mek,  una,  dem for example:

•  fri en get in or born fri en meaning free and equal.

•  wetin na yu nem meaning what is your name?

.• mi na ticha meaning I am a teacher.

• Padi meaning friend.

•  Waka meaning walk.

Patois is also referred as Broken English apart from Krio they are many types of Patois such as Ndjuka spoken in the eastern part of Suriname, Bislama spoken in Papau New Guinea, Nigerian Pidgin,  Ghanaian Pidgin, Cape Vedre Creole,  Mauritanian Creole,  Guadeloupean Creole, Seychelles Creole,  Guinea Bissau Pidgin, Malay Creole spoken in Malaysia, Pijin spoken in Solomon Island of Fiji,  Munukutuba spoken in Republic of Congo and Dr. Congo, Fangalo spoken in South Africa mixed with Zulu and English, Saint Lucia Patois, Barbadian Creole, Gullah spoken in U.S.A by African descendants, Sango spoken in Central African Republic and Jamaican Patois mixed with Twi, Ewe, Ga and other languages. In Thomas Decker’s speech he quoted ” eviribodi bon fri en get in you rayt, non wan no pas in kompin, wi )l ebul fo tink en fenot wetin  rayt en r) ɲ pantap dat wi fo sabi aw fo liv lek wan big famili “, meaning ” All human beings are born free equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should walk towards that act and one another in the spirit of botherhood” . This was written and translated to English and was declared as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

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