Friday 24 November 2023

Profile of Robert Gabriel Mugabe

Robert Gabriel Mugabe, a prominent figure in African politics, was born on February 21, 1924, in Kutama, Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), during a time when British colonial rule shaped the country's destiny. Mugabe's early life was marked by academic excellence, and he later pursued higher education, gaining teaching qualifications at the University of Fort Hare in South Africa.

His journey to Ghana in the 1950s was influenced by the Pan-Africanist movement and his aspiration to engage in nationalist activities. While in Ghana, he encountered the fervor of African liberation movements and the charismatic leadership of Kwame Nkrumah, which greatly influenced his political ideology and commitment to African independence.

Mugabe married Sally Hayfron in 1961, and their union remained strong until her death in 1992. Sally's Pan-Africanist and anti-colonial beliefs resonated with Mugabe's own, further shaping his political convictions.

Upon his return to Southern Rhodesia, Mugabe became involved in the liberation movement against the white-minority government. His activism led to his imprisonment for over a decade, during which he earned multiple degrees through correspondence courses, further honing his political and ideological perspectives. Initially aligned with Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), Mugabe's beliefs diverged, leading him to form the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) in 1963, a party that aimed for the armed struggle against colonial rule.

The liberation war in Zimbabwe, marked by intense conflict and human rights abuses, eventually led to negotiations between the Ian Smith-led government and the liberation movements. Smith, under pressure both internally and externally due to the protracted war, agreed to negotiations culminating in the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979.

The Lancaster Agreement outlined terms for the transfer of power, including a multi-racial election and safeguards for property rights, especially regarding land. Initially, ZANU-PF adhered to the principle of willing seller-willing buyer regarding land distribution to address colonial imbalances, as stipulated in the agreement.

However, as ZANU-PF consolidated power, corruption and injustice seeped into governance, contributing to ethnic tensions, particularly evident in the government's crackdown on the Ndebele population in the 1980s.

Over time, Mugabe's regime shifted, attempting to incorporate new ideas and support. Yet, faced with declining popularity, Mugabe resorted to radical land reforms in the early 2000s, forcibly seizing white-owned farms without compensation. The redistribution led to economic collapse as inexperienced individuals occupied the land, crippling Zimbabwe's once-flourishing agricultural sector.

Internal mismanagement, compounded by external factors like sanctions and global economic shifts, exacerbated Zimbabwe's economic woes. Rampant hyperinflation, unemployment, and food shortages plunged the nation into a dire economic crisis, severely affecting the population's livelihoods.

Zimbabwe was a country that heavily relied on agriculture. The unplanned occupation of farm land, disruption to the commercial value chain, resulted in agricultural workers becoming unemployed, while also failing to produce sufficient food to feed Zimbabweans. Food prices went up, tax collection dropped, sanctions made it difficult to raise loans, or access overseas current assets and accounts. The combination of all these factors resulted in hyperinflation.

Mugabe's legacy is a complex one, marked by both initial successes in the fight against colonial rule and later failures that precipitated economic collapse and political turmoil. His reign illustrates the complexities and challenges of post-colonial African governance, showcasing both aspirations for independence and the difficulties of sustaining a prosperous nation.

If Mugabe had left power in 1995, his legacy might have been significantly different. At that time, Mugabe was still largely celebrated as a liberation hero who had successfully negotiated the end of colonial rule in Zimbabwe. His early years in power were marked by efforts towards reconciliation and education, which were initially seen as positive steps.

Had he left power in 1995, Mugabe might have been remembered primarily for his role in Zimbabwe's independence and the subsequent attempts at nation-building. His image might have been that of a respected African leader who helped guide his country through the transition from colonial rule to independence.

However, by the mid-1990s, signs of political and economic instability were already emerging. Had Mugabe stepped down at that point, he might have been seen as a leader who laid the foundations for a new era but struggled with challenges in governance and economic management.

The controversies surrounding his later years in power, especially the land reforms and the subsequent economic collapse, would likely have had less impact on his legacy if he had exited earlier. His reputation might have been spared the tarnish of authoritarianism, economic mismanagement, and human rights abuses that characterized his extended rule until his eventual ousting in 2017.

Leaving power earlier could have preserved Mugabe's image as a founding father of a liberated Zimbabwe rather than the figure who presided over its decline. His legacy might have been more aligned with other respected African leaders who played crucial roles in their countries' independence movements.

HISTORY OF DREADLOCKS

The history of dreadlocks can be traced back to ancient civilizations such as Egypt, India, and Greece. In Egypt, dreadlocks were worn by the priests of the god Ptah, and they were also worn by members of the Rastafarian religion in Jamaica.

Dreadlocks became a popular hairstyle among the Rastafarians in the 1930s. The Rastafarian movement was founded in Jamaica and is based on a combination of Christian and African spiritual beliefs. The Rastafarians believe that the hair is a symbol of the strength and vitality of their African heritage, and they wear dreadlocks as a way to express this belief.

In addition to its religious significance, dreadlocks have also become a symbol of rebellion and counterculture. During the 1960s and 1970s, dreadlocks were popular among hippies and other groups who rejected mainstream society.

Throughout different cultures, people have worn locs for various reasons. For instance, the Maasai warriors of Africa have been known to wear long, thin, red dreadlocks which they dye with red root extracts or red ochre. Meanwhile, in Nigeria, there are children born with naturally locked hair who are referred to as "Dada" by the Yoruba in Nigeria.

The Rastafari movement sees dreadlocks as a symbol of the Lion of Judah, which is sometimes featured on the Ethiopian flag. The followers of the Rastafari believe that Haile Selassie is directly related to King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba through their son Menelik I. They were inspired to wear dreadlocks by the Nazarites mentioned in the Bible.

Today, dreadlocks are worn by people of all races and backgrounds, and they have become a popular hairstyle in many parts of the world. While they still hold religious and cultural significance for some, many people simply wear them as a personal expression of style.

Tuesday 14 November 2023

๐—ช๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜ ๐—ก๐—ฒ๐—น๐˜€๐—ผ๐—ป ๐— ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—น๐—ฎ ๐˜€๐—ฎ๐—ถ๐—ฑ ๐˜๐—ผ ๐—ก๐—ถ๐—ด๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐˜€ ๐˜„๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ป ๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜„๐—ฎ๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ

“You know I am not very happy with Nigeria. I have made that very clear on many occasions. Yes, Nigeria stood by us more than any nation, but you let yourselves down, and Africa and the Black race very badly. Your leaders have no respect for their people. They believe that their personal interests are the interests of the people. They take people’s resources and turn it into personal wealth. There is a level of poverty in Nigeria that should be unacceptable. I cannot understand why Nigerians are not more angry than they are.

“What do young Nigerians think about your leaders and their country and Africa? Do you teach them history...?

“What about the corruption and the crimes? Your elections are like wars. Now we hear that you cannot be president in Nigeria unless you are Muslim or Christian. Some people tell me your country may break up. Please don’t let it happen.

“Let me tell you what I think you need to do. You should encourage leaders to emerge who will not confuse public office with sources of making personal wealth. Corrupt people do not make good leaders. Then you have to spend a lot of your resources for education.

“Educate children of the poor, so that they can get out of poverty. Poverty does not breed confidence. Only confident people can bring changes. Poor, uneducated people can also bring change, but it will be hijacked by the educated and the wealthy...give young Nigerians good education. Teach them the value of hard work and sacrifice, and discourage them from crimes which are destroying your image as a good people.”

๐—ฆ๐—”๐—ก๐—จ๐—ฆ๐—œ ๐—”๐——๐—˜๐—•๐—œ๐—ฆ๐—œ ๐—œ๐——๐—œ๐—ž๐—”๐—ก - ๐—ง๐—›๐—˜ ๐—ฌ๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—จ๐—•๐—” ๐— ๐—”๐—ก ๐—ช๐—›๐—ข ๐—ฃ๐—”๐—œ๐—— ๐—ง๐—”๐—ซ ๐—™๐—ข๐—ฅ ๐—ง๐—›๐—˜ ๐—ช๐—›๐—ข๐—Ÿ๐—˜ ๐—ข๐—™ ๐—œ๐—•๐—”๐——๐—”๐—ก

Sanusi Adebisi Idikan was an enigmatic personality that traversed Ibadan’s landscape in commerce, engaged in philanthropy and humaneness in the late 19th and 20th centuries.

He was born in 1882, in Ibadan during the reign of Aare Latoosa, the Baale of Ibadan, and died in 1938, during the reign of his bosom friend and Father In Law, Olubadan Okunola Abass Aleshinloye.

Despite being the biggest story of his time, Sanusi remained an unsung hero. Adebisi’s father, Adesina, migrated from Efon Alaaye (Ijesha Stock) in present day Ondo State.

He was an itinerant Ofi clothe weaver- a traditional Yoruba clothe, earmarked for ceremonies, marriages, burials and so on.

He moved to Ibadan with his paternal half-brother- Alabi and settled in Aremo, in the household of Lanase.

Ibadan had become then, the most cosmopolitan city in Nigeria and perhaps black Africa. It was secure, accommodating and prosperous.

Adesina whilst plying his trade of Ofi weaving, was also spiritual consultant to Alaafin Atiba, who had betrothed his most precious daughter- Princess Ogboja to him, in recognition of Adesina’s great spiritual impact in his life.

Adesina, begat three children- Adetinrin, Adeoti and Adebisi.

Adetinrin and Adeoti were 20 years and 15 years respectively, older than Adebisi.

Adebisi grew up to join his siblings in the hawking of their father’s Ofi clothes in and outside the city of Ibadan. Within a short spade of time, he enlarged the space of the business by hawking the Ofi clothes outside Ibadan- Iwo, Ile Ogbo, Ikire, Oshogbo, Ife, Ondo and even the far flung place of Benin and before the age of 18 years, he became an instant success and even had to retire his siblings from the business.

Aside Ofi business, he ventured into large scale farming, in Ashipa village, Mamu, where he developed a large cocoa plantation.

Cocoa had been introduced into Nigeria since 1874 and had by the 1890s, become Nigeria’s most notable cash crop, most especially in Yoruba land.

In Ashipa, he built a farmstead and numerous houses, for his farm workers.

The success in the Mamu cocoa plantation, encouraged him to acquire about 200 Acres of land in Apata Ibadan, where he developed another cocoa plantation.

ADEBISI BECOMES SOCIETY LEADER

In recognition of his success as a cocoa farmer and entrepreneur, he was made the Giwa Egbe (head of the society) by his other successful merchants, like Otiti, Ekolo, Afunleyin, Ladimeji from Isale Ijebu and Adeyemo Owonbuwo from Oopo-yeosa.

As Giwa of the society, he added Giwa to his name, to become Sanusi Adebisi Giwa.

Sanusi Adebisi Giwa’s acts of philanthropy were demonstrated in his first tax rescue effort in Ibadan. Payment of tax by every male adult was made compulsory by the colonial government.

Most Ibadan adults were subsistent farmers, who could not afford the payment of tax and that the punishment for tax evasion was, detention in Mapo, which also served as the Treasury Office.

A detained tax defaulter, usually found it difficult to get a contemporary who would bail him out, because most adults were tax evaders and an attempt by a tax evader to bail a tax evader, would certainly land such rescue effort into another detention.

TAX EVASION: THE SUICIDE STORY OF BAALE’S SON

This tax problem became such an agony, that a Balogun of Ibadan- Balogun Ola, son of Baale Orowusi, would rather commit suicide, than to see Ibadan Young men in perpetual tax agony and detention. This valiant self murder, was recognized by the Ibadan people, who named him Kobomoje (the one who displayed gallantry against timidity)

The payment of tax became a social symbol and tax defaulters were usually mocked and despised by the popular song-”Owo ori ti d’ ode o, o o’ode o baba wa loko san” –”payment of taxation has come, our fathers were the first to pay, the idiots and lazy ones who have not paid are in detention in Mapo”- “Awon ode ti o le san o, won nbe lati mole ni Mapo.”

Adebisi was displeased with the tax situation in Ibadan. His philosophy had always been- (the rich must help the poor who are vulnerable)

Adebisi had at this time been one of the first set of Ibadan elites, perhaps if not the first person, to ride a car, apart from his hordes of horses.

ADEBISI SHOCKS COLONIAL TAX OFFICER

For effect, he had his horse dispatch rider- Ladimeji, to ride in front of his car, on his way to Mapo, to see the Chief Tax Officer for the Ibadan Colonial Office. In his meeting with the officer in the colonial office, he brokered an understanding- “I want to be paying tax on behalf of every taxable adult in Ibadan”. The officer was shocked, nonplussed and asked him, if he knew the financial implication of his gesture? But he still insisted on paying.

Henceforth, the colonial officer would calculate the amount of tax expected from all Ibadan taxable adults and would go to Adebisi Idikan’s residence to collect the money.

Ibadan of this era had certainly produced Salami Agbaje and Adebisi Idikan as its two wealthiest citizens. Salami Agbaje was born in Lagos in 1880, to Arowodu, an Arabic migrant from Iseyin. His mother was an Ibadan woman and he had begun his early life as a tailor, apprentice driver and later a sawyer. He eventually supplied all the timbers (slippers) needed for the Lagos-Ibadan railway, between 1898 and 1901, when fortune smiled on him. Ibadan train station was opened in 1901.

His fortune in the timber business encouraged him to venture into the newly, money spinning cocoa market.

However, whilst Sanusi Adebisi indulged his money in philanthropy, Salami indulged his own, in the education of his children and had produced the first Ibadan Medical Doctor- Dr. Saka Anthony Agbaje, Mojeed Agbaje, First Ibadan Lawyer, a retired Supreme Court Judge, Gani Agbaje and a Senior Advocate of Nigeria- Yekeen Agbaje.

WHY ADEBISI REJECTED UNIVERSITY EDUCATION FOR HIS CHILDREN

Bishop Akinleye had visited Salami Adebisi, to encourage him and also to intimate him, on the prospect of gaining a university admission for his two sons in Europe, who had just left his college, with the hope that it would be an encouragement to other Ibadan wealthy men. But Adebisi, whilst thanking Bishop Akinleye for his concern and also acknowledging his episcopal visit, told the Bishop and Principal, that he would not like to expose his children, to the danger associated with schooling abroad. According to him, the man of means would always employ the man of knowledge.

Around 1920, the Miller brothers of the United Kingdom, arrived Ibadan looking for business prospects, opportunities and business associates. They needed a native of immense wealth, who could be an intermediary and associate. Sanusi even though unlettered, had secretaries and Personal Assistants, who were lettered.

THE MILLER BROTHERS ENGAGE HIM

The Miller brothers made him their Factor. Whatever goods imported to Nigeria by the Miller brothers, would reach Ibadan, the main depot, for Adebisi to chat its mode of distribution and marketing, as its main distributor and marketer. Adebisi’s fortune soared and the Miller brothers, became a conglomerate and a multi-national. Adebisi later became a share holder in the multi-national and Miller brothers, later changed their name to United African Company (U.A.C)

HOW HE JOINED TRADITIONAL RULING CLASS

Adebisi, having traversed the world of business, commerce, enterprise and philanthropy, he needed to expand his frontiers, by joining the traditional ruling elites of Ibadan.

As Ibadan’s notable wealthy man, he approached the reigning monarch- Baale Shittu Aare in 1924 for a Chieftaincy title, which Baale gladly obliged.

Unfortunately, before he could be conferred with the chieftaincy title, Baale Shittu Aare was on May 1925, deposed by the Alaafin of Oyo- Oba Shiyanbola Ladigbolu, for “disloyalty and having an unsatisfactory attitude.”

As the diarist Akinpelu saw the matter, Shittu was” wrongfully and wickedly deposed”. Baale Shittu Aare, remained in Oyo for a year and was then deported further north to Shaki where he died in 1935. His corpse was returned to Ibadan to be buried in his compound- Ile Latoosa. Aare was succeeded by Baale Oyewole Foko in 1925.

On the 26th of November, 1926, Adebisi was installed, the Ashaju Baale of Ibadan, jumping about 10 lines on the rung of the ladder- Otun Olubadan (civil) line. Money “is the god of the world” rhapsodised Akinpelu Obisesan.

In June 1925, the foundation stone of Mapo Hall was laid by Alaafin Shiyanbola Ladigbolu and the British Resident- Captain W.A Ross.

ADEBISI UNDERSCORES THE INFLUENCE OF MONEY

At this impressive ceremony, Adebisi was gorgeously dressed in flamboyant traditional attires, with befitting caps to match, which caught the instant admiration of the British Resident. Alaafin Shiyanbola Ladigbolu accused Adebisi of stealing the show.

Before Alaafin Ladigbolu left Ibadan, for Oyo, he dropped a message for Baale Shittu, that Adebisi must see him in Oyo and that when coming, Adebisi must come along with him, the apparel- clothes, cap and shoes used when he met the Resident governor-Captain W.A Ross.

Sensing danger, Adebisi refused to go, but rather, sent a truck load of clothes, food items and drinks with an emissary, led by his senior sister- Adetinrin, who was a sparkling beauty.

Having assuaged the ego of Iku Baba Yeye, he later paid him a visit where he was heralded with songs and drums. Adebisi who had earlier been targeted for extinction, became Alaafin Ladigbolu’s favourite friend, amiable consult and loyalist.

Sanusi Adebisi having joined the Otun Olubadan line from the 11th on the rung of the ladder, of 22 lines, later shortly thereafter, rose to become the Ashipa in 1936, and was installed by the incumbent Olubadan- Abass Okunola Aleshinloye, who succeeded Oyewole Foko, in 1930 as the new Olubadan of Ibadan.

Sanusi Adebisi was a man of excessive generosity, whose milk of human kindness was ceaseless.

Adebisi in ill health, had visited the then renowned surgeon- Dr Doherty in Lagos.

He was advised by the surgeon, to stay in Lagos for three weeks in order to reduce his stressful activities.

In order to stay in Lagos for three weeks, he bought a house at 34, Whitman Street, Ebute Meta in Lagos, to enjoy a well-deserved rest.

In January, 1938, in his last few moments, he brought out money to assist insolvent debtors. He brought out the papers containing the debtors’ names, tore and burnt them, without anyone noticing any premonition.

After a brief illness of some few hours, he joined the saints triumphant on Friday June 21, 1938, at the age of 56 Years, and such was the glorious exit of the unparalleled, uncommon benefactor and philanthropist, who had impacted on souls and communities,- the Ibadan communities, Ibadan societies, Western Region and Nigeria.

In the Ibadan folklore- “Ile Adebisi lati je Malu tawo tawo, awa o je dodo, nile Salami”, meaning-it is in Adebisi’s house that cow meat is eaten wholly with its skin, while we have not eaten fried plantain in the house of Salami (another notable Ibadan wealthy man of Adebisi’s generation).

LORENZO DOW TURNER

Lorenzo Dow Turner (August 21, 1890 – February 10, 1972) was an African-American academic and linguist who did seminal research on the Gullah language of the Low Country of coastal South Carolina and Georgia. His studies included recordings of Gullah speakers in the 1930s. As head of the English departments at Howard University and Fisk University for a combined total of nearly 30 years, he strongly influenced their programs. He created the African Studies curriculum at Fisk, was chair of the African Studies Program at Roosevelt University, and in the early 1960s, cofounded a training program for Peace Corps volunteers going to Africa.

Lorenzo Dow Turner is best remembered as the father of Gullah studies. His interest in the Gullah people began in 1929 when he first heard Gullah speakers while teaching a summer class at South Carolina State College (now University). Although established scholars then viewed Gullah speech as a form of substandard English, Turner sensed that Gullah was strongly influenced by African languages. He set out to study the language. For the next 20 years, he made trips to the Gullah region in coastal South Carolina and Georgia, interviewing Gullahs (often in isolated locations) and making detailed notes on their language. He also made recordings in the 1930s of Gullah speakers talking about their culture, folk stories and other aspects of life.

As part of his studies, Turner traveled to several locations in Africa, specifically Sierra Leone, to learn about the development of Creole languages, as well as to Louisiana and Brazil, to study Creole and Portuguese, respectively. He did research at University of London School of Oriental and African Studies on various African language systems. He wanted to be able to provide context for the obvious "Africanisms" he discovered in his Sea Islands research. "Such depth and breadth allowed Turner to locate Gullah culture and language within the broader complexities of the African diaspora in the New World, ... firmly outside the reductionist theoretical model of cultural assimilation.

When Turner finally published his classic work Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect in 1949, he made an immediate impact on established academic thinking. His study of the origin, development and structure of Gullah was so convincing that scholars quickly accepted his thesis that Gullah is strongly influenced by African languages. He showed the continuity of language and culture across the diaspora. Many scholars have followed Turner over the years in researching the African roots of Gullah language and culture. He created a new field of study by his work and an appreciation for a unique element of African-American culture.

Turner was strongly influenced by the American linguistic movement, which he joined at its inception. Through his Gullah research, he gave shape to several academic specialties: Gullah studies, dialect geography and creole linguistics, as well as being an important predecessor to the field of African American studies, which developed in the 1960s and ′70s.

Turner's pioneering work, which academics credit for introducing African-American studies to U.S. curricula, was the subject of "Word, Shout, Song: Lorenzo Dow Turner Connecting Communities Through Language" at Smithsonian's Anacostia Community Museum in July, 2016. Exhibit curator Alcione Amos said the Washington, D.C., museum acquired many of Turner's original notes, pictures and recordings from his widow, Lois Turner Williams, in 2003.

Turner died of heart failure at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago, Illinois, on February 10, 1972.

The Significance of Africa in Christian History

Africa's role in Christian history is multifaceted and rich. This essay explores the biblical and historical connections between Africa and Christianity, shedding light on the profound impact the continent has had on the development of this global religion.

Biblical References:

Africa features prominently in the Bible, with the Garden of Eden believed to have connections to East Africa. Some scholars suggest that the Ethiopian Highlands or the Nile River region could be the location of Eden due to references to rivers like the Tigris, Euphrates, Pishon, and Gihon.

Genesis 2:13 NIV

[13] The name of the second river is the Gihon; it winds through the entire land of Cush.

The Bible mentions the population of the world falling to eight people, while scientific evidence points to a population bottleneck around 900,000 years ago in Africa due to an unknown catastrophe.

Misinterpretations:

Misinterpretations have long propagated the notion that Ham, Japheth, and Shem were the ancestors of specific racial groups. Genetic evidence, however, does not support this claim, as Noah and his wife would have had numerous ancestors.

Connections to oral tradition:

Genesis to Deuteronomy shows intriguing anecdotal evidence of correlations with African cultures. The mention of the Ethiopian Highlands as a possible location for the Garden of Eden aligns with African folklore that cherishes the region's spiritual significance, with multiple traditions claiming some of their ancestors came from the East. Y-dna evidence and Mitochondrial evidence points migrations between 50,000 years ago and 10,000 years ago of E-M2, and L0 to L7 from East Africa, respectively. The stories of migration and intermarriage parallel African oral traditions, reinforcing cultural connections. Although the dates from archaeology as well as the genetic evidence of the past are different, some events show similarities to the direction of travel of oral traditions of West Africa.

Historical Connections:

Africa played a pivotal role in providing refuge to figures like Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in biblical history. It also featured in geopolitics during the rise of the Assyrian empire, Babylonian empire, Macedonian empire, including events such as Pharaoh Necho II's decision to attack various regions.

The African Influence:

The African church significantly contributed to the preservation and transmission of early Christian teachings. This included copying manuscripts, translating texts, and establishing monastic libraries and schools. African bishops played crucial roles in overseeing these efforts.

Notable Figures:

Numerous African figures made notable contributions to Christianity. King Ezana of Ethiopia declared Christianity the national religion in 330 AD. Mark the Evangelist is traditionally associated with bringing Christianity to Alexandria, Egypt. Figures like Augustine of Hippo, Tertullian, and Athanasius of Alexandria significantly shaped Christian doctrine and theology.

Europe’s claims:

Over time, after North Africa converted to Islam, Europe began to present themselves God’s chosen people. They wrote letters claiming to be the only authorised representatives of God on earth, such as a letter from Pope Innovent IV to Guyuk Khan. Guyuk Khan, emperor of the Mongol empire was possibly also a Christian, who controlled a vast earthly territory. This was the attitude of Europeans when they brought Christianity to West Africa, Central Africa and Southern Africa. Since the 7th century, an ethnocentric view of Christianity has developed in which some non-Christians make the assumption that all white people irrespective of their profession, are Christians, due to the legacies of historical events.

In conclusion, Africa's influence on Christianity goes beyond mere historical footnotes. It encompasses biblical narratives, preservation of early Christian teachings, and the contributions of African figures to Christian theology. Recognizing Africa's role in Christian history is essential for understanding the global impact of this faith.

Monday 13 November 2023

AFRICAN HISTORY

Africa is widely considered to be the cradle of human life. This is due to a range of archaeological, genetic, and anthropological evidence that suggests that the first human ancestors evolved on the African continent. In this essay, the evidence that supports the fact that Africa is the cradle of human life will be presented.

Firstly, the oldest known fossils of hominids (early human-like beings) have been found in Africa. The earliest known hominid, Sahelanthropus tchadensis, lived in Chad around 7 million years ago. Other important hominid fossils have been found in East and South Africa, including Australopithecus afarensis, the species that included the famous Lucy skeleton discovered in Ethiopia. These fossils provide evidence of the earliest human-like beings evolving in Africa.

Secondly, genetic studies support the theory that humans originated in Africa. Genetic studies have shown that the DNA of all modern humans is most similar to the DNA of people from Africa. Additionally, genetic studies of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (which are passed down from father to son and mother to child, respectively) suggest that all modern humans share a common ancestor who lived in Africa around 200,000 years ago.

Thirdly, archaeological evidence supports the idea that early human civilizations developed in Africa. The first evidence of tool use by early humans dates back to around 2.6 million years ago in East Africa. Stone tools and other artifacts found in Africa suggest that early humans developed complex societies with advanced tools and technology.

Lastly, linguistic studies provide further evidence that Africa is the cradle of human life. Many linguistic experts believe that the roots of human language can be traced back to Africa. They argue that the diversity and complexity of African languages suggest that they are among the oldest and most fundamental languages in the world.

In conclusion, from the oldest known fossils of hominids which have been found in Africa to the genetic suggestions that all modern humans share a common ancestor who lived in Africa and from the archaeological evidence which supports the idea that early human civilizations developed in Africa to the linguistic studies which provide further evidence of Africa's importance in the history of human evolution, there is no doubt to the fact that Africa is the cradle of all humanity!

Thursday 9 November 2023

AFRICAN HISTORY

”IF YOU, THE BRITISH, DARE TO INVADE, I will use your skull  as a drinking cup and your jawbones  to beat my drums “.

Ashanti King, Osei Tutu Kwadwo ( Ghana ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญ ), to The British Governor, Sir Charles McCarthy.

The Battle of Nsamankow was a battle between the United Kingdom and the Ashanti Empire that took place in 1824 as part of the First Anglo-Ashanti War. The British force under Charles MacCarthy was defeated by an Ashanti force. The Battle of Nsamankow was fought on 21 January 1824.

In late 1823, following the disagreements between the Fantis and the Ashantis, he declared war on the king of the Ashanti; after organising the defences of Cape Coast, he set out with an expedition of some 80 men of the Royal African Colonial Corps, 170 men of the Cape Coast Militia, and 240 Fanti tribesmen under their local chiefs. He was accompanied by a captain and an ensign of the 2nd West India Regiment, as aides-de-camp, a surgeon of the same regiment, and J. T. Williams, his colonial secretary. This was not the only part of his force; three other groups of infantry were in the region, one of 600 regulars of the RACC and 3,000 native levies, one of 100 regulars and militia and 2,000 levies (under Major Alexander Gordon Laing), and a third of 300 regulars and militia and 6,000 levies. The plan was for the four groups to converge and then engage the enemy with overwhelming force.

On the night of the 20th, still without having joined forces with the other three groups, his force camped by a tributary of the Pra River. The next day, at around 2pm, they encountered a large enemy force of around ten thousand men; in the belief that the Ashanti army contained several disaffected groups whose chiefs were willing to defect, MacCarthy instructed the band to play the National Anthem loudly. The Ashanti responded by approaching closer, beating war drums, and his beliefs were swiftly dispelled.

Fighting started shortly thereafter; the two sides were separated by a 60-foot-wide (18 m) stream, which the Ashanti made no major attempt to ford, both sides contenting themselves with staying firm and keeping up a continual musket fire. However, the British forces were lightly supplied; the bearers bringing the supplies up in the rear, which included most of the gunpowder and ammunition, mostly fled after hearing the firing in the distance and encountering deserters straggling back. Only one additional barrel of powder and one of shot were brought up, and ammunition ran out around 4pm; the Ashanti then made a determined attempt to cross the river, and quickly broke into the camp.

Almost all the British force were k.illed immediately; only around 20 managed to escape. MacCarthy, along with the ensign and his secretary, attempted to fall back; he was wounded by gunfire, however, and k.illed by a second shot shortly thereafter. Ensign Wetherell was k.illed whilst trying to defend MacCarthy's body and Williams taken prisoner. 

On his return, he related that he had only survived through being recognised by an Ashanti chief for whom he had done a small favour, and was spared; he was held prisoner for several months, locked in a dwelling which he shared with the severed heads of MacCarthy and Wetherell, kept as trophies of war. McCarthy's gold-rimmed skull was later used as a drinking-cup by the Ashanti rulers.

Monday 6 November 2023

GODDESS NEKHEBET/NECHEBET

Nekhbet (Nekhebet, Nechbet) was the patron of Upper Kemet, appearing as one of the "Two ladies" in the Nebty name of the pharaoh (with her counterpart Wadjet/Wachit). She was often called "Hedjet" (White Crown) in reference to the crown of Upper Kemet and regularly appears as a heraldic device representing Upper Kemet. She was also a protector of royal children and, in later periods, of all young children and expectant mothers.

There is evidence that she was already popular in Pre-dynastic Kemet but was specifically associated with the town of Nekheb ( her name actually means "she of Nekheb"). However, by the Early Dynastic Period Nekheb and Nekhen (cult center of Horus the Elder) had merged and she and Wadjet were combined to form the Nebty name of the pharaoh; her position as a representative of Upper Kemet was fully established.

References in the Pyramid Texts (from the Fifth Dynasty) confirm that Nekhbet was also considered to be a Creator Goddess with the epithet "Father of Fathers, Mother of Mothers, who has existed from the beginning, and is Creator of this World". She was represented on the king´s Nemes headdress as a vulture or a snake and from the Fourth Dynasty vulture headdress for great royal wife.

Nekhbet was known as "pr wr" (Lady of the Great House - the Upper Kemetian "state" temple). During the Eighteenth Dynasty she and Wadjet offered their protection to all of the women of the royal family. This was indicated by the addition of two uraei (royal serpents) to their headdress.

Unlike Heqet and Taweret, she was initially only thought to protect royal mothers and children. She was occasionally depicted as the divine mother or wet-nurse of the pharaoh and often appeared in vulture form hovering above the king holding the "shen" (representing eternity) and the royal flail (representing pharaonic authority). However, during the New Kingdom she seems to have extended her protection beyond the royal family to the common people.

Nekhbet was thought to be the wife of Hapi, in his role as a patron of Upper Kemet, but was also associated with Horus (who was also associated with Upper Kemet). Because she often took the form of a griffon vulture and was associated with childbirth, she was closely associated with the goddess Mut. She was also associated with the bovine Goddess Hathor (Yat Or) and given the epithet "Great White Cow of Nekhb".

However, like most Kemetian deities, Nekhbet also had a darker side. She was associated with the "Eye of Ra" along with a great number of Goddesses and was often depicted hovering above the pharaoh in battle offering him protection and threatening his enemies. On the Palermo Stone Thutmose IV confirms that his protector is "Nekbet, the White, of Nekheb. She fastened the adornments of my majesty, her two hands were behind (me) she bound the Nine Bows (enemies of Kemet) together for me". She also took on this martial role in her dealings with other Gods. For example, in one of the myths regarding the conflict between Set and Horus, Nekhbet and Wadjet (in the form of winged snakes) flank Horus (in the form of a winged sun disc) as he pursues Set and his fleeing followers. This association with the "Eye of Ra" clearly gives her a strong Solar connection, but she was also described as the "healthy eye of Horus" (the moon) and named as the "Mistress of the heavens".

She was generally depicted as a woman wearing the crown of Upper Kemet or the vulture headdress. However, she was also depicted as a woman with the head of a vulture, or as a snake or vulture with the White Crown on her head. When she takes the form of a vulture, she often spreads her wings in protection and bears the "shen" and (sometimes) the feather of ma´at in her talons. She was often shown with Wadjet and when in human form she and Wadjet can only be distinguished by their crowns. Occasionally she was depicted suckling the pharaoh or as a cow (as an aspect of Hathor/ Yat Or).

A temple was built in her honour at Nekhb which included a birth house, a series of small temples, a sacred lake and some early cemeteries. It is thought that it was first established during the Early Period, but major building projects were undertaken during the Eighteenth Dynasty and the majority of the remains belong to pharaohs of the Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Dynasties.

Nekhebet holding Shen

Saturday 4 November 2023

12 Habits of Genuinely Intelligent People

(1). They don't talk about how smart they are. They are busy growing their minds.

(2). They learn best by studying what works and try it.

(3). They try to figure things out themselves. They use a lot of experimentations and problem-solving approach to figure out things.

(4). They're always hunting knowledge. They focus on what they want to know, not what they already know.

(5). They don't brag about what they know. They apply their knowledge instead.

(6). They connect the dots. They look for connections between dissimilar things, read across fields and disciplines.

(7). They are curious and ask lots of serious questions.

(8). They abstract from their experiences.

(9). They seek out puzzles and paradoxes.

(10). They have no problem with failure.

(11). They don't try to sound smart.

(12). They don't always use big words. They use the right words, when necessary, both big or simple, but focus on clarity and simplicity.

Via Dr. Fred Freeman Okpala

AFRICAN HISTORY

General Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu gave his last speech as Biafran Head-of-State before leaving for Cรดte d'Ivoire, on this date. On that occasion, he said:

“In the three years of the war, necessity gave birth to invention. During those three years of heroic bound, we leapt across the great chasm that separates knowledge from know-how. We built rockets, and we designed and built our own delivery systems. We guided our rockets. We guided them far, we guided them accurately.

For three years, blockaded without hope of import, we maintained all our vehicles. The state extracted and refined petrol, individuals refined petrol in their back gardens. We built and maintained our airports, maintained them under heavy bombardment. 

Despite the heavy bombardment, we recovered so quickly after each raid that we were able to maintain the record for the busiest airport in the continent of Africa. We spoke to the world through telecommunication system engineered by local ingenuity; the world heard us and spoke back to us! We built armoured car tanks. We modified aircraft from trainer to fighters, from passenger aircraft to bombers. In the three years of freedom we had broken the technological barrier.

For those who care to know

Many of us here in South Africa are strongly against the xenophobia (Afrophobia in fact) gripping the country. We are well aware of the destructive effects it's having both on our brothers and sisters from further North, as well as on our own relatives here in the country. We are working on various ways of combating it. 

Xenophobia is essentially racism turned inward, against other Africans, South Africa being one of the most racist places on earth. Xenophobes behave unto other Africans in a manner similar to how white racists behave unto blacks. It is so intense that even us, blacker-skinned South Africans, sometimes get profiled by these xenophobes; it is almost as if they are saying dark-skinned people are not from South Africa. 

Xenophobia is partly the outcome of the persisting inequality, 30 years after the end of formal apartheid, where blacks are still concentrated in slums and townships, still begging for jobs from whites. This inequality creates economic desperation amongst the poor which leads to an endless competition for basic jobs, houses and social services. This competition of the poor plays out into open clashes of identity - racial, national and tribal. South Africa is in fact a neo-apartheid society, where the old racial inequality persists; where stolen native lands are still firmly in white hands, as are the major sources of wealth creation - e.g. mines, factories, shipping companies. The racial hierarchy created following the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910 is still firmly in place - whites on top, blacks at the bottom. In wealthy parts of the country it feels like you are a foreigner if you are black. There are even places which have old apartheid restrictions against black people.

Xenophobia is also the outcome of the conscious divide-and-rule strategy employed by bosses in industry; where they will dismiss local workers and hire those from far away, knowing that those ones are less likely to demand decent wages. With this preferential hiring strategy, the impression created is that "foreigners are stealing jobs" when the reality is that the capitalists are firing one group of workers and hiring another, at lower wages - they are decreasing the minimum wage. This divide-and-exploit strategy has long been used by capitalists, even in Europe and America, to the same political effect - dividing the working class and exploiting them all. 

Xenophobia is also the outcome of the dominance of nationalist propaganda on television and school curricula, which endlessly promotes the idea of South African nationhood, but not African unity; it creates the ridiculous idea that English and Dutch speaking whites are the same nationality as the blacks whose land they stole; and that those blacks are nationally different to other blacks from across the artificial borders. With this strategy the impression given is that white settlers have equal claim to South Africa as the native populace, and that their foreign languages and cultures are in fact also African. 

South African television and education is essentially white propaganda which depicts other Africans as "foreigners", and white settlers as "Africans" in the continent which was divided by them. This is why the xenophobes will call other Africans to "leave South Africa", but never call on the European settlers to leave Africa, even those who arrived here a few years back. This anti-immigrant, anti-African bigotry has turned many black South Africans into the same monsters as racist whites, and is working to the benefit of the colonizers. It has made them into incredibly myopic, shortsighted, selfish buffoons. You will never hear the xenophobes call for "Afrika Mayibuye" for instance; instead they call "for strengthening of the [artificial] borders". They are completely brainwashed by decades of colonial propaganda. 

WE ARE OPPOSED TO THE DIVIDING OF THE AFRICAN CONTINENT, AND SEEK TO RE-UNIFY IT, FROM CAPE TO CAIRO. THE XENOPHOBES ARE STANDING IN OUR WAY

AFRICAN HISTORY

In the 18th century, the Asante's members of the Akan people would embark on the race to create one of the most powerful African states in sub-Saharan.

Previously, it was Denkyira who exercised strong dominance over Akan states, forcing taxpayers to always obey, under the consequence of harsh reprisal.

Osei Kofi Tutu I, prince of the Oyoko clan of Kumasi alongside priest Akomfo Anokye founded the Asante kingdom and proclaimed as Asantehene in 1670, rebelling against Denkyira and winning the war.

The following Asante kings would lead an extensive military campaign and unification processes leading the Asante kingdom to become a regional empire controlling almost all of Ghana, parts of Ivory Coast and Togo.

The Asante Empire was well organized and centralized, with ministers, provincial governors dealing with all necessary arrangements.

Their economy revolves around mining and especially gold trade, competing with the great Sahelian states such as the Mali Empire and the Songhai Empire. Agriculture, crafts were also important, the slave trade was a minority in itself, but with the arrival of Europeans and the increasing demand for these slaves and the flooding of European products in the African market, it leads to a progressive increase of slaves.

Finally the Asants, would be conquered by the British in 1901, after escaping from a series of 5 wars from 1823 to 1901.

Texts by Oumar Xavier.

Fuentes.

Libro The History of Ashanti Kings and the Whole Country Itself and Other Writings de Prempeh I (King of Ashanti), A. Adu Boahen.

Libro African Kingdoms: An Encyclopedia of Empires and Civilizations  de Saheed Aderinto.

Oumar's personal investigation.

English text.

In the 18th century, the asantes, members of the Akan people, would embark on the race to create one of the most powerful african states south of the Sahara.

Previously, it was Denkyira who exercised strong control over the Akan states, forcing tributaries to always obey, under the consequence of harsh reprisals.

Osei Kofi Tutu I, prince of the Oyoko clan of Kumasi, together with the priest Akomfo Anokye, founded the asante kingdom and proclaimed himself Asantehene in 1670, rebelling against Denkyira and winning the war.

The following asante kings would lead an extensive military campaign and unification processes leading the Asante kingdom to become a regional empire that controlled almost all of Ghana, parts of the Ivory Coast and Togo.

The Asante empire was well organized and centralized, with ministers and provincial governors who took care of all the necessary arrangements.

Its economy revolved around mining and especially the gold trade, competing with the large Sahelian states such as the Mali empire and the songhai empire. Agriculture and crafts were also important, the slave trade was in itself a minority, but with the arrival of europeans and their growing demand for slaves and the flooding of european products in the african market, it led to a progressive increase in slaves.

Finally, the Asantes would be conquered by the British in 1901, after fighting a series of 5 wars from 1823 to 1901.

Thursday 2 November 2023

AFRICAN HISTORY

Traditional African religion, like most other ancient traditions around the world, were based on oral traditions. These traditions are not religious principles but a cultural identity that is passed on through stories, myths and tales, from one generation to the next. The community and ones family but also the environment, plays an important role in one's personal life. Followers believe in the guidance of their ancestors spirits. Among many traditional African religions, there are spiritual leaders and priests these persons are essential in the spiritual and religious survival of these communities.

There are mystics that are responsible for healing and 'divining' - a kind of fortune telling and counseling, similar to shamans. These traditional healers have to be called by ancestors or gods. They undergo strict training and learn many necessary skills, including how to use natural herbs for healing and other, more mystical skills, like the finding of a hidden object without knowing where it is. Traditional African religion believe that ancestors maintain a spiritual connection with their living relatives. Most ancestral spirits are generally good and kind. Negative actions taken by ancestral spirits is to cause minor illnesses to warn people that they have gotten onto the wrong path.

Native African religions are centered on ancestor worship, the belief in a spirit world, supernatural beings and free will (unlike the later developed concept of faith). Deceased humans (and animals or important objects) still exist in the spirit world and can influence or interact with the physical world. Forms of polytheism was widespread in most of ancient African and other regions of the world, before the introduction of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. An exception was the short-lived monotheistic religion created by Pharaoh Akhenaten, who made it mandatory to pray to his personal god Aten (Atenism). 

This remarkable change to traditional Egyptian religion was however reverted by his youngest son, Tutankhamun. High gods, along with other more specialized deities, ancestor spirits, territorial spirits, and beings, are a common theme among traditional African religions, highlighting the complex and advanced culture of ancient Africa. Some research suggests that certain monotheistic concepts, such as the belief in a high god or force (next to many other gods, deities and spirits, sometimes seen as intermediaries between humans and the creator) were present within Africa, before the introduction of Abrahamic religions. These indigenous concepts were different from the monotheism found in Abrahamic religions.

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