Sunday 30 April 2023


General Shehu Musa Yar’Adua (March 5, 1943 – December 8, 1997)  was a Nigerian businessman, soldier, and politician. He was the older brother of former Nigerian President Umaru Yar’Adua. Following his training at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in Sandhurst, England, Yar’Adua participated in the Nigerian Civil War. When Olusegun Obasanjo was military head of state from 1976 until 1979, Yar’Adua was his Vice President.

He was sentenced to life in prison by a military tribunal in 1995, after calling on the Nigerian military government of Gen. Sani Abacha and his Provisional Ruling Council to reestablish civilian rule. He died in captivity on 8 December 1997.


The 14th OLOKUKU OF OKUKU LAND, and his friend ATAOJA OF OSOGBO Oba Adisa Samuel Adenle

Yoruba Proverb was coined for their friendship. ''Agba ni wo agba, Olokuku ni wo Oba Adenle''. 

Some years back, in a rich cultural and traditional town in SOUTH WEST, OSOGBO OSUN STATE.

The Two Kings are best of friends. The respect and mutual love for each other were so great that they both would lay down their life for one another. The peaceful town of osogbo at that time was just like human changes got tired of their King Oba  Adisa Adenle ATAOJA OF OSOGBO.

One special annual rite, meant for the King, where the Oba Needs to visit a shrine, and the Priest will take the King and Bring him back to the palace without meeting or seeing anybody. The Town was against Kabieyesi. Those days, when a King errs, constant calamity befalls a town, or just a conspiracy either asks you to go out of the Kingdom before seven days or asks you to find a way to D! E. Oba Adisa Adenle rites as a King, was canceled, which means he has options of D£ATH. The Oba OLOKUKU heard what might happen to his closest friend King. By the night of the annual rites day, the town of Osogbo was silent am sure some chiefs and families of ATAOJA OF OSOGBO  started mourning the King then it was common Kings either d! e by Suicide or leaving town. 

The OLOKUKU of OKUKU land was a very close friend of ULLI BIER, the German historical lover of Yoruba Land who has millions of great pictures and best festivals photos of kings and towns ULLI archives content was superlative it took Former President Obasanjo to recover such historical content and others to have UNESCO FOUNDED INSTITUTE in Nigeria.

The night to the RITE day, OLOKUKU, who has collections of nice cars, drove himself to the Palace of his friend The ATAOJA Deep into the night, Kabieyesi picked him up 𝘁𝗼 𝘁𝗵𝗲  shrine, according to tradition he was meant to see only the chief priest after the rite so the town can blossom for another or more years without calamity. The OLOKUKU made himself available for his friend. Save him from SU!CIDE without ending his tenure as king. They both lived many years more.


Beyond my simple write-up are strong ties to RITE in Yorubaland, it’s deeper than this short form I put them together. The heroic act of OLOKUKU suppose to be in historical archives, ULLI BIER made some pictures and other content saved. Why not visit one of the HISTORICAL ARCHIVES IN AFRICA?

In the archives are pictures of some kings who were high chiefs prostrating to the kings earlier both are claiming the right to the throne now.

Makinde Presents Beaded Crown, Staff Of Office To Ilaji-Ile’s Monarch In Okeogun

It’s a spectacular show of glamour and opulence in the ancient Ilaji-Ile community, Iwajowa LG, Oyo State, as the traditional ruler, Alayeluwa Oba Lawal Oyedepo Oyeleye, was decorated with beaded crown by the Gov. Seyi Makinde.

Makinde, who was ably represented by the Commissioner for LG and Chieftaincy matters, Barrister Olasunkanmi Olaleye, explained that ,the government is desire to elevate the traditional institution and raise to bar, its enviable status, particularly the deserving monarchs.

Speaking on the development, Makinde said Oyo State government has reviewed and increased the allocation of traditional council from 5% to 10%, soliciting support from the traditional institution with a view to raising the bar of good governance in the state.

In his acceptance speech, Oba Oyeleye, promises to be committed to serving the community. He however, owes a debt of gratitude to all attendees particularly the Okeogun traditional council, government functionaries, indigenes and residents of the community for their unquantifiable support.

Speaking on behalf of Okeogun Obas, Oba Khalid Olabisi, Okere of Saki, salutes Gov. Makinde on the development, renews calls to expedite actions to elevate other deserving ones.

Oba Olabisi, also encourages Gov. Makinde to fulfil the promise made in view of official cars to Okeogun traditional council in due course.

He, however, congratulates the newly elevated monarch, fervently prays that, this would garner considerable development.

Dignitaries at the event include Sabiganna of Iganna, Ogelende of Okaka, Alageere of Agoare, Onigboho of Igboho, Alamodu of Agoamodu, Aare of Agoare, Aare of Ofiki, Onisanbo of Ogboro, Onitede of Tede, Oloje of Ojeowode, Onibasi of Basi.

Others are Hon. Niyi Adebisi, Hon. Waheed Oluwakemi, Hon. Jelili Adebare, Hon. Tajudeen Olori, Hon. John Farinto among others.

Wednesday 26 April 2023

History of Egbado People of Ogun State

The Egbado appear to have migrated - possibly from the Ketu, Ile-Ife, or Oyo - to their current area early in the 18th century.

Egbado towns, most importantly Ilaro, Ayetoro, Afon, Imeko, Ipokia and Igbogila, were established in the 18th century to take advantage of the slave trade routes from the inland Oyo empire to the coast at Porto-Novo.

Other towns were Ilobi and Ijanna, which were strategic in protecting the flanks of the slaving routes. The Egbados' were subject to the rule of the Oyo kingdom, which managed them via governor Onisare of Ijanna.

The Oyo were unable to deploy their cavalry force to protect the routes, due to tsetse fly and lack of horse-fodder and thus had to rely on the Egbado people to manage the routes.

The historians Akinjogbin, Morton-Williams and Smith all agree that by the early 18th century this route to the coast was heavily engaged in slave trading, and that slaves were the mainstay of the Oyo economy.

The Egbado later achieved a fragile independence after the fall of the Oyo kingdom, but were subject to frequent attacks from other groups such as the slave-raiding Dahomey (who seized, among others, Princess Sara Forbes Bonetta), and various tribes who wished to force open their own slave-trading routes to the sea.

Ilaro and Ijanna towns had been destroyed by the 1830s. By the 1840s the Egbado had come under the control of the adjacent Egba group, who used the Egbado territory to forge routes to Badagry and the port of Lagos.

By the 1860s the Egba abandoned the route because the British were actively using their formidable navy to try to abolish the slave trade. Consequently, the Egba expelled British missionaries and traders from the area in 1867.

After 1890 the Egbado asked for a British protectorate and got a small armed garrison, thus becoming independent of the Egba. The area became part of the British Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria in 1914, as Egbado Division in Abeokuta Province.

The administrative headquarters were later transferred away, after the creation of the new Ogun State subsumed the old Abeokuta Province.

The modern Egbado/Yewa

In 1995 the Egbado chose to rename themselves the "Yewa", after the name of the Yewa River that passes through the area they inhabit. They are primarily agriculturalists, but there is some artisan and textile processings.

They are located mainly in the areas of: Ado-Odo/Ota, Ipokia, Yewa South, Yewa North, Imeko Afon, and part of Abeokuta North.

There were complaints that the system of patronage and nepotism in Nigerian politics has caused the area to be neglected in terms of investment[citation needed].

The area developed a popular style of music, called Bolojo, in the 1970s. The population level is uncertain, but may be around 400,000.

Tuesday 25 April 2023


One such story is the common Ife and Modakeke war of 1835–2000, which according to history was one of the longest intra-ethnic wars in Yorubaland. According to legend, Ifes and Modakekes are the sons and daughters of the same parents. Their ancestors can be traced back to Oduduwa, the Yoruba race’s progenitor.

Modakeke is a town in Osun State, South-West Nigeria, with nearly 300,000 inhabitants who are predominantly farmers and warriors. The town is about 45 kilometres from Osogbo, capital of Osun State and 90 kilometres from Ibadan in Oyo a state. Modakeke came into existence in 1945 after the fall of the Oyo Empire, below is a brief history of Modakeke town.

The whole of Yorubaland was thrown into chaos and confusion after the Oyo Empire fell to the Fulanis in 1835. The inhabitants of Oyo ran for safety and therefore were dispersed across Yorubaland, some founding new settlements and others, joining existing settlements like Ile-Ife. A group of Oyo refugees settled in Ile-Ife to begin a new life which unknowing to them will later birth the town called Modakeke.

On getting to Ile-Ife, they have already lost all their possessions and then took up menial jobs in the town. They also got recruited in the Ife army and it was through their bravery that Ife had its territory extended to Alakowe, its present boundary with Ilesa. They started growing and producing different types of food crops on farmlands given to them by their Ife people.

The then reigning Ooni of Ife, Oba Akinmoyero, received the Oyo refugees well and later gave them an expanse of land to live. The name Modakeke was adopted after consultation with the oracle which directed them to go to Ebu-Alako near Oke-Owu where they met a swarm of Ako (Stork) birds. The name was derived from the cries of the storks (Mo-da-ke-ke-ke-ke). This is also the origin of the appellation Akoraye (the stork has a place) and since the founding of Modakeke, eighteen traditional heads known as ‘Ogunsua’ had ruled the town.

Ife and Modekeke Crisis:

There have been controversies about the conflict between these two parties, which to date has remained a discussion in the Yoruba lineage. Historians believe that the major causes of their conflict (Ife and Modakeke) were land ownership, payment of land rent (Isakole), the establishment of local government, and the placement of its headquarters, all of which are reflected in cultural identity, economics, and politics. The most prominent causes were the creation of local government and the location of its headquarters.

The Yoruba see Ife as their source, and they regard the Modakekes as their ‘landlords.’ Following the collapse of the Old Oyo empire in the 19th century, the latter migrated to the area. This was the underlying element in the Yoruba ethnic conflict that resulted in the deaths of thousands of people.

How was the Ife-Modakeke Conflict resolved?

In March 2000, Nigerian former President Olusegun Obasanjo announced a government-brokered truce and the formation of a 27-member peace committee in an effort to settle the long fight over land rights. In addition, the two towns were subjected to a dusk-to-dawn curfew, and hundreds of armed riot police were sent to enforce the truce.

A peace accord was also struck in February 2009 between Ife and Modakeke. The Ogunsua of Modakeke was elevated to the rank of Oba as a result of this peace deal. Also, the Osun State Government, the Ooni of Ife, Oba Okunade Sijuwade, Olubuse II, and the Ogunsua of Modakeke, Francis Adedoyin, signed the deal.


The Yoruba are an ethnic group of southwestern Nigeria and southern Benin Republic in West Africa who share a rich history and culture.

Here are eight interesting facts about the traditional Yoruba culture:

1. According to Yoruba mythology, all Yoruba people are descendants from the hero Odua or Oduduwa.

2. The language of the Yorubas, known as Yoruba, belongs to the Congo-Kordofanian language family. The language has many dialects, but most of its speakers are able to understand each other.

3. The Yoruba homeland is located in west Africa, with most Yoruba living in Nigeria. There are also some scattered groups in small neighbouring countries, Togo and Benin.

4. The Yoruba are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.

5. The Yoruba are a very sociable and expressive people who commemorate major events with colorful festivals and celebrations. Weddings, naming ceremonies, funerals and even housewarming parties are celebrated in a lavish and ceremonial nature.

6. As many as 20 percent of the Yoruba still practice the traditional religion of their ancestors. A large number of modern Yoruba also combine traditional Yoruba beliefs with modern day religions such as Islam and Christianity.

7. About 75 percent of the Yoruba men are farmers, producing food crops for their domestic needs. Women help plant yams and harvest corn, beans, and cotton.

8. The Yoruba present the highest rate of twin births in the world. This may be because of high consumption of a specific type of yam containing a natural phytoestrogen which may stimulate the ovaries to release an egg from each side. Twins are very important for the Yoruba; they are given special names and inspire wooden sculptures.

Monday 24 April 2023


Tolulope Oluwatoyin Sarah Arotile (13 December 1995 - 14 July 2020) was the first-ever female combat helicopter pilot in the Nigerian Air Force.

She was winged as the first-ever female combat helicopter pilot in the Nigerian Air Force on 15 October 2019 (together with the first female fighter pilot, Kafayat Sani) after completing her flying training in South Africa.

Arotile died from a head injury sustained in an accident at the Nigerian Air Force base in Kaduna state on 14 July 2020.

The finest Nigerian Air Force Officer!

Rest in power Queen!!!

Friday 21 April 2023

Why Yorùbá People often call 50 naira "Better life"?

Do you know why Yorùbá People often call 50 naira "Better life"?

The ₦50 paper banknote features the portraits of four ordinary Nigerians from various ethnic groups and cultures who represent the people of Nigeria. When this 50 NGN note was introduced in the early 1990’s it got the nickname ‘Better Life’.

Most Nigerian currencies are not called by their actual names rather they are refferred to with sobriquets ,and nicknames depending on the localities where such a statement is being made.

One of such currencies is the fifty naira note which is usually called better life most especially in Southwestern parts of the country, and here is the exact reason why that note got itself that name.

The fifty naira note was introduced during the regime of general Ibrahim Babangida whose wife midwifed the poverty alleviation scheme for women, known as better life. The Better Life Programme for Rural Women and amongst its noble objectives was “raising the consciousness of the rights of women, the availability of opportunities and facilities, their social, political and economic responsibilities.”

The better life scheme was a skill acquisition program targeted at making Nigerian women self reliant, and financially buoyant in the face of harsh economic situations.

The release of the currency into the national vault was at the time the better life scheme was in full swing and thus the nomenclature of that currency. Yorùbá People also called 50 naria "Waso".

Thursday 20 April 2023

Orlando Owoh, the Legendary Highlife Crooner

He will forever be remembered as combo highlife icon.

Leader of guitar dominated combo with accent on rhythm, Orlando was a crooner of highlife hits with a voice like no other human sound brought into music. Rich and guttural, he was naturally endowed, projecting quite effectively on all the registers high, low and middle without straining his voice.

His melodies were and far removed from the conventional popular music pattern but firmly rooted in African music.

Dr Orlando, as he was fondly called by his admirers, promoted African cultural music abroad for five decades. His first notable effort was in London where he made considerable impact playing on a star studded bill. Said he “My band was in London in 1972 to play for Nigerian Law Students to celebrate their graduation. I played at the African Center on October 1, 1972. That was where I was honored with the doctorate degree in music. Continuing he said, I was on the same bill with Mariam Makeba, Ramblers Band of Ghana, Ossibisa and Ipi Tombe of South Africa. Encouraged by the reaction of the audience to his music, he toured various parts of Britain including Glasgow, Manchester and Birmingham. He also performed in such European countries as Holland , Belgium, Italy among others. With the promotional strategy provided by Harridot an internationally acclaimed agency for promoting and developing African music and musicians, Orlando traveled abroad, preaching the gospel according to modern African music. He returned from a success tour of America where he performed in various cities. He also said , we traveled to America. We took off for the United States in March and returned to Nigeria in July, after a four month tour. We played in New York, New Jersey, Philadelphia, Washington DC, Chicago, Dallas in Texas and Houston.

On the home front here in Nigeria, Orlando was one of the most consistent outfits around, with a popularity rating that cut across the West African coast. His formula for success was the continued exploitation of African rhythms, which are basically rooted in the rich cultural idioms of Ondo State of Nigeria where he hails from. He was also exposed to various other rhythmic concepts from different parts of Nigeria and Africa. It is the synthesis of all these influences coupled with emerging contemporary urban trends that consolidated his easily identifiable sound identity. And he blended all these fusion’s naturally, perfectly without sacrificing any of the personal idiosyncrasies of his previous established style.

His career began in 1956 as a sideman with Ogunmola one of the pioneers of theater in Nigeria. From the very beginning he was faced with musical adventures and challenges. Said he : i ventured into music in 1956 with Ogunmola and his theater party playing drums and singing. I was very young then. We went to welcome the Queen of England that same year at Ibadan now capital city of Oyo State of Nigeria. Continuing he says From there we were contracted by the University of Ibadan to provide music and entertainment to the celebration of three of their popular plays namely, Palm Wine Drinkard, Their Enemies and Samson and Delilah. We were used to promote these pls. I provided a vocal accompaniment and was also involved in drumming. 

From this testimony it is obvious that Orlando was put on a good footing from the beginning. He left Ogunmola in 1958 to join Akindele and his Chocolate Dandies at Ibadan. And while moving from one band to the other he was taking lessons on guitar and broadening his entire musical horizon. He eventually formed his own band in 1959 an outfit which instantly attracted recognition. Said he “ it was quality of my music that recommended me to recording companies. I was playing on a night gig when Decca Records came to discuss with me and eventually signed me on. I recorded my first hit in 1959. It was released in 1960 , a single with “Oluwa lo ran mi “on one side and “ Mobimo Kan to Dagba” on the other side.

By Midweek Arts Evergreen

Igboho Ruling House Petitions Makinde, Seeks Prompt Intervention In Lingering Chieftaincy Tussle

The Lube Sola, Afogboja, Sanya Akiribiti Ruling House in Igboho, Oorelope Local Government Area of Oyo State, has written to the governor of Oyo State, Mr Seyi Makinde, to seek his prompt intervention in the lingering chieftaincy tussle as regards the chieftaincy declaration of Iba Bonni Ruling House.

In a letter dated 19/04/2023, addressed to the governor and jointly signed on behalf of the family by Olanrewaju Rasaq and Oladipupo Joseph, the Sola Afogboja, Sanya Akiribiti, a copy of which was made available to the Nigerian Tribune on Thursday, the Ruling House stated that:”Information at our disposal has it that there are plan by some group of people to hold a meeting with respect to a chieftaincy declaration of Iba Bonni Ruling House. “It is our contention that, Iba Bonni Chieftaincy comprises of male and female wings. Male wing is Woru Garuba which consist of Afogboja, Lube Sola and Sanya Akiribiti, while female wing consist Woru Sanbe which contained Adeladan, Alege and Oladigbolu and that all the Iba Bonni Ruling House were not informed and carried along and that the issue of Iba Bonni Chieftaincy Declaration by the Ruling Houses has been challenged and it is before the High Court in Kishi.

Based on the fact that the matter is pending before the High Court, we humbly call and appeal to your office to direct that the proposed meeting be suspended pending the hearing and final determination of the issue by the court.”

To further press their demands before the governor, representatives of the aggrieved family embarked on a peaceful protest to the Chairman of Oorelope Local Government at the council secretariat in Igboho, on Wednesday. They also took the peaceful protest to the palaces of traditional rulers in the area. They were at the palace of His Royal Majesty, Onigboho of Igboho, Oba John Oyetola Bolarinwa Ajagungbade 1 and that of His Royal Majesty, Alepata of Igboho, Oba Joel Olalere Olawuwo.

The traditional rulers while addressing them, appreciated them for choosing a peaceful path to express their grievances, while calling on them to remain calm with a call not to allow mischievous element take advantage of the protest to cause chaos in the town.

Wednesday 19 April 2023

Who is Yoruba between Itsekiri & Bini in Edo state, Nigeria?

There has been mixed up as to know which tribe is Yoruba between Itsekiri and Bini.

If it's about language, itsekiri language is a mix of Ìjẹ̀bú /Ilaje /Ikale. (Yoruba)

If it's by origin, Itsekiris come from ilé ìfẹ́ like other Yoruba people.

If it's by monarchy. The title of itsekiri monarch is OLÚ (of Warri) like many other Yoruba tribes. So by all criteria itsekiri are Yorùbá.

One of the most popular Itsekiri born-pastor and a former CAN president AYO ORITSEJAFOR said in 2018 that Itsekiri migrated from Ile-Ife and are yoruba after confirming so many reports. Also in 2014 National Confab, the Itsekiri leaders make it known to the public that should Nigeria breakup, itsekiri must be merged to Yoruba which is their source. Till today, we have OPC in all itsekiri domain in warr, delta state. Anywhere you see OPC is a sign that it is a Yoruba Territory.

How About the Bini?

If it's by language, the bini spoke a different language that no yoruba can speak or even understands. Bini and Yoruba has a different lifestyles and actually different views of life.

The only connection between the Bini and Yoruba is their palace. The royal palace is the only connection between the Bini and Yoruba where we have Yoruba Descendants controlling bini palace. The history of Oba rulership in bini was established by a Yoruba prince from Ile-Ife.

Therefore, binis are not yoruba, but their royal house is Yoruba.. Also, there are some yoruba people in bini who are Descendants of the palace and those who lives in boundary side and those who bears yoruba names like Akoko-Edo, these are the Yorubas. But the bini itself are not Yoruba, their title is Ogiso/Ogiamen, but Yoruba title is Oba.

Apart from this, the itsekiri has never for once denied the fact that they are yorubas or migrated from Ile-Ife, but the bini has contrary opinion even among their kinsmen in Edo state so much that they dragged themselves to court.

In view of the above, itsekiri are yoruba while bini are not yoruba but bini palace is yoruba. Because of this, there are OPC in Edo state! Don't forget that anywhere you see OPC shows that's yoruba Territory. The bini palace and Yoruba Descendants in bini are yoruba..

This is so clear so much that the itsekiri Territory is listed among the Oduduwa Republic agitators Map. The map of Oduduwa Republic shows itsekiri, but bini was clean off, as some yoruba agrees that they will follow the wish of Oba of bini if its Territory should be included in Oduduwa map or not.

Meanwhile some yoruba disagree, but the said bini has been clean off on Oduduwa map. Any Oduduwa map showing bini on its list is a fake Oduduwa map. Only Oba of bini will decide if its Territory should be included or not.

You need to note that the bini we are discussing here is a city in Nigeria and its different from Benin Republic (country). They have no connection!

Note that Yoruba is an Ethnic (Nation) not a tribe.. Yoruba is an Ethnic that compries of many tribes.. Itsekiri, Okun, igbomina, ilaje, Awori, ijebu, oyo, ife, ekiti, ondo, ijesha, egba, Owu, offa, Ibadan etc are all tribes under Yoruba Ethnic. YORUBA IS A NATION!

By Oritsegbemi Akinola

Sunday 16 April 2023

Kusu People of Dr. Congo

Kusu People can be found in Dr. Congo, they are also known as Kikusu People and they are related to the Songye People, Hemba People, Kuba People and Luba People of Dr. Congo. They grow crops such as maize, yams, beans and raised other domesticated animals Including cows, goats, sheeps and chickens. Their Sculpture has similarities with the Luba, Hemba and Songye that Includes figures and traditionally, women also make pottery, stools and basketry. Fishing, Farming and hunting plays a significant roles in the Kusu communities, In their Culture, Kusu are split into a smaller villages that are relatively isolated in the South one another particularly in the South the villages are further divided into castes in which the blacksmiths are Influential. The Ceremonies for traditional chiefs of the Kusu are similar to the Luba traditions also the elders are considered as the leaders of the villages who have a higher positions of power .

Among Kusu People of Dr. Congo, It is said Vilie is considered as a Creator or God, Ancestors are the guardian angels, their deities are believed to be of both Hemba and Mongo origins. It is believed Kusu live on the left bank of the Luala bala river, during their movement to the north, they passed through Luba, Hemba and Songye land where they adopted some of their traditions and cultures. They are divided into clans, each headed by a Chief known as Wembi which they assisted by the Village Chief known as Mwamkana and the Chiefs of family are known as Bankumi. 

According to their Oral history, Kusu, Nkutshu , Tetela and Mongi were believed to have migrated from the northwest and Kusu were said to be of Mongo , Luba and Kudu origins, their first migration started southwards, then they moved back north through Luba, Songye and Hemba regions, acquiring social customs and learning artistic styles along the way . The Kusu arrived in their Present day homeland which they split into group others migrating further north and south which remain largely separated and remain largely separated and divided before their Independence in their Present day location . The Kusu Ancestor figure carving wood It is said is an impressive nicely carved wooden male ancestor figure standing 15 Inches in height. Carved from a single piece of hardwood the figure has aged patina and apart from a small wood stress fracture on the back of the lower head It is Infantastic condition . The figure of Kusu tribal history is shared with ethnic groups such as Nkutshu and Telela. It is said much of the Kusu Sculpture is similar to their neighboring ethnic groups, which Include Songye, Hemba, Kuba, Tetela and Luba People also their language is part of the Bantu which is known as KiKusu . Their Sculpture arts Include the Kusu male ancestor statue which is made of wood and shells, Spoon Sculpture, rattle sculpture, fly whisk, tribal dance mask, bronze doll sculpture , bronze doll sculpture, Others believed the Kusu and Batetela lived in region between Lusambo and Upper Congo river, in the provinces of Sankuru and Maniema they were later in the late 1800s after the arrival of Arabs and Belgians in the region. The Kusu and Batetela are the largest subgroups of the Mongo ethnic group. Their traditional cow or goat skin drum is used for dancing usually accompanying the lukumbi the six toned slit drum, there were a small cylindrical two toned drum which was used in wars and other celebration events. Their Sculpture is known for Kakudji which is made up of wood, seeds, fabric, animal skin, animal vertebra metal and animal skin. It is said Kusu also cultivate cassava and bananas, they are considered to be Patrilineal descent and they traced to one common male ancestor , there is also ankisi figure with a ball on the head containing spiritual material, the typical Kusu power figure originated from the eastern part of Dr. Congo. It is believed in the mid 20th Century, the Kusu figures have the same kind of look as those of their counterparts of Luba and Hemba. Typical sculpture of Kusu, however It is the cone shaped top meant to contain a charge in order to give the figure its power . It has the serene expression of the face has the fine beard characteristic of the kusu sculpture of their male ancestors. It is a stylish figure which has a powerful expression. 

The Kusu miniature carvings exemplify artists workmanship and detail. This Include power figures, metal objects, miniature or traditional masks, the powerful figures were used for healings, protection, prosperity, fertility and hunting. Masks were used for Initiations, funerals, education and protection as well. Their art sculptures Include Kusu Staff , Kusu Mortar , Kusu whistle, Kusu cup, Kusu figure and Kusu mask. According to Authentic Africa’s historical account on Kusu stools, most of the Chief of the stools shared historical background with Luba, Hemba, Nkutsu and Tetela which are said to have came from the northwest, It is believed Kusu moved north through Luba, Songye and Hemba regions or territory acquiring social customs and learning artistic styles along the way when they settled in Dr. Congo when they split into 2 groups and migrated further north and south the stools of the Kusu are made up of wood, bronze, brass reserved for Chiefs and elders also the Kusu have shown a proclivity for geometrical design using sharp edged and round curve. Traditionally, Kusu have dolls, masks, leather floor mats, statues, sculptures, traditional paintings and jewelleries . 

The Kusu traditional knife a large the spatulate blade squared at the tip and swollen at midsection with central depression, fine hardwood grip with swollen center, which was two carved bands above and below and domed pommel. A thick bundle of raffia separates the blade with the dark spotting and areas of moderate pitting, the handle with good age patina a blade which is approximately 36 cm and overall 51 cm. It is said Kusu figure which has a Antelope pigments. The Kusu Antelope figures shows a good signs of age, use and exposure as like other tribal knife which weapon historical’s account, Kusu tribal knife which dates back to the 1900s, about 60,000 Kusu people lived in the Southeastern part of Dr. Congo along the left bank of the Lulalaba river. Formerly, a hunting society, they have become more sedentary and have turned to agriculture and fishing. Kusu tend to live in small villages Isolated from each other and their figures symbolize the spirits of the Ancestors and the forest and half of figures have some Kasongo Influence and the Kusu is considered to be a bantu language and Gengele Creole is a Kusu creole language which has Kusu language, The Kusu bearded male miniature sculpture arts, contain to energize the figure, the figures were used commemorate the leaders of lineage and chiefs of land, It is believed figures were placed on the family shrines where offering and praises were conducted. The figures are made up of wood which dates back to approximately 20th Century, It is a number of chiefdoms, local Kusu styles of carving evolved sharing similarities but differing in details of sculpting and in use body marking and showing the Influence of Songye and Hema in overall style. The figures have holes carved in either abdomen  or head containing spiritual material, the typical Kusu power figure originated from the eastern part of Congo. In the form of a human half figure, with coffee bean eyes, short nose and closed mouth, straights, square shoulders, slightly bent arms and a round base broadening out into a cone shape . Carved from hardwood and dyed black. It is said Kusu traditional priest, soothsayer or traditional healer known as Nganga would then construct a net made of twisted woven fibre strings. The Nganga would then fill the net ball with spiritual material Including soil stones, the head of the power to protect its own Individual, the owner grant a bountiful hunt or give good health. It is said the Kusu power figure is very old with partly, skinny patina Including on the ball as a result of long term use. Only a hairline crack due to age on the left of the face and small, old piece of damage of the base. Otherwise, no damage originally power figures such as this had an Iron spike affixed to their round base which was then Inserted into ground to enable the figure to stand upright securely. The Present figure has a hole for this iron spike Its height 26cm between 1900 and the 1st third  of the 20th Century. Kusu Hemba female figure, the carving traditions of Kusu are longstanding and show significant influences from the neighboring Songye and Luba People. It is said the female ancestor figure reminiscent of the Luba and Hemba style, It is formed of a rectilinear shapes that produce a remarkably different Impression when viewed in profile. Ventral sacrifices and a deeply trancelike, In ward gaze further distinguish this fine Congolese the work which retains Its Original change condition of wood figures are very good with stable crack on base this Include wood, fiber, bamboo which dates far back conducted . The hands are placed the surface shows evidence of being through handing and age. 

The Kusu Mask and Its Tradition:

The Kusu maks is an exceptionally beautiful and well preserved piece of the masks art, Others claimed Kusu and Batetela lived in the region between Lusamboo and the Upper Congo river in the provinces of Sankuru and Maniema. Kusu people practice fishing, raising cassava, banana and kola nuts. They are related to the Banyamulenge and Tetela people, separated from Tetela in the late 1800s after the Belgians and Arabs had arrived in the region. It is said they might have originated on the right bank of the Lomami river Kusu and Batetela or tetela are known for revolts in the 1890s. Their traditional skin drum Include sheep, leopard, goat as well this also include slit drum, the leopard skin drum was formerly used for wars and victory in battle, the drums is used for poetic and communication. It is believed the Kusu came northwest with Nkutshu and dresa. Kusu passed through Luba, Hemba and Songye territories and Other their sculptures are of Kusongo Influence. 

Kusu Ethnic group and Its migration and separation from the Kingdom of Kongo and Kingdom of Ndongo Present day Angola. 

Other myths, which it is claimed Kusu used to be part of the Kingdom of Kongo which was a Kingdom located in the West Central Africa in Present day Northern Angola, Cabinda, the republic of the Congo , the western portion of Dr. Congo as well as the Southernmost part of Congo. Some believed or claimed Kusu were originally Ndongo People of Angola who had migrated and formed the Kusu tribe before separating from the Kingdom of Ndongo in Present day Angola, It is claimed they had migrated by crossing the Kwanza river to Present day Dr. Congo. According to Khamithi’s account, Kusu and Other Bantus spoke Egyptian hieroglyphics while others believed they might have migrated Southerly from Present day Egypt then migrated to Abyssinia Present day Ethiopia, Present day Sudan before Kusu  made their final settlements in Dr. Congo.

The Kusu, Zande and Mangbetu arts are characterized by spear or bow shafts, the art features with stylized elongated heads, their traditions Include making pottery, weaving raffia, and creating a traditional ceremonial dress. Other believed Kusu were part of the Kongo tribe and were part of the Kingdom of Kongo. Among the Kusu People of Dr. Congo, they make a dish known as Fufu which is made up of Cassava, Manioc tubers, pounded into the texture of an oatmeal which is eaten out of a communal bowl, other primary staples Include sweet potatoes, perch, bananas and plantains.

In Kusu Culture, It is an Insult to use your left hand to shake the hands or giving Instructions using the left hand, using of the right hand is a sign of respect and dignity also fish is a primary food source for the Kusu, fish can be harvested after some months of feeding. Traditionally, women fry or salt the fish that the family did not consume. They also use kola nuts, palm nuts, wine, oil and fruits as well and beer is brewed using millet or maize and palm nut for special occasions, which usually Involve singing, dancing, playing of drums. Kusu Chief or Kusu Village headmen have the authority over the village land and ownership.

Kusu People have natural resources such as Diamonds, Golds, Manganese and oil which was kept by their Ancestors also they practice a Patrilineal succession just like the Mongo People of Dr.Congo, In which Inheritance is passed through the Father’s side of the family. In Kusu marriage, It is said the man and his father or parents would give gifts which is valuable to the woman to be married her family requesting their son hand in marriage. The Kusu Traditional Priest is known as Nganga used medicine which are sacred to cure any sickness of the People of the Village, Nganga also have to master and know the herbs very well and throughout the Nganga Initiation process he or she must be chosen by God and Ancestors not by personal choice the Oracles which declare if one is chosen to become Nganga. Before the arrival of the European Missionaries who brought Christianity in the late 15th Century, Kusu were believed to be Spiritual People who had also a symbol of their Cross traditionally which has a similar shape to that of the Christian religious cross.

Clothing and mats are made up of raffia palm tree furthermore, Kusu folklore is traditional way of communicating through Literature, Art, Music and Dance which is carried tradition from generation to generation, In Kusu Spirituality, A Crocodile is associated with something bad or bad forces while bird, lions and other animals is associated with good forces. Grandparents are always known for telling folktales while they put fire on in the evening also Kusu tradition there is a belief that children are gifts of God which symbolize wealth, good fortune and other symbolism also all births and deaths are celebrated by singing and dancing as a way of honoring.

Black People of Yarmouk Basin River of Syria(Afro- (Syrians of Yarmouk Basin River Tribe)

Afro- Syrians of Yarmouk Basin People also referred as Black People of Yarmouk Basin river or Black Syrians are grouped as an Afro- Arab tribe in Syria. They can be found in Syria and some parts of Rabba in Present day Jordan, They have clans such as Bayt- al - Sudi, Bayt Abu Samir, Bayt Abu Marah and other clans.

It is said their ancestry can be traced to Present day Sudan and Other parts of East Africa such as Present day Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi. 

They speak languages such as Arabic and Kurdish languages, they believe in Allah which they follow Islamic Religion as they are considered to be both Shia and Sunni Muslims, It is believed during the Syrian Civil War they came to Present day Syria from Present day Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi and settled in Syria. It is believed during the Syrian Civil war they came to Present day Syria and settled there and Yarmouk Basin has a lot of black population and It is said Yarmouk Basin came under the control of Islamic State of Iraq and Levant through first the Yarmouk Maryrs Brigade and then the Khalid Ibn al- Walid Army. 

According to Arymenn Jawad Al- Tamimi’s account , The existence of Black People in some parts of the Middle East to the north of the Arabian Peninsula others believed Black People can be found in Syria , Jordan and Southern Iraq port city of Basra, thought to be descended of settlers from African regions such as Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi during the past Centuries and Palestine, Afghanistan also have Black People whose Ancestors came from some parts of Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi, Afro- Palestinians have their presence in Gaza. 

It is said Afro- Palestinian, Afro- Syrians  and Afro- Afghanistani have no connection with Slave trade but Afro- Palestinian, Afro- Syrians and Afro- Afghanistani served in the army. According to Rmir’s account, Afro- Syrian Yarmouk Basin People have many Sanadid who were warrior fighters and Pure Africans and Others believed they once civilized Damascus in Ancient Syria, Afghanistan, Palestine, Turkey and Uzbekistan. 

It is said clans and extended families are referred as Bayt in Yarmouk Basin and Ancient Rome had unknown Afro- Syrian Emperor in Rome and Afro- Syrians have been affiliated with their Ancient history and early civilizations around Middle East. According to Moona’s account, It is said Afro- Syrians Yarmouk Basin People have been under many empires ranging from the Assyrian Empire, Byzantine Empire then they came under the control of the Arabs after the 7th Century, Afro- Syrians Yarmouk Basin People presence in Ottoman Turkish Empire as well. It is said a Black King of Syria who hailed from Sudan ruled Ancient Syria he has a wooly hair who reigned for over 1000 years ago. Amurru at town called Mari.

Traditionally, known as “ Ad” Aram” and “ Akkad” the earliest Amurru moved early on from Southern Arabia, Al- Yaman to Syria and Mesopotamia where the Afro- Asiatic language known as Akkadian. Since the Chronology of the Ancient Egyptian and there was painting by Afro- Syrians during Akkadian Civilization era. Sculptures and Paintings were made by Afro- Syrians Yarmouk Basin People in the 9th Century but the paintings dates back to the 3rd- 8th Century BC.  

Afro- Syrians of Yarmouk Basin People are unknown ethnic group that is descended from Sundanese, Kenyan, Burundian and Tanzanian heritage and most of them are found in the Southwestern part of Syria and the Yarmouk river forms boundary between Present day Syria to the north, and Jordan to the South. Yarmouk was a site of the Battle of the Yarmouk river one of the decisive battles in the history of Palestine. The Arabs and Afro- Syrians of Yarmouk Basin were under Khalid Ibn Al- Walid and It is claimed Arabs and Afro- Syrians of Yarmouk Basin or Black People of Yarmouk Basin conquered Damascus in 635 AD, Black People of Yarmouk Basin were forced to leave the ancient City, when they were threatened by a large Byzantine army under Theodorus Trithurius.

It is believed Khalid concentrated on his forces south of Yarmouk river and on 636 AD, he took advantage of the desertion of Byzantines Armenian and Christian Arabs auxiliaries and attacked the Byzatine’s remaining forces, who were closer to being destroyed . Muslim dominance in Present day Palestine, which was broken by the period of Crusades from 1099 AD- 1291 AD.

The Village of Al- Shajarah, Black People of Yarmouk Basin are there and they were part of the Syrian Civil war it has displaced millions of Black People of Syria during the Syrian Civil war. Judiah allied itself with the Ancient Sundanese or Black King who ruled Damascus, Black People of Yarmouk Basin and the Black King of Damascus made war on Israel and its territory north of the Yarmouk river. The Assyrian King Tiglath Pileser ll descended into Syria . Afro- Syrians of Yarmouk Basin People also known as Black People of Yarmouk Basin of Syria fought in a battle around 736 AD with the Arabs after the Arab Muslim Invasion between 633 and 634 AD.

The fall of Byzantine in Syria with militia which maintained 2,000 men in Yarmouk Basin region of Daraa. Hamat Gader was a hot springs site in Yarmouk river valley, near the border with Jordan and the sea of Galilee in Southern Golan heights of modern day Israel, Yarmouk river shared borders with three countries such as Syria, Jordan and Israel. In addition, Islamic State control while Black People of Yarmouk Basin or Afro- Syrians captured an unknown Arab radical group in some areas in western Daraa, Al- Hajar Al- Aswad in Southern Damascus and the eastern countryside of Hama were under Islamic Control. It is said During the Battle of Yarmouk, Muslim forces defeated those of Byzantine Empire and gained control of Syria in the north. Afro- Syrian Yarmouk Basin People also known as Black People of Yarmouk Basin later left Kurdish region of Present day Iraq to Present day Syria tried to escaped from the black market which was brought illegally by outside in 211 AD. 1,500 Blacks now crossed the border but some were stucked in the northwestern corner of Present   Jordan and Others believed  they were Black Syrians who might have came Syrian Desert and Turkish peninsular regions, They have livestocks which were purebred such as shami goats, cows furthermore, Oronte rivers created separation from Ancient Alawite territory which belonged to the Africans in  Central Syria . Mohammed Al- Jaafari an Ancient Black man of Yarmouk Basin or Afro- Syrian who once served in the Ancient Arab Army in Syria. 

It is said Afro- Syrian Yarmouk Basin People discovered the Ancient Jordan Black desert which is hidden in the Jebel Qurma Region of Jordan’s Black desert before the modern day discovery research. It was the Black People of Yarmouk Basin river who wrote the first Safaitic alphabetic Script which is used by even Arab People of Syria, Jordan which dates back to 2,000 years ago, Jebel had trees, and wildlife before the Arab Muslim Invasion took place and It is believed they are not even given credit for their Ancestor’s role in Syria’s Beginning of Civilization in 9000 BC. The Ancient Africans were considered to be Black People of Yarmouk Basin river who were of Kenyan, Sundanese, Burundian, Rwandan and Tanzanian heritage and started the development of agricultural in Syria, Invented the first alphabet, religions but they were mostly Muslims, language, Unknown Kingdoms and in about 600 BC. They rose to power before Assyrian Empire rose in 800 BC and for nearly 2 centuries they administered Syria and Lebanon and in 612 BC it fell to the Babylonia land of Nineveh . It is claimed Canaanite, Judeans and Amorites were all originally African Ancient groups and They have a small populations in some areas of Rabba, Sofita , Homs and some parts of Jordan. They grow crops such as Date palm, common fig, Almond, Coconut , Banana, Pomegranate, Apricot, Avocado. They used honey for cream, Bread and others, food is an Important part of many celebrations. During Ramadan, each day’s feast is broken with evening meal known as Iftar and The meal begins is consumed rapidly, their exports Include cotton, textiles and Industrial accessories. Afro- Syrians of Yarmouk Basin People also known as Black People of Yarmouk Basin celebrate festivals such as Assyrian Spring festival, Vine festival, Honey festival, Kurdish festival, Cotton festival and Abosrane festival and Other festivals Include Id al- Fitr, al- Adha, Mazzah. It is claimed Black People of Yarmouk Basin once ruled Aleppo, In the northwest, and Damascus, In the Southwest. They recorded with the Arabs an Ancient Egyptian document which dates between 1300 BC and 1500 BC. It is said they and the Arabs were part of what is now Syria and controlled the Ottoman Empire then Blacks in Syria had Influence in what is now Afghanistan, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. Black People in Syria used weapons to killed their enemies which is the Romans  more than 400 people in Damascus and Daraa in Syria 760 AD.

They built mosques in Aleppo and Daraa also the small village known as Jamla and has a small black population. Traditionally, They bear names such as Ali, Sayid, Rahman, Osman, Ranim, Rahman, Rahim, Hayyan, Nooda, Usama, Sami, Bassel, Kawa, Ramee, Hussein , Zaid , Zakwan, Abdulrahmani, Alezar, Faraz, Iman, Ibrahim, Herman, Mohammad, Mufid, Mustafa, Nasser, Omar, Osama, Qaesen, Shabbaz, Shahram, Soulaiman, Sulayman, Hassan, Jamal, Mahdi, Amira, Farid, Fatiman and many more. In their Culture, Young men and women choose their partners, most of their marriages are arranged by their families and are preceded by engagement. It is said during engagement allows people to get to know each other before marriage.

Wealth plays a big role rich men have to establish their wealth before they get married and Naming Systems is very Important they have only Islamic names or Arabic names, there is a first name, second name which is considered as middle name and last name which is the father’s last  name or  Grandfather’s last name. The Middle name which is the Second name is their father’s first name and the last name is the father’s last name or grandfather’s last name. Women can have both her family and Spouse last name as her last name and in their tradition, Marriage, Death and Birth is considered to be their greatest celebrations among them , their women traced through their Patrilineal line from her father to her Paternal Ancestors which is believed to be honorable family background among their society . Men are the head of the family and they have authority and is their responsibility to take good care of their spouse furthermore, Sheep or lamb is their traditional meat they eat.

It is believed they practice Islam which is Shia and Sunni Islam also It is believed they are not slaves from Africa and they are not Indigenous but some believed they came from Africa to ruled Syria some also believed they came during the Syrian Civil war from Present day Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi in the 1900s and they were allies with the Islamic State and Islamic Muthanna Movement in Syria.

They usually wear a gown or robe with many traditional designs during weddings. During Syria’s Civil war, Black People of Yarmouk Basin river joined some of the Arabs and fought, It is said some Arabs became refugees and fled to other countries, It is said some of the Black People of Yarmouk Basin river fled to what is now Jordan while some of them settled in Syria and make Syria their final settlement and never returned back to Africa. They built villages and mosques in Tasil and their mosques consist of roof supported by 4 square pillars and enclosed by basalt walls in the corner of the mosque. Tasil in their field lay numerous dolmens, although most of them are collapsed or ruined.

Al- Sanamayn has Black People in Daraa in Syria , Al- Masmiyah has a small Black Population in the Southern Syria, the towns is situated along Hajj caravan route between Damascus and Mecca also Black People who were Soldiers freed forces from South Sudan in Present day Syria before some of the Blacks of Yarmouk Basin migrated to Jordan. In Tasil, they can be found in Southern Syria, Tasil came under the Influence of rebel free Syrian Army forces. Black of Yarmouk Basin has a population in Tasil about 200, Tasil was their large village with about 90 houses constructed from stone and mud bricks. During dry seasons, People in the village sometimes travel to Allan Spring where water is the main source and natural pool, consisting of 50 Square yards known as Al- Birkeh meaning the pool to the north. In Jordan their clans is the same in Syria, in Jordan they settled in Rabba which lies on the historical King’s Highway . It is situated on a thin semi- fertile plain, giving way to Wadi Ibn Hammad in the west, and the desert in the east. Located near the northern edge of the town . In Jalin a village in Syria, It consisted of 100 Blacks hailing from Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi. They settled in two villages such as Al- Shaykh Saad to the north, Sheikh Saad Ibn Abd Al- Qadir whose Ancestors came from Sudan, It is said Blacks in Syria were never slaves to the Arabs but rather settlers who came to Syria. On their Calendar they have New Year day which is throughout the month of January, Freedom day on the month of March, Liberatory day on the 6th September and they don't celebrate Christmas, Easter but celebrated Prophet Muhammad Birthday, Eid Ul- Fitr the end of Ramadan, Eid Ul- Adha and Cotton festival. Folklores is passed throughout generations, their Ancestors believed folklores was a way to entertain the people, folk songs were composed their Ancestors and the fall of the warriors which is one of the folklore among them.

Their Clothing Include traditional cloth which is of the Arab and jewelries and poetry was kept by their Ancestors. In the month of August and September, they celebrate folk music and performed their folk dances and Among them a great honor and respect is placed on the family, they believed there is no loyalty as great as loyalty among love ones and family.

Saturday 15 April 2023


Badagry, a coastal community in Lagos State, prides itself as cradle of civi­lization in Nigeria. Believed to have been founded in 1425 A.D, the town derived its name from the fusion of the name of its founder, a famous farm­er known as Agbedeh and the word “Greme”, which means farm in Ogu (Egun) language. Originally, the name of the town which is situated between the city of Lagos, and the bor­der of Republic of Benin at Seme was said to have evolved from the dual corruption of Agbedegreme (which means Agbedeh’s farm in “Ogu” lan­guage) to Agbedagari and from Agbedagari to Badagry by Yoruba settlers and European slave traders respectively.

Badagry is a monarchy headed by the Wheno Aholuship, a king­ship head by the Akran of Badagry and his seven white cap high chiefs. The white cap chiefs administer the eight quarters which Badagry is di­vided into. These divisions are Aho­vikoh, Boekoh, Jegba, Posukoh, Awhanjigo, Asago, Whalako and Ganho. These quarters and the fam­ilies that ruled them played promi­nent roles in the slave trade business with the Europeans and Brazilians.

Around 1600, the ancient city of Badagry was reputed as a thriving community for trade in salt. But this legitimate trade soon gave way to the obnoxious slave trade and for its first four hundred years of exis­tence, slave trade dominated all oth­er commercial interests in Badagry. The town became host to European slave traders led by George Fre­emingo, a Portuguese slave mer­chant who came to Badagry around 1660s. By 1740 Badagry had be­come a thriving town for slave trade. It grew to an important com­mercial centre flourishing on the export of slaves through the creeks and lagoon.

Effort to stop the obnoxious trade received a major boost when the treaty for the abolition of slave trade was signed in March 1852 be­tween England and Badagry chiefs. Some cannons of war were donat­ed to the chiefs to be placed at the coastal area to fight other European countries that were still coming to get slaves. However, the trade con­tinued illegally and the export of slaves steadily increased. The Bra­zilians became the major slave mer­chants during this period. Howev­er, in 1888 the last ship left Badagry to Brazil and this marked the end of the trade in Badagry, Brazil and around the world.

From the 1840s, following the suppression of slave trade Badagry declined significantly and would later become a major site of Chris­tian missionary work. Christiani­ty was first preached in Nigeria in Badagry in 1842 by Rev Thomas Birch Freeman, who equally cele­brated the first Christmas in Nigeria the following year. The site where Christianity was first preached then is now known as the Agiya Tree Monument. The 160 ft tall Agiya tree was felled by a heavy wind­storm in 1959. To underscore the significance of this site, the Agiya Tree Monument was set up on the same parcel of land where the tree stood.

The first educational system in Nige­ria as a British colony started in Badagry where the first primary school was estab­lished by the Wesleyan Mission (Meth­odist Church) in 1843 and named Nurs­ery of Infant Church which later became St. Thomas’ Anglican Nursery and Pri­mary School, founded by Rev. Golmer of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) in 1845 and operated inside the first storey building in Badagry.

A number of other historical facilities including educational institutions later sprang up in Badagry until 1955 when the missionaries left the town uncere­moniously due to a misunderstanding between them and the natives. In 1863, Badagry was annexed by the United Kingdom and incorporated into the La­gos Colony. In 1901 it became a part of Nigeria.

Friday 14 April 2023

Anthill (Okitiogan)

Mostly found by the roadside and on reddish-clay soil. There are many of wonders around Anthills and some of them are as follows:

Anthill is a spot to receive rituals and if you are taking rituals to anthill, you don't tell no one else you won't see the holes on it. Naturally, anthill has holes.

Never destroy Anthill without offering them their foods to honor them else whatever project you are doing on that land, you can't and won't finish it. There is more but share what you know about it also.

Thursday 13 April 2023

History Of Osogbo

One of the most accepted history of Osogbo can be traced to 1670 AD. As History had it, It all started with the journey of a famous hunter called Olutimilehin, who hails from Ipole-omu not far from Ibokun. Olutimilehin came across a local Dam while he was in hunting in a place called Gbonmin, around Oke-Baale area (part of present day Osogbo).

Due to the water scarcity facing his community he went around to see if the dam will be capable of sustaining his people. Olutimihen was sad because the dam cannot sustain his community. In his quest Olutimilehin found a stream called Okrokro, which he traced its source to River Osun (part of present day Osogbo). Olutimilehin went back to his community and inform the king, Larooye Gbadewolu of his findings. The king and his subjects later moved to settle at the flood plain and built his first palace later Known as Ile - Osun. 

Overtime Larooye and his subjects engaged themselves in farming activities in their new found land. History learn that One day as they were clearing the bush for cultivation they incidentally fall a tree, damaging the Indigenous industry of the spirit world. A voice was heard from the river saying "Laro! Timehin! You have broken my dyeing pots".

Other voices from the spirit world were heard saying! "Oso-igbo pele o, Oso-Igbo rora o. (Oso-igbo we cormistrate with you). Later Larooye got to know the name of the spirit Queen as Oso-igbo (widely believe to be the goodies of River Osun). This is why the Osun goddess was, and is still regarded as the spiritual mother of Oba Larooye and all the succeeding Ataoja (King of Osogbo). History also has it that Larooye and his subjects move to the upper terrace in the plain which they later called OKE Ohuntoto at the present day Osun Groove.

As King Larooye community population grows the groove and their already flourishing market was abadon as they moved to Ode-Osogbo after the usual Ifa divination. The abandoned market centre and the iledi ohuntoto are today important historical monuments in the Osun grooves. At the Ode-Osogbo, Larooye built his new palace at called Idi-Osun while Timehin built a Shrine known as Idi-Ogun. Larooye and his subjects discovered that their new settlements was a centre where footpaths from Oyo, Ekiti, Ijesa etc converged.

Wednesday 12 April 2023

The list of Powerful Baloguns ''WARLORDS'' in Yoruba Land

1. Balogun Oderinlo from Ibadan who fought in the Osogbo war and conquered those Fulani of Ilorin who were terrorizing the Yoruba land.

2. Balogun Ajikobi from Ilorin who fought and conquered Alafin Oluewu and Oba Ibaruba... but later conquered in the Osogbo war and he was killed in public in Oyo and he received over 1000 bullets before he died.

3. Balogun Ibikunle from Ibadan who fought and conquered Kakafo Kurumi.

4. Balogun Akere from Ibadan who fought in Ijesha War but died during the war.

5. Balogun Orowusi from Ibadan was the first man to fight and conquer Ijesha people.

6. Balogun Ogunbona from Abeokuta Egba.. who fought and conquered the Dahomey war and he was a very brilliant man...

7. Balogun Ayikodu from Abeokuta fought so many wars.

8. Balogun Osungboekun from Ibadan who betrayed Latoosa and took over the war after Kaka-fo died in a war called Ekiti Parapo / Kijiji.

9. Balogun Olasile from Ijaye who fought so many wars for his boss Kakafo Kurumi.

10. Balogun Singusee from Ile Ife led a war during the Old Owu War and conquered the Owu.

11. Balogun Ogundipe from Abeokuta.. He fought so many wars for the Egba race.

12. Balogun Kuku from Ijebu who fought so many wars including he was the first Balogun to fight the white men in a war... that war is the greatest of all time.

DID YOU KNOW (History Of Ebute Metta)

There is a very rich history behind the ebute metta town in Lagos that a whole lot us are not aware of.

The construction of the lagos rail terminal situated at Ebute Metta gave birth to the idea behind me digging deep to find out more about the historical town.

You will be amazed what I dug out from my findings in the this little piece of article.

Ebute Metta is known for the production and sale of local food and cloths. It is a very old part of Lagos, many of its houses were built during the colonial era using Brazilian architecture.

Ebute Metta is part of the Awori Kingdom of Otto. Its capital is at Otto just before Iddo on the way to Lagos Island. Ebute Metta means “The three Harbours” in the Yoruba language. This was in reference to Iddo, Otto and Oyingbo. In the olden days the king, Oba Oloto of Otto, controlled these harbours and had his agents collecting taxes from ships bringing goods to Lagos by way of them.

In 1867, there was a great tension between the Christian community and adherents of the traditional religion in Abeokuta which was on the verge of snowballing into a sectarian crisis. On the eve of departure of some European missionaries from Abeokuta, the native Christian converts – fearing that the dominant traditionalists would descend on them in the absence of their European proctectors – begged the Europeans to take them along to Lagos.

On getting to the colony, the European missionaries went to the king of Lagos to ask for him to allocate land for the Egba Christians from Abeokuta. In response, the king said Lagos Island was already filled up and he couldn’t afford to give the little available land to the Egba people. Instead he suggested that the Colonial Governor, John Hawley Glover, contact his brother Oba, the Oloto, whose territory was located just across the lagoon.

Governor Glover approached the Oloto, who agreed to give the Egbas a large tract of land from Oyingbo (Coates Street) to somewhere just before the lands of Yaba begin (Glover Street, where LSDPC Estate was later built about 130 years later).

These Egba Christians – some of whom were Saros and Amaros – then formed a community which they called Ago Egba, the Yoruba for “Egba Camp”. They built their church, St. Jude’s Church, schools to educate their children, and trading concerns, and they divided the land into streets which were originally named after their European missionaries and colonial officers. The streets were also named after some of the Egba chiefs like Oloye Osholake. Thus we had Denton Street (since renamed Murtala Muhammad Way), Griffith Street, Freeman Street, King George V Street (since renamed Herbert Macaulay Street), Cemetery Street, Bola Street, Osholake Street, Tapa Street and Okobaba Street.

These Ebute Metta people went on to form the first set of civil servants in Nigeria. After the amalgamation of 1914 and the construction of railways, Ebute Metta became a great destination for many people coming from the hinterland to Lagos, many of whom couldn’t get accommodation on the Island (reserved for only the Europeans and upper class Nigerians).

The Ago Egba people in Ebute Metta constructed the Lisabi Hall which was commissioned in 1938, by which time their third generation descendants had become the engineers, technicians and stationmasters of the Nigerian Railway Corporation with stations and offices nearby.

Ebute Metta has a number of notable buildings including the Nigerian Railway Corporation headquarters, the post office, St. Paul’s Catholic Church, the Oyingbo Market, a major bus terminal, Foucos Secondary School (a school built by the former minister for education), St. Saviour’s School, Junior Strides Academy, Ajayi Memorial Hospital, Ijero Baptist Church Nursery and Primary School, Ebute Metta Health Centre, Federal Medical Centre Ebute Metta, and shops of all types. Ebute Metta is divided into two main areas: Ebute Metta East and Ebute Metta West.

Saturday 8 April 2023


Ògúnlolá was the name of the brave hunter and an expert archer, he was said to be of Ibariba descent. In the mid-17th century, he migrated with his wife, Èsùu to the present site known today as Ọ̀gbómòsó, he first settled under a tree called Ajagbon (still standing near the king’s palace).

Later on, Ògúnlolá discovered that there were people who have settled in that area before him, he then went to introduce himself and fortunately, they were also hunters just like him, they were; Aale, Onisile, Orisatolu, offense, and Akande. Though, Ògúnlolá established his dominance over his fellow hunters, the brave men agreed to form a society called Alongo in other to protect the settlement from wild animals and slave raiders. It was on this initiative that Ògúnlolá killed an Ijesa itinerant trader, thinking he was a slave raider. Ògúnlolá was jailed because of this capital offence.

While he was awaiting his trial, a troubling report of a dreadful attack on Oyo-Ile spread through the palace, and among the prisoners, it was said that a certain warrior called “ELÉMÒSÓ” is wreaking havoc and causing great tension. Being a fearless warrior himself, Ògúnlolá offered his services to the Alaafin, he promised that he would bring elémòsó’s head if granted freedom. Upon his release, Ògúnlolá crept into the opposition camp and shot elémòsó with an arrow before beheading him. He brought the head to the Alaafin and the whole kingdom rejoiced.

The Alaafin persuaded him to stay in Oyo-Ile but he insisted, he said to the Alaafin “e jé kín lo má ṣe òhún”, “let mẹ go and stay far away”. This was how the title “Soun Ọgbomoso” was coined. Ògúnlolá returned to his settlement a nobleman, having been decorated and greatly rewarded by the Alaafin for his bravery.

Later, travelers started referring to the settlement as “ìdóo eni tí ó gbórí elémòsó” meaning the settlement of him who beheaded Elemoso, and this was how the present-day Ogbomoso derived its name.

The story was adapted into a movie by Chief Lérè Paimo who played the role of Ògúnlolá.

Friday 7 April 2023


The Guinness Book of Records (1974 edition) described the walls of Benin City and its surrounding kingdom as the world’s largest earth works carried out. Benin City walls were at one point "Four times longer than the Great Wall of China, and consumed a hundred times more material than the Great Pyramid of Cheops.

For over 400 years the Walls existed, it protected the inhabitants of the kingdom, particularly, the traditions and civilisations of the Edo people until it was ravaged in 1897 by the British.

The walls which are four times longer than the Great Wall of China, are a combination of strong materials like ramparts and moats, which predated the use of modern earth-moving equipment and technology, and were used for defensive purposes.

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