Monday 18 March 2024


Greco-Roman Acquaintance with African Ethiopians extract from BLACKS IN Antiquity Book by Frank M. Snowden, Jr.

The purpose of this post is to trace the manner in which Greeks and Romans widened their knowledge of African Ethiopians and to indicate the regions of Africa in which they located Ethiopians. It concludes with a brief consideration of the Ethiopians who lived south of Egypt because these Ethiopians, more than those of other regions of Africa, figured most prominently in Greco-Roman records and contributed significantly to the classical image of Ethiopians.

The earliest Greek poets mentioned Ethiopians. Their observations, however, as to the physical characteristics and provenience of these peoples were either sparse or vague. Beginning with the fifth century B.C., the Greek writers were more generous in providing anthropological and geographical details concerning African Ethiopians. Although as early as Herodotus Ethiopia was believed to be in the south and India in the farthest east, subsequently India and Ethiopia were at times confused in the minds of some, despite increased geographical knowledge. Yet it is often possible to determine whether a writer was referring to Ethiopians or Indians.

(1). The first Greek poet had heard of Ethiopians. Not only does Homer mention Ethiopians but he describes a well-known herald of Odysseus as black-skinned and woolly-haired. It is uncertain whether Homer's Ethiopians were African and whether Odysseus' herald was Ethiopian. According to the evidence, however, the former may have been African, and the latter, Ethiopian.

(2). Homer's Ethiopians are remote peoples, sundered in twain, the farther most men, some dwelling where the sun rises and others where it sets. Their home is by the streams of Ocean. Menelaus, having wandered over Cyprus, Phoenicia, and Egypt, visited other peoples, the first mentioned being the Ethiopians," and the routes by which he reached Ethiopia were discussed seriously by later writers.

(3). Although Homer says nothing of the physical characteristics of his Ethiopians, there is substantial reason to believe that by Homer's day the Greeks had heard of blacks, by direct or indirect accounts, and that the Ethiopians of his epics were black. 

(4). Eurybates, the herald of Odysseus, who had accompanied him from Ithaca to Troy, was black-skinned and woolly-haired. A black-skinned, woolly-haired individual, we have seen, was to the Greeks an Ethiopian. The only person so described in Homer, Eurybates was apparently well known. For it was in reply to Penelope's request for a description of the comrades accompanying her husband that the disguised Odysseus mentioned Eurybates. The mention of Eurybates was one of the sure tokens which Penelope recognized as proof of her husband.* Nor should it be overlooked that one of the Ithacan lords was named Aegyptius."

(5). Although the significance of Aegyptius should not be overemphasized in this case, it is perhaps not stretching the evidence too much to suggest, in the light of both Eurybates and Aegyptius, that the Ithacans had some special experience with or specific knowledge of both Ethiopians and Egyptians.

(6). After all, Homer had heard of pygmies, who also dwelt by the streams of Ocean, and before Homer's time black men depicted in Minoan and Pylos frescoes were known outside of Africa.

(7). Furthermore, among the names of individuals mentioned several times in the Pylos tablets was that of ai-ti-jo-qo (Aithiops). On the basis of the total evidence from this early period it is not possible to determine the precise meaning of ai-ti-jo-qo in the Pylos texts. Whether this personal name indicates a Negroid type from Africa or merely an individual of dark color, perhaps from Asia, is uncertain. At any rate, the possibility that the name indicated a Negro or Negroid type cannot be excluded and has been noted by Dihle."

(8). As to the location of the Homeric Ethiopians, the ancient evidence is not precise; and modern scholars differ. One view holds that the Homeric Ethiopians dwelling near the rising sun were Negroes who inhabited the regions near Egypt, while those in the vicinity of the setting sun dwelt near the Pillars of Hercules. Other scholars identify the eastern branch as Negroes of the Somali coast and the westerners as occupants of the Sudan whose land stretched westward ad infinitum from the Nile valley. Still another view places Homer's eastern Ethiopians near the Red Sea and the western branch not far west of the upper Nile.

(9). Hesiod (Hesiod was an ancient Greek poet generally thought to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.) is the first to group Scythians with Ethiopians, peoples who later came to be cited frequently as examples of racial and geographical extremes-northerners and southerners. In this instance Hesiod does not describe his Ethiopians, but elsewhere he mentions a people and city of dark men." Though Eos and Tithonus, the parents of Memnon, according to early Greek poets, dwelt, like Homer's Ethiopians, by the streams of Ocean at the ends of the earth, there is no precision in these poets as to where Memnon lived.

(10). It should be noted that, according to Athenaeus, Archilochus mentioned an Aethiops of Corinth, who participated in the founding of Syracuse. Even if an Aethiops actually lived in Corinth at the period of the establishment of Syracuse (ca. 734 B.C.), we do not have sufficient evidence to know precisely what the word Aethiops meant at that time. We can say, however, that the physical characteristics of Eurybates as recorded by Homer and Hesiod's mention of dark men give some indications as to the possible meaning of Aethiops in the time of Archilochus. Whether Aethiops of Corinth was from the east or the west we do not know.

(11). Mimnermus (was a Greek elegiac poet from either Colophon or Smyrna in Ionia, who flourished about 632–629 BC.) locates his Ethiopians in the east, when he describes the sun as being carried from the country of the Hesperians to the land of the Ethiopians.

(12). Aeschylus is the first Greek to locate Ethiopians definitely in Africa. According to the prophecy of Prometheus, was to visit a distant country, and a black people, who lived by the waters of the sun, where the Ethiopian river flowed, and was to go to the cataract where the Nile sent forth its stream from the Bybline Mountains.

(13). It is not at all surprising that Aeschylus places Ethiopians in Africa. Ionian and Carian mercenaries served under Psammetichus (Psamtik) I (663-609 B.C.).

(14). By the sixth century B.C. Greeks were well established in Naucratis (  Naucratis or Naukratis was a city and trading-post in ancient Egypt, located on the Canopic branch of the Nile river, south-east of the Mediterranean sea and the city of Alexandria) Greek residents of this community were in a position to acquire a sound knowledge of the country and its peoples, and it was no doubt through Naucratis that the Greeks developed the interest in the Negro reflected in the art of the sixth century. Further, if a mold of a Negro found at Naucratis (Figs. 78a-b) dating from the fifth century B.C. is representative, Greeks in Egypt at that time were well acquainted with the pronounced Negroid type. It has also been suggested that the Busiris legend came into being in the sixth century, perhaps at Naucratis, and was transmitted by Greek traders or travelers. 

Amasis, according to J. Boardman, was perhaps a dusky-skinned metic, born in Egypt of a mother herself Egyptian and grew up in all likelihood at Naucratis. He may have been Negroid, as I have argued above. Greek mercenaries, perhaps Egyptian-born and children of the mercenaries who had served under the earlier Psammetichus, had been employed by Psammetichus II (594-588 B.C.) in his Nubian campaign; inscriptions at Abu Simbel record the participation of Greek mercenaries in the campaign; and, according to one modern view, Psammetichus II reached the Fourth Cataract.

(15). By the time of Aeschylus, therefore, sufficient time had elapsed to allow for reports based on recently acquired 'Greek knowledge of Ethiopians to circulate in Greece. Further, Aeschylus himself had fought in the Persian wars. Perhaps his interest in Ethiopia may have derived from experiences with Ethiopians in the army of Xerxes.

Xenophanes, when he described Ethiopians as black-faced and flat-nosed, was the first to apply to an Ethiopian a physical characteristic other than color.

(16). In this connection it is interesting to note that one of the Greek mercenaries in the army of Psammetichus II who left his name at Abu Simbel was, like Xenophanes, Colophonian.

(17). A likely source, therefore, for Xenophanes' anthropological details was the account of some Colophonian mercenary who, upon his return to Ionia, entertained his friends with stories of the black, flat-nosed Ethiopians whom he had encountered.

(18). The anthropological characteristics mentioned by Xenophanes and the geographical details provided by Aeschylus were apparently reflections of an increased knowledge of Ethiopia and Ethiopians. Fifth-century dramatists, for example, wrote plays involving Ethiopian myths, made references to Ethiopians, and included intriguing geographical details such as snows in the Upper Nile which fed the waters of the Nile.

(19). It is obvious that from the fifth century onwards Ethiopians were without question an African reality. For example, it is reasonable to assume that the dramatists had not only received reports from Greeks with Egyptian and Ethiopian experience but had perhaps seen Ethiopians in Athens, including some captives taken after the defeat of Xerxes.

Of the Greek writers who visited Africa Herodotus is the first to whom we can turn for a substantial account of Ethiopians. He ascended the Nile as far as Elephantine and supplemented his personal observations by interviews with others who knew Ethiopia. His geographical knowledge, like that of many writers who followed him, leaves much to be desired. His picture, however, of black peoples living in various parts of Africa was important for its influence in molding the Greek image of Ethiopians not only in his day but later.

Although Herodotus makes brief mention of Asiatic Ethiopians, it is clear that he was writing primarily about African Ethiopians, the most woolly-haired of all men.

(20). Whom, together with the Libyans of the north, he classified as aboriginals of Libya.

(21). Herodotus wrote most fully of the Ethiopians who lived south and southeast of Elephantine, where the area, he noted, began to be occupied by Ethiopians.

(22). The information which Herodotus gave concerning the Ethiopians south of Elephantine includes the following:

(1). The capital of all Ethiopia was the great city of Meroë, situated at a distance of approximately two months' journey from Elephantine, the center of an established religion, which despatched its armies in obedience to its gods;

(2). Along the Nile about a two months' journey southwest of Meroë lived Ethiopians influenced by the customs and manners of the 240,000 Egyptian deserters, called Asmach, who had migrated and settled in the region in the reign of Psammetichus I;

(3). The Macrobian Ethiopians, the tallest and most handsome men on earth who chose the tallest as kings, against whom Cambyses made an expedition, dwelt on the sea to the south and lived at the extremity of the world; and 

(4). Cave-dwelling Ethiopians, the swiftest of men, whose diet included snakes and lizards and whose language resembled the squeaking of bats and was unlike any other in the world, lived south of the Garamantes.

(23). Herodotus reported the presence of Ethiopians elsewhere in Africa. Although the precise area is by no means clear, his account of small black men visited by the Nasamones refers to a region across the desert in central Africa, in the judgment of some.

(24). The little men who covered themselves with palm-leaf raiment, reported by Herodotus as seen by the Persian Sataspes (ca. 485- 464 B.C.) during a voyage down the west coast of Africa, have been interpreted as Negro tribes living in Senegal or perhaps Guinea.

(25). In short, Herodotus, in spite of an annoying geographical imprecision, preserves accounts of Ethiopians living in various regions south of Egypt and perhaps in central and even west Africa. In one instance he refers to the Ethiopian's woolly hair; in another, to his blackness. He located the Macrobian Ethiopians further south than later writers, and their Table of the Sun recalls the divine feastings of the Homeric gods. Yet it is clear that as early as the fifth century B.C., Ethiopians south of Egypt were no longer the rather vague, shadowy peoples of the earlier poets but an African reality.

Although Herodotus provided more details about these south- ern Ethiopians than any other single source of the fifth century, he recorded little about western Ethiopians.

His account of the circumnavigation of Africa reportedly undertaken in the reign of the Pharaoh Necho (the Necos of Herodotus, 609-594 B.C.). made no mention of peoples seen, and his description of the west African peoples encountered by Sataspes is meagre.

(26). A translation of an inquisitive Greek has preserved an account of the country and Ethiopian peoples whom Hanno the Carthaginian reportedly encountered during his voyage about 500 (?) B.C. down the west coast of Africa. Modern scholars differ as to the exact location of the coastal regions which Hanno visited and as to the southernmost point which he reached. In spite of uncertainty as to geography, however, the Greek translation of Hanno's voyage described some of the peoples seen: a wild tribe who inhabited a mountainous area swarming with wild beasts; Troglodytes of strange appearance able to run faster than horses; mountain- dwelling savages who prevented the Carthaginians from landing by hurling stones; a tribe who spoke a language unintelligible to the interpreters provided by the Lixitae and who fled at the sight of ships; and another people whose pipes, drums, and cymbals terrified the explorers.

(27). The island of Cerne ( of the Atlantic coast of Morocco ), mentioned by Hanno, was frequently referred to in the fourth century B.C. and later as a landmark of Ethiopians in the west. The Periplus of Scylax (fourth century B.C.), for example, describes Cerne as a market of a trade between Carthaginians and Ethiopians of the opposite coast who bartered skins of deer, lions, leopards, the hides and tusks of elephants, and wine for perfume, Egyptian stones, and Athenian pottery. These Ethiopians used ivory for cups and bracelets. #africa


Lord Enlil was in charge of the Anunaki gold mining operations that were here on Earth. 

24,000 years ago, Enlil decided to send his oldest son Ninutra to Bolivia.. not only to expand their gold mining operations out of South Africa, but his bloodline as well.

He and his son had noticed that his brother Enki's hybrid human bloodline was growing strong in Egypt, and that it could easily one day overrun the entire planet.

So.. even though Enlil highly detested the thought of breeding with the humans, they brought some of the children of Cain to South America, and employed Lady Ninmah to utilize their DNA to create a new mining Dwarf.

This new worker was specifically designed for the new region and worked well above, and below ground.. as they helped build the many gold mining complexes of South America.

In time, this new Peruvian work force would mine much gold for the Anunaki, and establish a culture of their own.. that would be similar to Egypt in many ways.

Via Aaron Steiner

Saturday 16 March 2024

Overview of Africa’s Unique Fabrics

Fashion is a canvas upon which creativity knows no bounds, and the possibilities of using any fabric are as limitless as the imagination itself. Fabrics, ranging from luxurious silks to humble cottons, offer designers an expansive palette to weave their visions into reality. Each fabric possesses its own unique texture, drape, and visual appeal, allowing designers to craft garments that evoke a myriad of emotions and sentiments. One of the achievements of Africa is the myriad of fabrics we independently created.

We don’t know the names of the Africans that invented each of our distinctive fabrics, but it doesn’t diminish their achievements at all.

Silk, with its lustrous sheen and delicate touch, exudes elegance and sophistication. It drapes gracefully, hugging the body in luxurious folds, making it the fabric of choice for opulent evening gowns and refined formal wear. Its versatility knows no bounds, as it can be transformed into flowing dresses, tailored suits, or intricate lingerie with equal finesse. The Yoruba people for instance independently developed Asọ óké, a type of fabric that blends silk and cotton by hand. Aso oke holds significant importance in Nigeria and parts of Benin, particularly in states like Kwara, Kogi, Ondo, Oyo, Ogun, Ekiti, Lagos, and Osun. Traditionally, it is worn during special occasions such as weddings, festivals, and ceremonies, serving as a symbol of cultural heritage and social status. The intricate weaving process of aso oke has remained unchanged for centuries, reflecting the rich tradition and craftsmanship of the Yoruba people.

There are several distinct types of aso oke fabric, each with its own characteristics and significance. The Sanyan type, woven from anaphe wild silk and cotton yarns, is typically seen in tan or brown hues. On the other hand, the Alaari type is known for its vibrant colors, often featuring deep reds or striking purples, and is woven with cotton and shiny threads. Additionally, the Etu type stands out with its dark indigo color and subtle white stripes, embodying simplicity and elegance. These variations in color and design offer wearers a wide range of choices to suit different occasions and personal preferences.

Furthermore, motifs inspired by Yoruba folklore and mythology have been incorporated into the fabric, adding depth and meaning to its designs. Aso oke fabric can also be complemented with other Yoruba textiles, such as aran, a velvet cloth featuring intricate concentric patterns, showcasing the versatility and adaptability of this cherished cultural attire.

Cotton, on the other hand, is the epitome of comfort and versatility. Cotton was first domesticated in Sudan, northeast Africa and India. Its soft, breathable nature makes it ideal for everyday wear, from casual t-shirts and denim jeans to crisp button-down shirts and lightweight summer dresses. With its wide availability and affordability, cotton democratizes fashion, offering style and comfort to the masses.

Wool, with its warmth and resilience, adds texture and depth to winter wardrobes. From cozy knit sweaters and tailored coats to plush scarves and felted hats, woolen garments provide both insulation from the cold and a touch of rustic charm. Its natural elasticity allows for ease of movement, making it a favorite among designers for both casual and formal attire.

Some African ethnicities, such as the Maasai of East Africa, wear wool as part of their traditional attire. The Maasai, known for their vibrant red shuka cloths, incorporate woolen fabrics into their clothing, especially during colder seasons or high-altitude regions where warmth is necessary. A Maasai blanket is traditionally called a shuka or a Masai shuka. It is a vibrant and colorful cloth worn by the Maasai people of East Africa. The shuka is made of thick cotton or wool and features bold patterns and bright colors, often red, blue, and black.

Maasai warriors are easily recognized by their tall, slender build wrapped in red patterned Shuka cloth and their long large blade spears.  The Maasai are viewed as Africa's last great warrior tribe that has thrived in the great rift valley region of East Africa for well over 2000 years.

Similarly, the Berber people of North Africa, particularly in countries like Morocco and Algeria, utilize wool for their distinctive clothing, including djellabas and traditional head coverings. Additionally, in mountainous regions of Ethiopia, communities like the Oromo and Amhara may wear wool garments to stay warm in cooler climates. While wool may not be as prevalent in all African cultures, these examples highlight how certain ethnic groups incorporate wool into their attire for both practical and cultural reasons.

Synthetic fabrics, such as polyester and nylon, offer durability and versatility in the realm of fashion. These man-made materials can be engineered to mimic the properties of natural fibers while offering added benefits such as water resistance, wrinkle resistance, and stretch. They are commonly used in sportswear, activewear, and outerwear, where performance and functionality are paramount.

Beyond traditional textiles, innovative designers are pushing the boundaries of fashion by experimenting with unconventional materials such as recycled plastics, organic hemp, and even biodegradable fabrics made from mushrooms or algae. These eco-friendly alternatives offer a sustainable approach to fashion, addressing concerns about environmental impact and resource depletion.

The possibilities of using any fabric for fashion are as vast as the imagination allows. Whether it's the timeless elegance of silk, the everyday comfort of cotton, the warmth of wool, or the innovation of synthetic and sustainable materials, fabrics serve as the building blocks of fashion, enabling designers to create garments that inspire, delight, and empower wearers around the world.

One of the areas where Africans can create jobs is by inventing fabrics of the future. In exploring the potential for job creation, it's essential to recognize the opportunities for African industries to not only innovate but also lead in fabric production. With so many indigenous textile traditions and a growing emphasis on sustainable practices, African countries are well-positioned to capitalize on the global demand for ethically sourced and environmentally friendly fabrics. By investing in research and development, as well as fostering collaborations between traditional artisans and modern manufacturers, African nations can cultivate a thriving textile industry that generates employment opportunities across the value chain, from farming and weaving to design and marketing. Moreover, initiatives aimed at empowering local communities, particularly women and marginalized groups, through skills training and entrepreneurship programs, can further enhance the socio-economic impact of fabric production, creating inclusive growth and sustainable development pathways for the continent. As African nations harness their creativity, cultural heritage, and natural resources to drive innovation in fabric production, they not only contribute to the global fashion landscape but also pave the way for a more equitable and prosperous future for their people.

Did You Know the African Leopard is the king of the jungle, not the Lion?

According to African Tradition and folklore the Lion isn't and has never been seen as the king of the jungle. This is just a western misconception. Lions live in Savannah not in rain forests or jungles. The leopard is more respected because although it is smaller, it is much smarter.

A Leopard is much harder to kill because it will attack in all directions and this is why Africans consider the leopard the king of the jungle.

The majority of the tribes in Africa strongly believe the Leopard as the ultimate predator and king of the jungle hence why some Kings, Prince, Warriors and Priest wear leopard skin as a sign of strength, courage and royalty.

Friday 15 March 2024

How the Oba of Bini Made His Sons Wise

About a century ago, in Bini kingdom, there lived an Oba who had three sons. The monarch valued humility and compassion above all else, and wanted his sons to learn the importance of treating everyone with kindness and respect, regardless of their station in life.

To teach them this lesson, the king sent each of his sons on a journey to a faraway land to live among the common people for a year, disguised as peasants. During their travels, they were to work as servants and general labourers in various households and farms, experiencing firsthand the conditions faced by ordinary people.

The eldest son, Prince Osaro, was initially uncomfortable with his new life as a servant. However, as he toiled in the fields alongside his fellow laborers and witnessed the struggles they went through, his heart softened. He learned the value of hard work and empathy, forming deep bonds with his fellow servants.

The second son, Prince Uyi, faced similar challenges during his time as a servant. Accustomed to a life of luxury, he initially struggled with the menial tasks assigned to him. But as he spent time with the other labourers and heard their stories, he grew to appreciate the resilience and strength of spirit that they possessed. He realized that true nobility came not from birthright, but from one's character and actions.

The youngest son, Prince Ozabor, embraced his role as a servant wholeheartedly from the start. He worked tirelessly alongside his fellow servants, eager to learn from their wisdom and experience. His kind and compassionate nature endeared him to those around him, and he quickly became a beloved member of the household.

After a year had passed, the Oba welcomed his sons back to the palace with open arms. Curious to hear about their experiences, he listened intently as they recounted their adventures as servants. Impressed by their newfound humility and empathy, the king knew that his sons had truly learned the importance of treating all people with dignity and respect.

From that day forward, the three princes dedicated themselves to serving the kingdom with compassion and understanding, ensuring that the lessons they had learned as labourers and servants would never be forgotten. And the kingdom prospered under their wise and just rule, united by the bonds of brotherhood and mutual respect.

The 25th dynasty were not the only Black Pharaohs

The term "Black Pharaohs" typically refers to rulers of the Kingdom of Kush who ruled over ancient Egypt during the 25th Dynasty, also known as the Nubian Dynasty. The origin of claim that only the 25th and 26th dynasty were black is racist ideas in the late 19th century and early 20th century, they first claimed the ancient Egyptians were “brown”, the “white” then “white black”.

The architects of the modern day confusion are historical figures such as Flinders Petrie and James Henry Breasted, who popularised and perpetuated racist ideologies by attempting to whiten the ancient Egyptians, thereby distorting historical accuracy. These individuals relied on outdated and prejudiced criteria to classify race, leading to the marginalization of African contributions to civilization.

It's important to acknowledge the role of individuals like Josiah Clark Nott, Geo R Gliddon, and others in shaping these erroneous classifications of race. Their works laid the foundation for Eurocentric interpretations of history that persisted for decades, influencing mainstream Western civilization narratives.

To make their case, these academics had to contradict the very same ancient authors they appeal to for records of Roman and Greek History.

Consider Strabo:

“The priests at Thebes are reputed to be the most learned in astronomy and philosophy. They began the custom of telling time, not according to the revolution of the moon, but by that of the sun. To twelve months of thirty days each, they add five days a year. A certain fraction of a day is still left over, so to complete the duration of the year, they form a period comprising an even number of days …; when the excess fractions are added, they make a whole day.” (Strabo, Bk. XVII, Chap. 1, par. 22, 816.)

Strabo doesn’t claim the ancient Egyptians learnt to tell time from Saudi Arabia.

According to Plato, in Timaeus 21e–24d (4th century BCE), the priest of Sais, Egypt, informed Solon that Athens and Sais were founded by the same person, revealing Athens' great antiquity. He claimed that Neith was the person the Greeks called Athena, after whom Athena is named. According to the priest, the Greeks lacked ancient knowledge due to catastrophic events erasing their history and lack of writing, while Egypt's records spanned 8,000 years, documenting their advanced civilization. The priest emphasized Egypt's role as a cradle of civilization, with Athens deriving its culture from ancient Egyptian roots. This challenges the conventional narrative that Greece was the birthplace of civilization.

Tracing back what “8,000 years ago” meant 2,400 years ago means 10,400 years ago, in 2024 AD. 10,400 years ago is before white skin emerged in either Central Europe, Western Europe, Anatolia or Egypt based on archaeological remains found such as as Cheddar man, Whitehawk lady, the Red Lady of Paviland, Mladec skulls, and others, collectively shedding light on the presence of black European ancestors in prehistoric times.

The Whitehawk Lady, unearthed in East Sussex, England, and dating back approximately 5,000 years, is one such example. Analysis of her skeletal remains revealed dark skin pigmentation, challenging previous assumptions about the racial homogeneity of ancient European populations. Similarly, Cheddar Man, Britain's oldest complete skeleton dating back over 10,000 years, stunned researchers with his dark complexion, blue eyes, and curly hair, providing tangible evidence of the racial diversity that characterized ancient Europe.

But the story doesn't end there. The Red Lady of Paviland, despite its misleading name, is another significant find. Discovered in Wales in the early 19th century, this male skeleton dates back around 33,000 years and exhibits features associated with African ancestry. Likewise, the Mladec skulls found in the Czech Republic, dating back approximately 31,000 years, display African-like traits, further challenging conventional narratives of European prehistory.

Academics have employed various scientific techniques to determine the racial identity of these ancient individuals. Genetic analysis of DNA extracted from ancient skeletal remains has provided crucial insights into their ancestry and physical characteristics. Additionally, isotopic analysis of dental enamel and bone collagen has helped researchers reconstruct ancient diets and migration patterns, further informing our understanding of prehistoric populations.

The discovery of black European ancestors in prehistoric Europe challenges outdated perceptions of racial homogeneity and highlights the complex interplay of migration, adaptation, and cultural exchange that shaped ancient societies. These findings underscore the importance of diversity in human history and emphasize the need for inclusive narratives that reflect the multifaceted nature of our shared past.

Racial identity is a social construct because assumptions about the moral customs, values, and mental abilities of racial categories are not based on inherent biological differences but rather on cultural and historical perceptions of physical traits. While physical features such as skin color, hair texture, and facial features may vary among individuals, these characteristics do not inherently signify distinct racial categories. Moreover, human bodies are dynamic and constantly evolving, influenced by environmental factors, genetic variation, and cultural interactions. Therefore, racial identity is not static but rather fluid and subject to change over time, reflecting the complex interplay of social, cultural, and biological influences. The ancestors of European around 10,000 to 60,000 years ago were darkly pigmented because white skin had not evolved yet. These populations were able to get their vitamin D nutrients from fishing.

“10,400 years ago” debunks and utterly discredits any claims by modern Egyptians or Eurocentrics that ancient Egypt was founded by a homogenous white population.

Genetic research suggests that the ancestors of ancient Egypt followed a migration path that can be summarized as follows:

Around 50,000-70,000 years ago, African and non-African populations diverged. Language already existed, with non-African populations dispersing and forming new various language groups.

Within the African non-click population in East Africa, the E-M96 Y-DNA haplogroup split into different subclades, and subsequent splits and migrations occurred in East Africa.

Around 20,000 to 60,000 years ago, Western African non-click groups split from East African non-click groups.

The African non-click population further split into proto Niger-Congo and proto Nilo-Saharan around 28,000 years ago.

The E-M35 haplogroup (E1b1b), originating around 35,000-24,000 years ago, is widespread in Africa, particularly in North and East Africa, as well as in other regions like South Africa, Western Asia, Europe, and the Balkans.

The maternal lineage, represented by mtDNA haplogroups L, M, and U6, shows distinct patterns across different regions of Africa.

The formation of Proto-Afro-Asiatic, the ancestor of Afro-Asiatic languages, is estimated to have occurred around 16,000-10,000 years ago.

The emergence of diverse skin tones in North Africa is attributed to factors such as lower UV radiation, genetic continuity, evolutionary adaptation, human migrations, and selective pressures for depigmentation, which aligns with scientific understanding of natural selection and environmental influences on human phenotypes.

Various settlements within Africa were later unified into Egypt. They were already present from 9,500 Bc in Nabta Playa to around 4,500 Bc in Faiyum. Ancient settlements in the Green Sahara, from the Atlantic to the Egyptian Western Desert, thrived near oases and lakes. On the West Bank of the Nile, cattle-keeping hunter-gatherer-fishermen cultivated pottery and devised solar, stellar, and lunar calendars. They subsisted on cereals like brachiaria, sorghum, and urochloa. Sorghum, initially farmed in Sudan (Upper Nubia), emerged as Africa's first crop around 7500-5500 BC. Notable settlements included Lake Yoa in Chad, Nabta Playa, Dakhleh Oasis, Farafra Oasis, and Faiyum Oases. Communities like the Bashendi in Dakhleh Oasis and Badarian culture pioneered agriculture, while others at Farafra and Faiyum adopted animal husbandry. The Merimde culture furthered agricultural development, establishing Egypt's earliest permanently occupied northern town, Merimde Beni Salama.

Challenging these misconceptions does not solely fall to black Africans or African Americans. Scholars from various backgrounds, both academic and non-academic, have taken up the task of debunking inaccurate narratives and rewriting history from a more inclusive perspective. The goal is not to promote an exclusively Afrocentric view but to ensure that all contributions to human civilization are accurately represented and recognized.

Certain universities like UCLA and Cambridge no longer issue misleading statements that insinuate that the Ancient Egypt was a white civilization, or an Non-African civilization.

Prior to the 25th Dynasty, the vast majority of pharaohs in ancient Egypt were indeed of African descent. The ancient Egyptians themselves were indigenous to the Nile Valley and were part of the broader African cultural and ethnic landscape. From the earliest known dynasties, such as the Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods, through the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom, the rulers of Egypt were primarily indigenous Africans.

Naqada I, II, and III were located in Upper Egypt, near the modern city of Naqada, along the eastern bank of the Nile River. Naqada I and II sites are situated south of Luxor, while Naqada III extends further north towards Qena. These areas were pivotal in predynastic Egyptian civilization.

During these periods, the pharaohs represented a continuum of African leadership, overseeing the development of one of the world's earliest civilizations. They built monumental architecture, established complex religious and cultural traditions, and expanded Egypt's influence through trade, diplomacy, and military conquests, all within the context of their African heritage.

The Hyksos, who ruled parts of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, were of West Asian origin, not indigenous Africans. However, they were an exception to the predominantly African rule of the pharaohs throughout Egypt's long history.

Therefore, while the 25th Dynasty, also known as the Nubian or Kushite Dynasty, is renowned for its rulers of Nubian descent, it represents a continuation of African leadership in Egypt rather than an isolated instance. The presence of black pharaohs during the 25th Dynasty is part of a broader narrative of African influence and continuity in ancient Egyptian history.

Furthermore, there were periods of Nubian influence and control over parts of Egypt even before the 25th Dynasty. For example, during the Second Intermediate Period, the Kingdom of Kush, centered in Nubia (a geographic term not a skin colour), exerted influence over parts of Upper Egypt, ruling from the city of Kerma. These rulers are sometimes referred to as the "Nubian Pharaohs".

Thursday 14 March 2024

The Value of Ngozi Spirit in Promoting Ubuntu

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The concept of "Ubuntu" is deeply rooted in African philosophy and emphasizes the interconnectedness of humanity. It is often described as reminding us that 'I am what I am because of who we all are' [𝟏]. The "Ngozi spirit" plays a significant role in promoting Ubuntu, particularly in the context of spiritual and communal accountability.

The Ngozi spirit is a fundamental aspect of African spirituality and justice, particularly in the Shona culture. It is associated with warnings and punishments from spiritual beings if certain ethical and communal standards are not met. In the context of promoting Ubuntu, the Ngozi spirit serves as a form of spiritual accountability, emphasizing the interconnectedness of individuals within the community and the importance of upholding ethical and moral standards.

Furthermore, the Ngozi spirit contributes to the promotion of Ubuntu by reinforcing the idea of communal responsibility and justice. In the Shona culture, the involvement of families and communities in the process of justice related to the Ngozi spirit underscores the interconnectedness and communal nature of Ubuntu. This communal involvement aligns with the Ubuntu philosophy, which emphasizes the collective well-being and interconnectedness of individuals within the community.

In summary, the Ngozi spirit holds value in promoting Ubuntu by reinforcing spiritual and communal accountability, emphasizing the interconnectedness of individuals within the community, and highlighting the importance of communal responsibility and justice.


The excerpt from Springer’s account focuses on the Swahili city-states of Kilwa and Mombasa, both of whom maintained strong ties with seaborne merchants in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. The shipping and commercial port at Kilwa was a part of a network of key trading posts that also included Zanzibar, the gold supplying area of Sofala, and the harbor and commercial port of Mombasa. Mombasa became the only one to mount a series of resistance against the Portuguese, though it was later defeated and burned. The excerpt describes some of these events.

“Further on, an advance along the coast towards India, there is an isle hard by the mainland, on which is a town called Mombaça. It is a very fair place, with lofty stone and mortar houses, well aligned in streets [after the fashion of Kilwa]. The wood is well-fitted with excellent joiner's work. It has its own king, himself a Moor. [The men are in colour either tawny, black or white and also] their women go very bravely attired with many fine garments of silk and gold in abundance. This is a place of great traffic, and has a good harbour, in which are always moored craft of many kinds and also great ships, both of those which come from Çofala and those which go thither, and others which come from the great kingdom of Cambaya and from Melynde [Malindi]; others which sail to the Isles of Zinzibar [Zanzibar], and yet others of which I shall speak anon.

This Mombaça is a land very full of food. Here are found many very fine sheep with round tails, cows and other cattle in great plenty, and many fowls, all of which are exceeding fat. There is much millet and rice, sweet and bitter oranges, lemons, pomegranates, Indian figs, vegetables of divers kinds, and much sweet water. The men thereof are oft-times at war and but seldom at peace with those of the mainland, and they carry on trade with them, bringing thence great store of honey, wax and ivory.

The king of this city refused to obey the commands of the King our Lord, and through this arrogance he lost it, and our Portuguese took it from him by force. He fled away, and they slew many of his people and also took captive many, both men and women, in such sort that it was left ruined and plundered and burnt. Of gold and silver great booty was taken here, bangles, bracelets, ear-rings and gold beads, also great store of copper with other rich wares in great quantity, and the town was left in ruins.”

Source: Charles Henry Coote, ed. and trans., The Voyage from Lisbon to India, 1505-6: Being an Account and Journal by Albericus Vespuccius (London: B. F. Stevens, 1894), 24-29.

Images from various Swahili ruins.

#africa #swahili

Monday 11 March 2024

Sweet Breeze: The Epic Nigerian Band

You have heard about classic bands like the Beetles, Eagles among others. But do you know this epic Nigerian band from the 1970s and 1980s that recorded the best songs of the era?

During the civil war, music was solace to the soul and the aftermath of the civil war saw the rise of one of Nigerians best ever epic band known as Sweet Breeze. 

Sweet Breeze in 1977 was a band comprised of King Dallas Anyanwu (a native of Amaraku, Mbano), Goodluck Maurice Anyaora, nicknamed Jackie Moore (a native of Umunkwo, Mbano), Vincent Chukwunyelu Ikeotuonye also known as Vin Iyk (a native of Ozubulu, Anambra state), Basil Chukwujike Akalonu, nicknamed Bazzy Cole (a native of Owere Nchise) and Nestor Philip.

Bands like Dee Mites and Life Everlasting folded in the 1970s. It was around the early 1970s that King Dallas Anyanwu invited some of his friends from these two previous bands that Sweet Breeze was formed.

At first, Sweet Breeze was called Rock Breeze and only had shows in limited hotels around Enugu and were not popular.

Around that time, Samuel Ohanyerewa was forced to leave Sweet Breeze. Apparently, his father had come to Enugu, stormed one of their rehearsals and taken away his son from Sweet Breeze. Majority of people at that time believed musicians were "never do wells" and Samuel's father didn't want his son to end up being wasted.

However, this was a blessing in disguise to Rock Breeze as the slot for a bassist opened in their band. At that time, Bazzy Cole had a fallout with his band Speed Limits and thus joined Rock Breeze.

One day, Rock Breeze were rehearsing at Tourist Hotel, Ziks Avenue, Enugu. It was on this fateful day that they met Pat Akalonu, elder brother to Bazzy Cole who was a famous radio producer.

Pat auditioned the band and instantly fell in love with their style of music. He knew there and then that this band would be an instant success, especially with the new found love of pop music in the world.

Pat advised them to change their name from Rock Breeze to Sweet Breeze and took the band to record their first album; Across the Desert at EMI Studios and the album was released by FF Records, a subsidiary of Melody Records.

The album, Across the Desert became an instant success after its release and Sweet Breeze instantly became one of Nigerians favourite band.

Some of the popular songs by Sweet Breeze includes Palmwine Tapper, Mr and Mrs Fool, She's My Choice, Chasing After Rainbows, Across The Desert, True Love, Wrong The Right, Feelings, among others.

Sweet Breeze enjoyed a stand as one of the best bands in the 70s and 80s up to the mid 90s, and played a crucial role in taking Nigerian music to the world.

Their style of music was soft, unique, and felt like a gentle breeze.

In the 70s and 80s, pop music was popular in Nigeria and one of the top names in that list was Enugu based band known as Sweet Breeze, brought together by the pursuit of academics in Enugu. The pursuit for academics and the passion to make good music.

However, Sweet Breeze band member, King Dallas revealed that they received no royalties from Melody Records even when their first album was an instant success.

Have you heard about Sweet Breeze before? 

You can check them out on YouTube or stream some of their classics.

Source: Mazi Gracious Paul Chidiebube


Mansa Musa I was a 14th-century ruler of the Mali Empire, renowned for his immense wealth, pilgrimage to Mecca, and cultural patronage.

(1). Richest Person in History:

Mansa Musa I, the 14th-century ruler of the Mali Empire, is often regarded as the wealthiest individual in recorded history, with a fortune estimated to be worth over $400 billion in today's currency.

(2). Pilgrimage to Mecca:

Musa's famous pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324 not only solidified his status as a devout Muslim but also showcased the immense wealth of the Mali Empire to the world.

(3). Generous Gifts:

During his pilgrimage, Musa distributed vast amounts of gold in the cities he passed through, inadvertently causing inflation in Egypt due to the sudden influx of wealth.

(4). Architectural Patronage:

Musa's wealth allowed him to commission numerous mosques and educational centers, including the still-standing Djinguereber Mosque in Timbuktu, which became a center of learning in the region.

(5). Control over Salt and Gold Trade:

The Mali Empire, under Musa's reign, controlled key trade routes for both salt and gold, contributing to the empire's prosperity and his personal wealth.

(6). Expansion of Empire:

Musa's reign saw the expansion of the Mali Empire, which became one of the largest and most powerful in West Africa during his rule.

(7). Cultural Patronage:

Musa was a patron of the arts and encouraged the development of literature, music, and scholarship within his empire.

(8). Educational Reforms

He supported the growth of Islamic education and scholarship, attracting scholars and students from across the Muslim world to Timbuktu and other cities in the Mali Empire.

(9). Legendary Legacy:

Musa's pilgrimage and his legendary wealth have made him a prominent figure in both African and Islamic history, with his legacy continuing to inspire awe and fascination.

(10). Impact on Trade Routes:

Musa's pilgrimage brought attention to West Africa and its riches, leading to increased trade and cultural exchange along trans-Saharan trade routes.

Legendary Warrior Princess Yennenga

Between the 11th and 15th centuries lived the legendary warrior princess Yennenga, although it is accepted that she would perhaps be in the 12th century.

Yennenga is daughter of Naba (King) Nedega and Queen Napoko, rulers of Dagomba Kingdom north of present-day Ghana.

The story tells that Nedega, having no sons initially and being Yennenga his first daughter, decided to educate her in the martial arts of war and hunting.

The figure of Yennenga challenges tradition and stereotypes of the time in some cultures, basically a woman was expected to marry, have children, take care of the home and be subject to male authority.

Yennenga broke this stereotype, rode a horse, activity reserved for men and warriors, handled the sword, spear, bow and various weapons, had become her father's favorite daughter.

At the age of 14, Yennenga was already leading the Dagomba cavalry in battle, against his father's opponents, he ended the criticism of both men and women.

Yennenga came to exude an aura of invisibility in the battle that her father came to consider irreplaceable.

Yennenga whose name means "The slender", was described as a thin and beautiful woman, despite dressing in warrior clothes, masculine, she had no shortage of contenders.

King Nedega rejected everyone who asked for his daughter's hand, even despite already having male sons who could inherit the throne. Queen Napoko is said to be sad that her daughter was not going to get married or basically have the life of a maid, it is said that Yennenga seeing her mother, started thinking about love.

To show his displeasure in front of his father, he planted some seeds of okra in a field, I take care of them until they matured, but I do not collect them, I let them die.

Her father called her to the palace to respond to this negligence, she simply told him that he was letting her wither like that field, angry because Nedega ordered his daughter to be locked up.

It is said that Nedega, escaped at night with the help of one of the guards, mounted on his white stallion, escaping were surprised by malink warriors, rivals of the dagombas, dying in the process Yennenga's friend and she escaping further north.

Finally you will find refuge in the cottage of Riale, young hunter of Bissa origin, finally this one discovers that Yennenga is a woman despite men's clothing, ends up falling in love and they share their stories, Riale is a prince who also had to escape. They both fell in love and bore a son named Ouedraogo "Stallion" in honor of Yennenga's horse who facilitated the match.

Years passed and Yennenga was beginning to miss her home, family and father. Wanting to reconcile with his father, he decides to send his son.

Ouedraogo arrives in Gambaga, capital of Dagomba kingdom, where he is received by Nedega who is already elderly, excited listening to the story of his grandson and Nedega told him that Yennenga could go home with her husband, waiting for her to organize a big party.

It should be added that Ouedraogo returned with his parents, with cattle, gifts and soldiers from his grandfather, to founded a kingdom.

Ouedraogo would be the founder of the first Mossis kingdom in what is Burkina Faso, his mother Yennenga and father Riale, the ancestors of the other Mossis reigning houses.

So for the mossi people, Yennenga is their founding mother.

Texts by Oumar Xavier.

Picture from Yennenga. Art by diddles25.


Libro Dictionary of African Biography

Tomos 1-6 de Emmanuel Kwaku Akyeampong, Professor Henry Louis Gates, Jr. 

- Book The Epic World by Pamela Lothspeich.

English  text:

Between the 11th and 15th centuries, the legendary warrior princess Yennenga lived, although it is accepted that she was perhaps in the 12th century.

Yennenga is the daughter of Naba (king) Nedega and Queen Napoko, rulers of the Dagomba kingdom north of present-day Ghana.

The story goes that Nedega, initially having no sons and Yennenga being her first daughter, decided to educate her in the martial arts of war and hunting.

The figure of Yennenga challenged the tradition and stereotypes of the time in some cultures, basically a woman was expected to marry, have children, take care of the home and be subject to male authority.

Yennenga broke this stereotype, she rode a horse, an activity reserved for men and warriors, she handled the sword, spear, bow and various weapons, she had become her father's favorite daughter.

At the age of 14, Yennenga was already leading the Dagomba cavalry in battle against her father's adversaries, enduring criticism from both men and women.

Yennenga came to give off an aura of invisibility in battle that her father came to consider her irreplaceable.

Yennenga whose name means "The Slender One", she was described as a woman with a fine and beautiful figure, despite dressing in masculine, warrior clothes, she had no shortage of suitors.

King Nedega rejected everyone who asked for the hand of his daughter, even though he already had male children who could inherit the throne. It is said that Queen Napoko was sad that her daughter was not going to marry or basically have the life of a maiden, it is said that Yennenga, seeing her mother, began to think about love.

To show her discontent to her father, she planted some okra seeds in a field, took care of them until they matured, but did not collect them, she let them die.

Her father called her to the palace to respond to this negligence, she simply told him that he was letting her wither like that field, furious because Nedega ordered her daughter to be locked up.

It is said that Nedega escaped at night with the help of one of the guards, mounted on her white stallion. While escaping, they were surprised by Malinke warriors, rivals of the Dagombas, Yennenga's friend dying in the process and she escaping further north.

Finally you will find refuge in the cabin of Riale, a young hunter of Bissa origin. Finally, he discovers that Yennenga is a woman despite the masculine clothing. He ends up falling in love and they share their stories. Riale is a prince who also had to escape. They both fell in love and fathered a son named Ouedraogo "Stallion" in honor of the Yennenga horse that led to that meeting.

The years passed and Yennenga began to miss her home, family and her father. Wanting to reconcile with her father, she decides to send her son.

Ouedraogo arrives in Gambaga, capital of the Dagomba kingdom, where he is received by Nedega, now an old man, excitedly listens to the story of her grandson and Nedega told him that Yennenga could return home with her husband, he was waiting for her to organize a great party.

It must be added that Ouedraogo returned to his parents, with livestock, gifts and soldiers from his grandfather, so that they could found a kingdom.

Ouedraogo would be the founder of the first Mossi kingdom in what is Burkina Faso, his mother Yennenga and father Riale, the ancestors of the other reigning Mossi houses.

So for the Mossi people, Yennenga is their founding mother.

Text by Oumar Xavier.

Image of Yennenga. Art by diddles25.


Dictionary of African Biography Book

Volumes 1-6 by Emmanuel Kwaku Akyeampong, Professor Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

- The Epic World book by Pamela Lothspeich.

Wednesday 6 March 2024

Some Facts About the African Continent Today

Africa has 60% arable land, Africa owns 90% of raw material reserve, Africa owns 40% of the global gold reserve, Africa owns 33% of diamond reserve, Africa has 80% of Coltan's global reserve (mineral for telephone and electronics production), mainly in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Africa has 60% of global cobalt reserve (mineral for car battery manufacture), Africa is rich in oil and natural gas, Africa (Namibia) has the world's richest fish coastline, Africa is rich in manganese, iron and wood, Africa is three times the area of China, three times the area of Europe, three times the United States of America, Africa has thirty-half million km2 (30 875 415 km2), Africa has 1,3 billion inhabitants (China has 1,4 billion inhabitants in 9,6 million km2). Which means Africa is SUBPOPULATED.

The arable lands of the Democratic Republic of Congo are capable of feeding all of Africa.

And all of Africa's arable land is a cord to feed the whole world. The Democratic Republic of Congo has important rivers that can illuminate all of Africa. The problem is that the CIA, western companies and several African puppets have destabilized DRC for decades and several African countries so they can have access to their resources.

Africa is a culturally diverse continent in terms of dance, music, architecture, sculpture, etc. Africa accommodates over 30,000 medicinal recipes and herbs that the West modifies in its laboratories.

Africa has a young global population that should reach 2,5 billion by the year 2050.

With all this Africa is known as one of the poorest continent in world because of lack of management, war, imperialism and neocolonialism.

📸 Map of Africa 1840 #africa

The Arab Slave Trade

The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, East Africa, and certain parts of Europe (such as Iberia and Sicily) during their period of domination by Arab leaders. The trade was focused on the slave markets of the Middle East, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. People traded were not limited to a certain race, ethnicity, or religion, and included Turks, Iranians, Europeans, and Berbers, especially during the trade’s early days.

During the 8th and 9th centuries of the Fatimid Caliphate, most of the slaves were Europeans (called Saqaliba) captured along European coasts and during wars. However, slaves were drawn from a wide variety of regions and included Mediterranean peoples, Persians, peoples from the Caucasus mountain regions (such as Georgia, Armenia and Circassia) and parts of Central Asia and Scandinavia, English, Dutch and Irish, Berbers from North Africa, and various other peoples of varied origins as well as those of African origins.

Toward the 18th and 19th centuries, the flow of Zanj (Bantu) slaves from East Africa increased with the rise of the Oman sultanate, which was based in Zanzibar. They came into direct trade conflict and competition with Portuguese and other Europeans along the Swahili coast. The North African Barbary states carried on piracy against European shipping and enslaved thousands of European Christians. They earned revenues from the ransoms charged; in many cases in Britain, village churches and communities would raise money for such ransoms. The government did not ransom its citizens.


Historians estimate that between 650 and 1900, 10 to 18 million peoples were enslaved by Arab slave traders and taken from Africa across the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara desert.The term Arab when used in historical documents often represented an ethnic term, as many of the “Arab” slave traders, such as Tippu Tip and others, were physical industries for their business. 

#blackhistory #Africa

Tuesday 5 March 2024

Ancient African Civilization (Great Zimbabwe)

The Great Zimbabwe has the largest of stone-built ruins. It consists of 12 clusters of buildings, that spread over 3 square miles. Its outer walls were built from 100,000 tons of granite bricks. By 14th century, the city housed over 18,000 people, compared to London at then.

It is One of the most impressive ancient monuments in Africa, an imposing collection of stacked boulders, stone towers and defensive walls assembled from cut granite blocks.

In the 14th century, the city housed over 18,000 people, comparable in size to that of London at then.

The rock citadel has long been the subject of myths and legends—it was once thought to be the residence of the Biblical Queen of Sheba—but historians now know it as the capital city of an indigenous empire that thrived in the region between the 13th and 15th centuries. 

This kingdom ruled over a large chunk of modern day Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. It was particularly rich in cattle and precious metals, and stood astride a trade route that connected the region’s gold fields with ports on the Indian Ocean coast. 

The remains of artifacts such as Chinese pottery, Arabian glass and European textiles indicate that it was once a well-connected mercantile center. The fortress city at the Great Zimbabwe was mysteriously abandoned sometime in the 15th century after the kingdom went into decline, but in its heyday it was home to an estimated 20,000.



In 1887, Elizabeth Cochran Seaman, better known as Nellie Bly, was 23-years-old, and an inspiring journalist. Upon the request of an editor from the New York World newspaper, she was to fake insanity to be admitted into a New York insane asylum, where she could then conduct first-hand research.

After checking into a boarding home for women, Nellie feigned insanity, was arrested, and sent to an asylum that typically housed poor immigrants. She stayed there for ten days until the editors were able to get her a release.

Speaking of her experience, she said, “What, excepting torture, would produce insanity quicker than this treatment?...I would like the expert physicians who are condemning me for my action, which has proven their ability, to take a perfectly sane and healthy woman, shut her up and make her sit from 6 a.m. until 8 p.m. on straight-back benches, do not allow her to talk or move during these hours, give her no reading and let her know nothing of the world or its doings, give her bad food and harsh treatment, and see how long it will take to make her insane. Two months would make her a mental and physical wreck.”

She published Ten Days in a Mad-House, which would help drive more funding and change in NYC insane asylums. About a year later, based on the book Around the World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne, Nellie became famous for attempting to travel the world in less than eighty days. She completed the journey in seventy-two days.


Emperor Menelik II and Empress Tatyu Betul led the Ethiopian army to a decisive victory against the Italian army during the battle of Adwa. Ethiopia is the only African country that was never colonized during Europe’s invasion of the African continent. The Battle of Adwa was the climactic battle of the First Italo-Ethiopian War. The Ethiopian forces defeated the Italian invading force on Sunday 1 March 1896, near the town of Adwa. 

“The Ethiopians went to war with dangerous animals and insects such as bees, wasps, lions, and elephants trained to attack the soldiers of the enemy camp, which enabled them to win all the wars of colonization against them and to be the only country in Africa to have never been colonized.”

Ethiopians commanded an army of Lions, Cheetahs, bees, and elephants which directly led to their victory against Italians. The Ethiopians surrounded the Italians for two weeks and, upon Empress Tayitu's advice, cut off the fort's water supply. At the battle of Adwa, Ethiopian warriors proficient in sword warfare known as Shotel decimated the invading Italian soldiers in hand-to-hand combat, resulting in a resounding African victory.

The Italian commander agreed to surrender if they would be allowed to leave with their firearms. Menelik agreed that they could leave the garrison unharmed. In an embarrassing turn of events the Italians were forced to relinquish their arms to the Ethiopian army, were subdued and escorted to their ships were they were allowed to return home in defeat.

By the end of the 19th century, European powers had carved up almost all of Africa after the Berlin Conference; only Ethiopia and Liberia still maintained their independence. Adwa became a pre-eminent symbol of pan-Africanism and secured Ethiopian sovereignty until the Second Italo-Ethiopian War forty years later.



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December 29, 1790 marks the death of the famous mathematician Thomas Fuller, known as the "Mental Calculator".

Died on December 29, 1790, the late Thomas Fuller was an African slave known for his skills in mathematics. He was captured in Africa by white slaves and shipped to the USA in 1724 when he was only 14.

He was so good at math, he could do unimaginable calculations. One day when they asked him how many seconds there were in a year and a half, he answered in approximately two minutes, 47304000. Pro-abolitionists and white philanthropists used his talent as proof that Black slaves were equal to Whites in intelligence.

Thomas Fuller, was a very great Mathematician, but unfortunately forgotten about history.

Source: The Teacher

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