Tuesday 30 April 2024

Have you heard of the "Woman War' that happened in Nigeria?

The Aba Women's Riot was sparked by a dispute between a woman named Nwanyeruwa and a man named Mark Emereuwa over a census related to taxation. Women in the area were worried about being taxed, especially during the period of hyperinflation in the late 1920s. The financial crash of 1929 impeded women's ability to trade and produce, so they sought assurance from the colonial government that they would not be required to pay taxes. Faced with a halt in their political demands, the women settled on not paying taxes or having their property appraised. On the morning of November 18, Emereuwa arrived at Nwanyereuwa's house and approached her, since her husband Ojim had already died. He told the widow to "count her goats, sheep, and people." Since Nwanyereuwa understood this to mean, "How many of these things do you have so we can tax you based on them," she was angry. She replied by saying "Was your widowed mother counted?," meaning "that women don't pay tax in traditional Igbo society." The two exchanged angry words, and Emeruwa grabbed Nwanyeruwa by the throat. Nwanyeruwa went to the town square to discuss the incident with other women who happened to be holding a meeting to discuss the issue of taxing women. Believing they would be taxed based on Nwanyeruwa's account, the Oloko women invited other women from other areas in the Bende District, as well as from Umuahia and Ngwa, by sending leaves of palm-oil trees. They gathered nearly 10,000 women who protested at the office of Warrant Chief Okugo, demanding his resignation and calling for a trial. This led to a protest that broke out in Nigeria involving thousands of women who stood up against the warrant chief for restricting the role of women in government. This protest involved thousands of Igbo women from different locations such as the Bende District, Umuahia, and other parts of southeast Nigeria. They traveled to Oloko, one of the four clans that make up the Ikwuano local government area of Abia, to protest against the warrant chief. The Warrant Chiefs were traditional leaders appointed by the British colonial administration to oversee local governance and administration. These Warrant Chiefs were often selected based on their loyalty to the colonial authorities rather than their legitimacy within the local communities. This protest encompassed women from six ethnic groups: Igbo, Ibibio, Andoni, Ogoni, Efik, and Ijaw. In 1910, women in Agbaya stayed away from their homes in protest due to suspicions among  them that some men had been secretly killing pregnant women. Also, in 1924, about 3,000 women in Calabar protested a market toll imposed by the colonial authorities. Additionally, in southwestern Nigeria, there were other women's organizations such as the Lagos Market Women Association and the Abeokuta Women's Union. During this protest, many of the warrant chiefs had to resign. #Africa #Nigeria

Monday 29 April 2024


Olóyè Ulli Beier was a significant figure in the exploration and promotion of Yorùbá culture and arts. Born in Chotwitz, Poland in July 1922, to a Jewish middle-class family, his journey to Nigeria in 1950 marked the beginning of a lifelong dedication to understanding and celebrating Yorùbá traditions.

In 1949, while teaching handicapped children in Battersea, Ulli came across a newspaper advertisement for a lecturer position in English at University College Ibadan. This opportunity led him to Nigeria, accompanied by his wife Suzanne Wenger, a notable Austrian artist who later became a high priestess at the Osun Groove in Oshogbo.

Upon arriving in Nigeria, Ulli immersed himself in Yorùbá life, residing in Ede and Ilobu before settling in Oshogbo in 1958. His passion for Yorùbá arts and culture drove him to actively participate in everyday and ritual activities, documenting stories, and capturing moments through photography. Over time, he authored numerous articles and books, delving into various aspects of Yorùbá culture, such as myths, poetry, and more.

In 1957, Ulli founded Black Orpheus, a literary magazine that played a pivotal role in showcasing the talents of emerging writers across Africa and the black diaspora. Notably, writers like Wole Soyinka, Chinua Achebe, John Pepper Clark, Christopher Okigbo, and others found their early platforms in this influential journal.

His contributions to Yorùbá studies and African literature are evident in works like "Yoruba Myths," "Not Even God is Ripe Enough," collections of Yorùbá poetry, and other scholarly endeavors, solidifying his legacy as a bridge between cultures and a champion of African literary and cultural heritage.

Courtesy Yorùbá blog


Benjamin Adekunle; nicknamed Black Scorpion, was a soldier who served during the Nigerian Civil War as commander of the 35,000 man strong marine commando. As a man of flamboyant, outspoken and temperamental personality, he was deservedly surrounded by myths. Without formal approval from the army headquarters, he had bequeathed with a fierce name, the Third Marine Commando division which he led. Such was the least among his assertive actions, some accounted as insubordination. In the session in which Adekunle was commandant; the whole south front from Lagos to the border of Cameroon, he did not tolerate the Red Cross, Caritas Aid, or UN delegation, therefore stopping many thousands tons of food that were stored in Lagos from getting to the refugee camps.

Benjamin Adekunle was born on June 26, 1937 to parents who were Ogbomoso natives. He had his elementary education at Dekina Primary School before proceeding to Government College, Okene, where he had his secondary school education between 1951 and 1957.

Adekunle grew up in Kaduna where he picked up the Hausa language. This was after he had learnt the Igbo language in addition to his Yoruba mother tongue. In the secondary school at Okene he gained notoriety for his quarrelsome nature and was nicknamed Maja, meaning, “do not fight”.

Adekunle enrolled in the Nigerian Army in 1958. After attending Officer Cadet Training School, Teshie, Accra, Ghana in 1958, Adekunle went to Officer Cadet School, Aidershot, England, in 1959. Between 1960 and 1961, he was at the prestigious Sandhurst Military Academy, England. He also attended Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, India, between 1964 and 1968.

Adekunle joined the Nigerian army in 1958. After a long string of military courses, Adekunle was appointed platoon commander, 1st Battalion Nigerian Army, and, later, aide-de-camp, ADC, to the governor of Eastern Nigeria, Sir Akanu Ibiam, in 1962. He was staff captain to Brigade Headquarters, United Nations Peace Keeping Force, Lulaborg, Congo in 1963. Upon his return, Adekunle was appointed adjutant-general, Nigerian Army between 1965 and 1966. He was later appointed brigade commander, Lagos Garrison, in 1967.

Adekunle Benjamin was recalled from the war front abruptly in 1969 and made director of training and planning, Supreme Headquarters, Lagos, in June 1969. In May 1970, he was appointed military commandant, Port Decongestion Task Force, Nigeria Ports Authority, at a time the ports were overflowing with uncleared goods. Although it was a tough task, he, nevertheless, brought his military training to bear on his assignment and, in a record time, he successfully decongested the ports. He was promoted brigadier in 1972 at the age of 35. Adekunle was retired from the Nigerian Army on August 20, 1974.

Adekunle commanded the brave Bonny Island Landing on 26 July 1967. He captured Escravos, Forcados, Burutu, Urhonigbe, Owa and Aladima, Bomadi and Patani, Youngtown, Koko, Sapele, Ajagbodudu, Warri, Ughelli, Orerokpe, Umutu and Itagba, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Aba and Owerri before it was recaptured. The news of Owerri re-capture, apparently blamed on his resistance of the Head of State, Yakwubu Gowon’s delegations, made it imperative for him to be relieved of the post. With Adekunle’s commando division, Olusegun Obasanjo would go ahead to win the war for Nigeria. Benjamin Adekunle was promoted to Brigadier-General in 1972. On August 20, 1974, he was compulsorily retired from the Army. Adekunle’s exploits as a military man were recounted in a biography written by his son; The Nigeria-Biafra Letters: A Soldier’s Story.

Professor Bolanle Awe: A Nigerian and Yoruba history professor

Dr Bolanle Awe was born on 28 January 1933 in the town of Ilesa, Colonial Nigeria to Samuel Akindeji Fajembola and Mosebolatan Abede.

Her father was originally from the town of Ibadan, and also he was a cocoa trader a manager at the John Holt & Co, a shipping and general merchandise company. Her mother was from the town of Ilesa, and was a member of the Abede family, a branch of the Royal House of Bilayirere, one of the 4 royal houses of Ilesa. Her mother was a teacher. Upon her father's transfer to one of the branches of John Holt & Co. in Ilesa, Awe was born.

She was born in a community where practitioners of Islam, Christianity, and the Yoruba religion lived harmoniously.

She attended Holy Trinity School, Omofe-Ilesha, before moving with her family to Ibadan when she was 8 years old, she later continued her education at St James Primary School, Okebola, Ibadan and St Anne's School, Ibadan.

She took her A-levels at the Perse School in Cambridge. She went to St Andrews University in Scotland where she obtained a master's degree in history, before taking a doctorate in history at Somerville College, Oxford.

Awe then returned to Nigeria, where she became the first female lecturer at the Department of History, at the University of Ibadan, this advancent made her the first female academic staff in a Nigerian university. She one of the pioneers of the comprehensive study of women’s history and feminist history.

This picture was taken in UK on April 19, 1973.


Samuel Crowther (c. 1809 – 31 December 1891), was a Yoruba linguist, clergyman, and the first African Anglican bishop of West Africa. Born in Osogun (in what is now Ado-Awaye, Oyo State, Nigeria), he and his family were captured by Fulani slave raiders when he was about twelve years old.This took place during the Yoruba civil wars, notably the Owu wars of 1821–1829, where his village Osogun was ransacked. Ajayi was later on resold to Portuguese slave dealers,where he was put on board to be transported to the New World through the Atlantic.

Crowther was freed from slavery at a coastal port by the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron, which was enforcing the British ban against the Atlantic slave trade. The liberated peoples were resettled in Sierra Leone. In Sierra Leone, Ajayi adopted an English name of Samuel Crowther, and began his education in English.He adopted Christianity and also identified with Sierra Leone's then ascendant Krio ethnic group. He studied languages and was ordained as a minister in England, where he later received a doctoral degree from Oxford University. He prepared a Yoruba grammar and translation of the "ANGLICAN BOOK OF COMMON PRAYERS" into Yoruba, also worked on Yoruba version of the Bible.

Meet Abimbola Awoliyi, first Nigerian female physician

Elizabeth Abimbola Awoliyi may not be a name you’re all too familiar with.  She holds the honorary title of being Nigeria’s first female physician. Awoliyi was also the first West African to earn a license at the University of Dublin.


Born in 1910, November 11th in Lagos to her Nigerian parents, David and Rufina Akelere, Elizabeth was the fourth child in a devoted Catholic family of 7.

Awoliyi began her educational trajectory at St Mary’s Catholic School, Lagos. Following this, she attended Queen’s College in the same city and thereafter graduated with her first-class medical degree in 1938 from the University of Dublin.


After her amazing accomplishments as a student, Elizabeth returned to her home land, Nigeria, to become a Gynaecologist and Junior Medical Officer at the Massey Street Hospital in Lagos.

She later became a Chief consultant and Medical Director at the hospital, holding the latter position from 1960-1969.

And it doesn’t stop there, as Awoliyi continued journeying to even greater heights. She became a member of the Royal College of Physicians and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecology. She also became a Diplomate of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. This is a stunning example of Nigerian excellence at its finest.

Not only was Elizabeth honoured in her native land, but she was also awarded for her exemplary achievements in Britain through receiving an MBE  (The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences).

Beyond her academic achievements, Abimbola was also kind and demonstrated this character through her faithful service to the National Council of Women’s Societies of Nigeria. She fulfilled this role from 1964 until her passing in 1971. She was the second president of this Society. Through her service, she helped put several policies and activities in place for the organisation.

Another example of Elizabeth’s service was her negotiation for the gift of a national headquarters at Tafawa Balewa Square in Lagos Island. She was also a consultant to the organisation’s family planning clinic, which later become the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria.

She also served as president of the Child Care Voluntary Association. Elizabeth was selfless in performing her work and achievements.

She was an intelligent businesswoman. The spirit of a true Nigerian, she would hustle in different areas to increase her income streams. During her career in the civil service, she set up a private business enterprise.

Awoliyi also owned a 27-acre poultry and an orange farm in Agege, Lagos and was a director of a commercial medical store in the same city.


Dr Elizabeth Abimbola Awoliyi married Dr. S.O. Awoliyi, and together they had a boy and a girl. Her spouse was also a medical doctor and died in 1965. Elizabeth passed away on the 14th of September 1971. She was 61 years old.


Akintunde Akinsehinwa was born in Ondo, Ondo State Nigeria on November 11, 1944. He graduated and obtained his (WAEC) diploma from Edopkolo Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State in 1963. Upon graduation he relocated to Ibadan where he worked as a clerk at the High Court.

At the inception of the Nigerian Civil War in 1967 Akintunde Akinsehinwa was recruited by the Nigerian Army and trained as a Cadet Officer at the Nigerian Army School of Infantry in Jaji, Kaduna State. 

Lieutenant Akintunde Akinsehinwa was 30 years old when he became the ADC to the then Head of State, the late General Murtala Muhammed, he was the youngest and lowest presidential Aide-de-camp in the history of Nigeria. The post is usually reserved for Lt. Colonel or Colonel.

On February 13th, 1976 after barely seven month in office, Murtala's motorcade was ambushed in an abortive coup in Lagos. Hail of bullets were unleashed on his black Mercedes and the Head of State died instantly. As the ADC Akinsehinwa survived the initial barrage of bullets and exited the limousine to return fire but was unfortunately overpowered and gunned down in a hail of bullets.

An autopsy report revealed 6 bullet wounds to his back. At 31 on Friday February 13, 1976 Lieutenant Akintude Akinsehinwa became the first Aide-de-Camp to die in the line of duty while serving a Nigerian Head of State.

Source: Historical Nigeria

Story of Walter Eugene King, founder of Oyotunji in America

Walter Eugene King, later known as Ofuntola Oseijeman Adelabu Adefunmi I, was born on October 5, 1928, in Detroit, Michigan, to a Baptist family deeply rooted in Black nationalism. His parents, Wilhelmina and Roy King, were followers of Marcus Garvey's Back to Africa movement, but Walter's curiosity led him on a different path.

Growing up in Detroit, Walter noticed the absence of African cultural celebrations in his community. At the age of 15, he asked his mother about African gods, but she had no answers. Determined to learn more about his heritage, Walter delved into books and discovered the Yoruba religion.

Through his research, Walter learned about the Yoruba people, one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa, with roots in Nigeria. Despite the spread of Yoruba religion through the slave trade, it was believed to have ceased to exist in the United States until Walter, now known as Ofuntola Oseijeman Adelabu Adefunmi I, revived it.

In 1956, Adefunmi established three Yoruba temples in New York City, sparking a cultural revival. He founded the Orisa-Vodun branch of Yoruba religion and created Oyotunji Village in South Carolina in 1970. Oyotunji became a haven for African Americans searching for their spiritual and cultural identity.

The village, located in the Gullah Geechee Corridor, welcomed visitors with a sign that read: "You are leaving the United States. You are entering Yoruba Kingdom … Welcome to Our Land!" Oyotunji Village, with its life-size carvings, shrines, and Yoruba spoken, became a symbol of African cultural preservation.

He was ultimately crowned Oba, or King of the Yoruba in North America, by the ooni, the spiritual leader of the Yoruba people in Nigeria.

The Yoruba Temple in Harlem, which Adefunmi established in 1960, attracted Black activists, like the poet and playwright Amiri Baraka and Queen Mother Moore. The three served together in the Republic of New Africa, a Black nationalist organization formed on the idea that a self-governed Black nation should be created out of five Southern states. The group also sought reparations of $4 billion.

Adefunmi's son, Oba Adejuyigbe Adefunmi II, eventually became the village's king, continuing his father's legacy. Today, Oyotunji Village receives about 20,000 visitors annually, and Yoruba culture has gained popularity worldwide.

Adefunmi's efforts to revive Yoruba religion and culture have had a lasting impact, with Yoruba practices now recognized and celebrated globally. His dedication to preserving African heritage has left a profound legacy, inspiring pride and cultural appreciation among African Americans and others around the world.

Photos: 1-3

Adefunmi I in 1976. He described his village as “a place of rehabilitation for African Americans in search of their spiritual and cultural identity.”


Adefunmi I in 1997. One newspaper called him the “father of the Yoruban cultural restoration movement.” He died in 2005.


Adefunmi I in 1973 working on maintenance in the Yoruba village he created.

Sourced and reworked from The New York Times by Historical Africa Yoruba

Sunday 28 April 2024


The year 1982 marked a pivotal moment in the lives of two icons, Clarion Chukwura and Shina Peters, whose paths intertwined in unexpected ways, leaving a lasting impact on Nigeria's entertainment scene.

Clarion Chukwura, a budding actress brimming with talent and ambition, caught the attention of renowned filmmaker Ola Balogun during her captivating performance as 'Moji' in Wole Soyinka's play, "Camwood on the Leaves." This fateful encounter led to her casting as 'Yemi' in Balogun's movie "Money Power," a role initially designated for another actress. At just 18, Clarion was stepping into the vast landscape of adulthood, ready to carve her niche in the film industry.

Meanwhile, on the same movie set, Oluwashina Akanbi Peters, popularly known as Shina Peters (SSP), crossed paths with Clarion. Little did they know that this meeting would spark a whirlwind romance, resulting in the birth of their son, Clarence Abiodun Peters, in 1983.

Amidst their budding careers and personal lives, both Clarion and SSP navigated the dynamic Nigerian entertainment scene of the 1980s and beyond. SSP, already a rising star in Afro Juju music, would soon release groundbreaking albums like "Ace" and "Shinamania," solidifying his status as a musical legend and shaping the Afro Juju genre.

On the acting front, Clarion continued to ascend, earning accolades such as the Best Actress award at the Panafrican Film and Television Festival in Burkina Faso. Her role in the iconic soap opera "Mirror in the Sun" catapulted her into the hearts of Nollywood fans, establishing her as a beloved figure on the big screen.

Despite their brief romance, both Clarion and SSP pursued their artistic passions fervently. Clarion delved into diverse roles in Nollywood classics like "Egg of Life" and "Glamour Girls," showcasing her versatility and earning industry recognition. Her journey extended beyond acting, embracing musical endeavors and humanitarian efforts as a UN Special Peace Ambassador.

As for SSP, his musical legacy transcended borders, captivating audiences across Africa and beyond. His son, Clarence, inheriting the artistic genes from his parents, embarked on a creative journey behind the scenes. Studying cinematography in South Africa, Clarence emerged as a visionary video director, founding CAPital Hill Records and CAPital Dreams Picture, platforms that nurtured emerging talents and set new standards in Nigerian music visuals.

Clarence Peters' directorial prowess garnered international acclaim, earning prestigious awards like the Headies and MTV Africa Music Awards. His collaborations with top Nigerian artists reshaped the music video landscape, reflecting his innovative vision and technical finesse.

The tale of Clarion Chukwura and Shina Peters, intertwined with their son Clarence's creative odyssey, echoes the resilience, passion, and groundbreaking spirit that define Nigeria's entertainment industry. Their contributions continue to inspire generations, leaving an indelible mark on African arts and culture.


The legend of Aro, the revered founder of Ilaro town in Ogun State, is a saga deeply woven into the fabric of Yoruba history, steeped in valor and leadership. Mayegun hereby present the story:

Aro was not just a skilled hunter but also a formidable warrior and a wise ruler during a turbulent era in Yoruba land when foreign traders threatened to enslave its people.

Originating from Oyo, Aro embarked on a courageous journey driven by a noble cause. Hearing of the encroaching menace of foreign slave traders disrupting the peace and harmony of his people, he resolved to take action. Aro, accompanied by his loyal Leopard, led a band of brave warriors and embarked on a migration that would change the course of history.

Their destination was Igbo Aje, a strategic settlement where Aro's military prowess and strategic acumen were put to the test. Faced with marauding enemies, predominantly slave traders from neighboring Dahomey (now Benin Republic), Aro and his warriors engaged in fierce battles, ultimately prevailing and securing peace for their people.

The founding of Ilu-aro, meaning "the town of Aro," stands as a testament to Aro's enduring legacy. Over time, the name evolved into Ilaro for easier pronunciation, yet the town's roots in Aro's bravery remain steadfast. Beyond his military exploits, Aro's enigmatic departure from the mortal realm further solidified his legendary status.

As Aro aged gracefully, he chose to transcend into folklore, merging with the earth alongside his faithful Leopard. This act, symbolizing the culmination of his life's power and wisdom, left a profound impression on his people. Aro left behind a ritual, instructing his people to call upon him in times of need by pulling the chain attached to his leopard and himself.

The sacred site where Aro and his leopard entered the earth, known as the Orona Shrine, holds deep cultural and historical significance. Renovated for both tourists and locals, it serves as a place of reverence and continuity, hosting the coronation ceremonies of new kings, embodying the enduring spirit of Aro's leadership.

To honor his legacy and commemorate his deeds, the Orona festival is celebrated annually in Ilaro. This vibrant festival not only pays homage to Aro but also serves as a reminder of the town's resilience and unity forged in the fires of adversity.

The life and legacy of Aro, a warrior, leader, and guardian of his people, continue to inspire awe and admiration, standing as a timeless beacon of courage and wisdom in Yoruba folklore and history.


The Iya Abessan Temple in Okọ̀rọ̀ (Akron) quarters, Àjàṣẹ́ (Porto Novo), Benin Republic, stands as a testament to the rich historical and cultural tapestry woven by the Yoruba people. Okoro and Jassin (Ija osan) are revered as the oldest settled areas in the Southern region of Benin Republic, tracing their origins to Yoruba migrants from present-day Southwestern Nigeria. Originally distinct villages, Okoro and Jassin became focal points of cultural and religious significance, paving the way for the establishment of the iconic Iya Abi Mesan Temple.

The temple's location in Okọrọ (meaning a corner) holds profound symbolism, mirroring its role as a cornerstone of Yoruba architectural heritage in the region. As Porto Novo expanded outward, the temple retained its historical and spiritual prominence, embodying the enduring legacy of Yoruba traditions.

One of the temple's captivating aspects lies in its association with the formidable Yoruba deity, Oya. Revered as "Iya abi mesan" or 'Iyasan (Mother of Nine), Oya's mythology intertwines with the temple's narrative, weaving together myths and legends that continue to fascinate scholars and visitors alike. Exploring the temple grounds unveils layers of history, spirituality, and cultural significance, offering a glimpse into the intricate tapestry of Yoruba heritage preserved within its sacred walls.

History has it that the first king of Ikoyi, was compelled to depart his throne in Nigeria alongside his pregnant wife and devoted followers. Their odyssey led them to the shores of Porto Novo in Benin Republic, where fate intervened dramatically. As the queen, Olori, grappled with the pangs of childbirth, she miraculously gave birth to nine children, known as the Abesan, on the same auspicious day.

In the wake of this extraordinary event, Olori's status changed to that of a goddess because of the rarity of such birth. Renamed Olori Abesan, she became an emblem of divine grace and maternal potency. Such was her divine elevation that she was prohibited from kneeling before any earthly authority, including kings.

Confronted with the profound implications of their newfound blessings, the king and his retinue faced a pivotal decision. Recognizing the impracticality of further wanderings, particularly with nine offspring in tow, they resolved to settle in this new land. In homage to their cherished roots in Ikoyi, they christened their newfound domain Abesan Onikoyi, preserving the memory of their ancestral homeland.

The legacy of Olori Abesan and her nine illustrious children endures through symbolic representations deeply ingrained in the fabric of their heritage. Nine snakes, each embodying the essence of one of her miraculous offspring, serve as enduring emblems of their divine lineage. Likewise, a lioness, majestic and regal, stands as a steadfast symbol of the queen's indomitable spirit and maternal majesty. Together, these symbols weave a tapestry of myth and tradition, perpetuating the timeless legacy of the Abesan dynasty for generations to come.


It was recorded that Okpameh (also called Uguan) the son of Oba Ewaure left the Benin kingdom after he was banned for commiting murder.

He went up to Northern part and settled at a particular place he named Odorlerene (somewhere at the present day Ora).

Okpameh was a very powerful and renowned hunter, who was respected for killing dreaded Leopard (Ekpen), (see attached photo).

He took a wife an Uokha Lady who bore him a Son he named Ora Ekpen (because of the circumstances surrounding his birth). Ora Ekpen later bore sons that make up the communities in today Ora. 

Okpameh later received information of the death his brother who before then was the Oba of Benin.

It was told that the brother died without an heir to the throne.

The elders of Benin kingdom sent messages to Okpameh to come over and to takeover the throne.

Okpameh who initially declined the offer eventually agreed after many pleadings and some signs. 

Okpameh departed for Benin and left his son Ora Ekpen behind.

Okpameh was then crown Oba of Benin and was named Oba Ozolua. This made every Ora descendant a prince thereafter.

Oba Ozalua died some years later. At his burial, his first son Ora Ekpen insisted that he would take the body of his father to his Odorlerene, but his younger brother the crown prince Esigie   objected and stated that the body must be buried in Benin.

After much debate, it was resolved that the body of Oba Ozolua should be buried within the Oba palace in Benin, however Ora Ekpen would maintain his position of seniority. This position includes but not limited to Ora Ekpen and his descendant not bowing to the Esigie (Oba elect) descendants. 

This was sealed from that day, and remains so till today.

NB: I welcome any other version of the story. You can also make comments to vary or validate the story.


Benin revisionists have been propagating the erroneous claim that prior to 1937, there was no king referred to as an ọba in Yorùbá land. Here, we will present textual evidence to refute and dispel this fabricated misinformation and assert that the term "Ọba" rightfully belongs to the Yorùbá culture, not Benin. As previously stated, within the Yorùbá language, the term exclusively signifies a king and carries no other connotations.

In 1845, a French publication documenting the conflict between Owu and Ijebu, and the subsequent sale of slaves from the affected communities, refers to the ruler of the Òwu people as Ọba Òwu. This historical documentation corroborates the usage of "Ọba" in Yorùbá contexts to denote royalty.

Additionally, the 1927 Benin dictionary authored by Hans Melzian asserts that the Bini word for king is "Ogie," while "Oba" is acknowledged as a loan word from the Yorùbá language. This aligns with the historical narrative of the Ogiamien family, an esteemed indigenous group in Benin, who affirm that "Ogie" is the proper term for king in the Ẹ̀dó language, distancing it from the borrowed term "Ọba."

Moreover, oral traditions among the Yorùbá people are preserved in the Ifá literary corpus, transmitted orally across generations. Ifá tradition recounts the existence of ọba contemporaneous with Olúfẹ̀ Ọbàtálá and Oòduà in Odù Ìrẹ̀tẹ̀ méjì:



Gbogbo oba ní ti ńję. (Note)

Afi Obatálá, Afi Obatáàşà;

Afi oba patapata

Tíí máaá gbóde Îranjé.

This further reinforces the historical and cultural significance of the term "Ọba" within Yorùbá heritage.

Please see the screenshot of the publications in comment section.

Textual evidence courtesy Yoruba Nostalgia Project. Follow them for more authentic history of Yorùbá.


The lost wax technique, also known as cire-perdue, is a complex and ancient method used in Ifẹ bronze making, as well as in various other artistic traditions around the world. Here's a breakdown of the process:

(1). Creating the Original Model: Skilled artisans first create a detailed model of the desired sculpture using materials such as clay, wax, or a combination of both. This model captures the intricate details and features of the final bronze piece.

(2). Coating in Clay: The model is then coated with several layers of fine clay, which forms a mold around the original sculpture. This clay mold will later serve as the outer mold for the bronze casting.

(3). Melting Away the Wax: The entire mold is heated in a kiln or through other means to melt and remove the wax, leaving behind a hollow cavity in the shape of the original model. This cavity represents the space where molten bronze will be poured later.

(4). Preparation for Casting: Once the wax is melted out, the mold is reinforced and prepared for casting by adding vents and gates that allow the molten metal to flow evenly throughout the mold during casting.

(5). Bronze Casting: Molten bronze, often heated to extremely high temperatures, is poured into the prepared mold. The bronze fills the hollow cavity left by the melted wax, taking the shape of the original model and capturing all its intricate details.

(6). Cooling and Demolding: After the bronze has cooled and solidified within the mold, the outer clay mold is broken away or carefully removed, revealing the newly cast bronze sculpture inside.

(7). Finishing and Detailing: Skilled artisans then work on the bronze sculpture, refining details, smoothing surfaces, and adding any additional features or decorations as required to achieve the desired final appearance.

This meticulous and time-consuming process results in stunning bronze artworks that showcase not only the artistic skill of the craftsmen but also the technological sophistication of ancient civilizations like Ifẹ. The intricacy and realism achieved through the lost wax technique are particularly notable in Ifẹ bronze heads and sculptures, showcasing a mastery of metalworking and artistic expression.

Benin bronze casting techniques, while sharing a foundational similarity with the lost wax process, also incorporated their unique artistic styles, designs, and cultural motifs, setting them apart as distinct and highly esteemed artworks.


The superiority of Ifẹ bronze heads over Benin bronze is widely acknowledged, even among Benin scholars. In terms of realism, Ifẹ bronze artistry far exceeds that of Benin, capturing such lifelike details that one cannot help but marvel at the genius behind these masterpieces.

Moreover, evidence suggests that Ifẹ bronzes predate those from Benin, lending credence to the perspective of historians like Jacob Eghareva, who argue that Benin likely acquired their bronze-making techniques from Ifẹ. This historical context not only enhances our appreciation of Ifẹ bronze craftsmanship but also sheds light on the intricate cultural exchanges and influences among ancient West African civilizations.




The name “Igbomina” is derived from Ogbomona, “Ogbo” being the mystical cutlass given to him by his father, Oduduwa. The cutlass was used as a mystical pathfinder with which Orangun (Oran-mi-gun) Fagbamila Ajagun-nla founded his kingdom which today is known as Igbmomina.

The Ìgbómìnà spread across what is Eastern Kwara State and now Northern Osun State. About 90% percent of these people live in the present day Isin, Irepodun and Ifelodun local government parts of Kwara State, while the remaining occupy Ora and Ila - Orangun areas of Osun State.

Ìgbómìnàland is adjoined on the West and North West by major neighbours such as the Oyo-Yoruba region, on the South and South West by the Ijesha-Yoruba region, on the South and South East by the Ekiti-Yoruba region, on the East by the Yagba-Yoruba region, and on the North by the non-Yoruba Nupe region South of the Niger River.

Other minor neighbours of the Ìgbómìnà are the Ibolo sub-group of the cities of Offa, Oyan and Okuku in the West.

This sub-group of the Yoruba people migrated to the present place of settlement from various locations and at different times between the 14th and 17th century A.D.

Majority of Igbomina clans claimed to have migrated to the area of present habitation from either Ife or Oyo, the two main nucleus of Yorubas. The progenitor of the Igbomina was a prince of Oduduwa. 

According Yoruba-Igbomina tradition the area now called Igbomina was given to and founded by Orangun of Ila as his own share of inheritance from his grandfather, Oduduwa, the purported progenitor of the Yoruba race. According to this tradition, Orangun was the second son (and the fourth child) of Okanbi, the only son of Oduduwa. He founded Igbomina through the use of Ogbo. It was this Ogbo that was supposed to know the way to the bank of River Niger, the ultimate destination of this itinerant way-farer; hence the name Ogbomona (that is, Ogbo knows the way) literary translated (corrupted over a time) to Igbomina with the passage of time.

Apart from those found in Ila area, Igbominaland is more precisely aligned into sixteen administrative parts in Kwara State. The areas are Omu-Aran, Omupo, Sare, Oke-Ode, Igbaja, Ajase, Isin, Oro, Oro-Ago, Ile-Ire, Ora, Oko, Ola, Esie, Idofian and Idofin.

There are known compartments of Igbomina towns and villages in few other locals of Kwara State, including Apado in Iponrin area, Jeba in Lanwa district, Apa-Ole, Joromu, Fufu etc., in Akanbi district and Ogbondoroko in Afon area.

Isanlu Isin or Isanlusin is an ancient town in Igbomina-Yoruba land of Kwara State. It is one of the prominent towns in the Isin Local Government Area of the State.                   

The Igbominas are often grouped into two; the Igbomina Mosan and Igbomina Moye.

The Moye group includes Oke-Ode , Oro-Ago, Ora, Oko-Ola, Idofin and Agunjin districts.

Mosan group comprises areas such as Omu-Aran, Ajase, Igbaja, Isin, Oro, Share, Esie, Omupo, Idofian and Ila-Orangun.

The cord that firmly holds the Igbomina clan together exhibits in their inseparable dialect, origins, values, culture, institutions and aspirations.

All across Igbominaland, the habit of eating Ewu iyan and Ikasin oka or oka adagbon, is familiar. These meals are a remake of the overnight leftovers of amala and iyan, a delicacy that adds refreshing flavours of delicious tastes and aromas to the meals.

The “new” taste is highly cherished in especially Omu-Aran that its inhabitants have this refrain " ewu iyan d'Omu o dotun" , meaning the re-make is no way inferior to the fresh one.

Among the Yoruba, Igbomina people posses the famous Elewe masquerade which is an Egungun representing the ancestors during special festivals.

Igbomina people are hardworking, intelligent, industrious, widely travelled, with great exposure and highly focused.


Igbomina people speak a Central Yoruba dialect called Ìgbómìnà or Igbonna, a Yoruboid language that belongs to the larger Niger-Congo language group. Igbomina dialect is akin to the adjoining  Yagba, Ilésà, Ifẹ, Ekiti, Akurẹ, Ẹfọn, and Ijẹbu areas that are classified under Central Yoruba dialects of the larger Yoruboid languages.


The Ìgbómìnà (Igboona or Ogboona) people are ancient-hunters, renowned agriculturalists, skillful wood carvers, expert leather artists, entrepreneurial people.

The heterogeneous Igbomina people who used to be one of the highly-advanced cloth-weavers are occupying the north-central portion of the Yoruba region of South Western Nigeria.

In terms of social relations, the people are highly communal and rely heavily on the values of kith and kin, emphasizing love to one another and providing support where required.

In the cosmopolitan cities, the Igbomina breed concentrates in identifiable settlements retaining the ideals of their origin and reliving the values of the fore bearers.

In major cities all over Nigeria and in Lagos for instance, the people dominated the merchandise trading and they are found in high density of Lagos Island, Apapa, Mushin, Agege and Alimosho Local Government Areas.

They are largely enterprising, hard working and humble in disposition, two virtues which have given them such phenomenal economic success that their wealth as a people is now legendary.


Igbomina land is also a proud home to many tourist centres. Many of these are even recognized by different states and the Federal Government of Nigeria.

The first national museum in Nigeria established in 1945 is located at Esie. A standard Zoological Garden where people troop to in order to enjoy their holidays share the same fence with this museum.

Also in Esie are over 800 carved stones, mostly representing human figures, have been found around Esie in Western Igbomina, Ijara and Ofaro villages. It is not known who created the sculptures, but they appear to have been created around 1100 AD.

Ayikunnugba Water Fall at Oke-Ila as well as Owu Fall at Isin local government of kwara state are beauties to behold.


Hajji Azeez Arisekola Alao was turbaned as the Aare Musulumi of Yoruba land on June 14, 1980. He was just 35 at the time. 

Same 1980, he was also conferred with the chieftaincy title of Bobagunwa of Ejigbo, by the Ogiyan of Ejigbo, Oba Omowonuola Oyeyode Oyesosin. He was the Aare Ikolaba, given by the late Olubadan Daniel Tayo Omopeunnu Akinbiyi in 1981.

Ever since the turbaning ceremony, Hajji Azeez had stopped attending social events where he would spray musicians. He became conscious of his public activities till he breathed his last. Earlier before his becoming the Aare Musulumi, he'd been a socialite. Ebenezer Obey Fabiyi benefitted from his generosity. He waxed an album in his honor. "Oyinbo oni Datsun mi..." By 1979, Arisekola had become a popular distributor of Datsun cars, when he was barely 34.

So, it's no exaggeration to say that Arisekola had been a millionaire since the late 70s. It's noteworthy to acknowledge that he started as a Gamalin 20 distributor, walking from one place to another just to sell the product. By the late 1980s, he'd registered his Lister Group of Companies. He was the Chairman/Managing Director, Lister Group of Companies.

When Babangida became HoS in 1985, Arisekola became a friend of Mr. President, though their friendship had been active since the early 80s. He also benefitted from the Abacha military administration. You remember how UI students mobbed him in 1996? They didn't spare his Limousin. Remember this song?:

S'ebi alasalatu la ba de bi

A de Adamasingba lo d'Abacha

S'ebi Alasalatu la ba de bi...

Hajji Azeez Arisekola Alao 

Akanmu ìkó

Ajagunna isowo

Omo Rabiatu Olatutu Abegbe

Omo Alao Olaniyan

Oko Olaronke

Oko Afusa 

Oko Alh Mariam...

Baba Fatima

Baba Ismaila

Baba Abdullahi

Baba Adijah

Baba idris 

Baba Ruqoyat...

Omo atarugbo f'owo fe omidan

Omo eni a le mu ta ran alanjagbila 

To gbe ori alanjagbila mo mi

Atare kere ina latare

Ajagunna isowo tiwon n pe ni Okebadan

Pelenge olola 

Awo erin tii damu isona

Omo agesin beri odo....

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Our Benin brothers often lack a deep understanding of Yorùbá culture within the broader context of African culture, yet they are quick to criticize it. It's important to note that in African societies, kings are not simply referred to as "kings"; they hold specific appellations that reflect their roles and statuses.

For instance, the title "Ọọ̀ni" doesn't just signify a king but is a shortened form of "Ọọ̀nirisa," which means the owner of all the gods. Similarly, "Aláàfin" doesn't directly translate to "king" but rather signifies "the owner of the Palace." This naming convention is consistent across all kings in Yorùbá land.

Understanding the concept of "appellation" is crucial here. An appellation is more than just a name; it carries layers of meaning, describing a person's characteristics, origins, or qualities. Just as "The Big Apple" symbolizes New York City's significance, Yorùbá kings bear appellations that embody their roles and identities.

In ancient Africa, kings weren't simply called by generic titles; they were referred to by appellations that highlighted their specific roles and attributes. To say you are the king when you are actually the king is ridiculous and belittling. The question is what kind of king are you? The king that strikes fear into the heart of his enemies when mentioned is preferred to a king that says he is king. That is why Yorùbá kings use appelation that exalt their status and offices.

Appelation also become useful when ọbas gather in a meeting or function. It is easy for identification: Ọọ̀ni is here, Ọ̀ràngún is coming, Aláàfin has arrived, Onípópó is about to dance, Aláketu wants to address, Ajerò sends his greetings. You can see mentioning their appelation saves time rather that repeating ọba all the time.

In Yorùbá culture, the king of Benin would not simply be called "Ọba of Benin"; rather, he might be known as "Uku Aporlorporlor of Benin" or "The Home Leopard of Benin," emphasizing his unique identity and significance.

It's worth noting that the only Yorùbá king using "ọba" as an appellation is ọba Èkó, and this choice serves a purpose they habour. In Yorùbá land, he is known as Elékòó, meaning the one that raids or gathers, or possibly the owner of Èkó. These distinctions in appellation showcase the richness and depth of Yorùbá culture's traditional naming practices.

The argument being marshaled by Bini revisionists that only Ọba of Benin is Ọba, or only him bears the title is lame, because bearing Oba as appelation is out of tune with Yorùbá culture.

Kofo Abayomi: A Nigerian Who Changed His Name Just To Marry A Widow In 1930

In Colonial Lagos , Lady Oyinkan Ajasa (Lady Oyinkan Abayomi) was born daughter of Sir Kitoye Ajasa, a Yoruba aristocrat who was the first Nigerian to be knighted by the British, and Lucretia Olayinka Moore, a princess of Egba royal family, in Lagos, was born on March 6, 1897.

She schooled at the Anglican Girls' Seminary in Lagos and graduated in 1909. From there to Young Ladies Academy at Ryford Hall, Gloucestershire. In 1917, she attended the Royal Academy of Music in London. She moved back to Lagos in 1920 and became a music teacher at the Anglican Girls' Seminary.

It was during this time when she met a lawyer named Mr Moronfolu Abayomi ( the love of her life ) whom she married in 1923. 

He was aasasinated 2 months later in court, she was devastated and didn't want to marry anyone ever again.

Dr Kofo John wanted to marry her and her response was, "you have to change your name to my late husband's name - Abayomi" 

Guess what happened?

He agreed, married her and changed his name to Dr Kofo Abayomi . 

The very famous Dr Kofo Abayomi.

In this picture, Lady Oyinkan Abayomi arrives a social function in Lagos with her husband Dr Kofo Abayomi.

Things men do for love !


Ife benin relationship 4

Dark Subjects, by H. L. Ward-Price (1939); Pg. 237-238

My own experience with Benin was confined to a short visit to inquire into the system of land-tenure. Apart from the remains of the massive town wall and ditch, there is not much of interest there except what is left of the old palace. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, when Benin was known as the ‘city of blood’, on account of the dreadful and numerous sacrifices and murders that took place there, the palace must have been an imposing and sinister institution.

The late Oba, or ‘king’, of Benin, showed me over a  part of it. We went around alone, except that he was accompanied by a small boy. It was the regular custom for boys to carry swords in front of chiefs as part of their regalia, and, though sometimes seventeen or eighteen years old, they were forbidden to wear any clothes at all. But at last some prim British lady, when stationed at Benin, threw a puritanical fit, which resulted in this hitherto practically unnoticed custom being abolished ‘on account of the white woman’. All such customs have their roots in the past, and mean something; but that thought seldom seems to worry Europeans much.

The Oba was annoyed, at the time of my visit, with the Government authorities. They had sent a policeman, he said, to dig the ground inside his palace in search of the body of a missing woman, suspected of being murdered by him or his underlings. Did I consider this decent treatment? he asked. If I had murdered a woman, would I be such a fool as to bury her on my own doorstep?”

Following the Oba I went into a heavy Iroko door, which opened into a long, narrow, corridor-like room, with a tall window at the other end. He showed me a brass crucifix which was attached to a cord around his neck, and said that every morning at dawn he entered this place alone and waited for the first rays of day to illumine the window, when he pressed the crucifix to his forehead, and prayed for the Oni of Ife, the Alafin of Oyo and the Oba of Benin (that is himself); after which he prayed for all the other Yoruba kings. This had for long been the custom, he said, whether the Oba was a Christian or not; and very few of them had been, during the last couple of centuries. The habit was no doubt formed while the Roman Catholic missionaries were at Benin hundreds of years ago.

Photo: Oba Eweka ll

Source: All About Yorùbá 's page 

Friday 26 April 2024


Based on current scientific evidence, linguistics, genetic research, and fossil remains suggest that the Sumerians, like all other Homo sapiens, likely originated in Africa. Linguistic studies often trace the roots of Sumerian to the Afro-Asiatic language family, which has its origins in Africa. Genetic research has consistently shown that all modern humans share a common African ancestry, with genetic diversity decreasing the further away from Africa populations are found. Fossil evidence, including ancient skeletal remains and genetic studies of ancient populations, also support the theory of a single African origin for modern humans. Therefore, while there may be ongoing debates and research regarding specific migration patterns and interactions between populations, the evidence strongly suggests that the Sumerians, like other early civilizations, ultimately descended from African Homo sapiens. #africa


The Ashantis have the largest population in Ghana 🇬🇭 with a population estimated at 12 million people, and they can be found in Ghana, Togo 🇹🇬 and Ivory Coast 🇨🇮 

The Ashanti people, who are a subgroup of the Akan, speak the Twi language, a language that is one of the most widely spoken in West Africa. Their capital was Kumasi, one of the largest cities in Ghana. Kumasi was the capital of the Ashanti precolonial federation, also sometimes referred to as a kingdom.

Most modern Ashanti people are Christians. Some are traditional worshippers, while a growing population of Muslims can also be found.

According to the history of these great people, the Ashanti kingdom was found in the 1600s, in the midst of a land that was full of gold and that served as a major trade item between them and the Europeans.

Many descendants Ashantis exist in Caribbean countries, especially in Jamaica, where there is a clear Ashanti influence in the Jamaican name, dress, and physical appearance.

#africa  #ghana

What is an ancient civilization?

Someone asked “Which civilization contributed the most to humanity? And why?”

I responded:

What is an ancient civilization?

And why do you think only Civilizations contributed to mankind.

Allow me to demonstrate with only 2 examples. I have 3,000 peer-reviewed examples from Africa alone but 2 will suffice.

Two unknown Africans, or two generations or more of Africans - we don’t know their names - developed language and cooking. What was the impact?

How did developing language just once, before various languages branched off help humanity? People use language to learn, gain insights, order food, make friends, attract sexual partners, display confidence, stay safe, resolve conflicts, bridge cultural gaps, debate and approve cooperation (which later became laws), gain or display cultural awareness, express love, display adaptability, compete, express disapproval, predict, investigate, consider the testimony of witnesses, and to expand their horizons.

What about cooking? The oldest evidence of cooking comes from archaeological evidence of cooking giant snails. This idea of cooking transformed human diets, making food more digestible and nutrient-rich. This energy-efficient process redirected energy to foster larger brains, aiding human cognition. The surplus energy, with cooked food's ease of digestion, enabled reduced intestinal size, minimizing energy expenditure on digestion. As a result, humans evolved with smaller intestines, optimizing energy allocation for brain development and other physiological functions, marking a pivotal moment in human evolution.

Cooking has served as a cornerstone of human civilization for over 200,000 years, fulfilling a myriad of roles across every continent. It provides essential nutrition, preserves food, and reflects cultural identities through unique cuisines. Moreover, cooking fosters socialization and bonding within communities, while also promoting health through the reduction of harmful bacteria. Comfort, celebration, and economic exchange are facilitated through cooking, which also acts as a platform for passing down culinary traditions and skills from one generation to the next. Furthermore, certain cooking practices have medicinal purposes, aiding in survival by making otherwise inedible foods palatable. Innovation in cooking techniques has led to the discovery of new flavors and dishes, often serving as status symbols, entertainment, or artistic expressions. Cooking has also played a role in environmental adaptation and sustainability, as well as in conflict resolution and diplomacy. Additionally, it shapes parenting practices, religious rituals, and even exploration and colonization, introducing new ingredients and techniques to different regions.

The analogy of civilizations as trees in an orchard, each isolated and independent, fails to capture the interconnectedness and mutual influence of human societies throughout history. Instead, a more accurate metaphor is that of a rich tapestry, where civilizations are threads intricately woven together over time, creating a complex and diverse fabric of human experience.

In this metaphor, each civilization represents a unique thread contributing to the overall pattern of human history. Just as different colored threads intertwine to form a beautiful tapestry, diverse cultures interact, exchange ideas, and shape each other's development. From the earliest exchanges of goods along ancient trade routes to the modern interconnected world of global commerce and communication, human societies have been in constant dialogue, influencing one another in myriad ways.

Moreover, like a tapestry, human history is not static but dynamic, evolving over time as new threads are added and old ones fade away. Civilizations rise and fall, empires expand and contract, but the interconnected web of human interaction endures. This metaphor emphasizes the richness and complexity of human history, highlighting the interdependence of societies and the shared journey of humanity through time.

Ultimately, viewing human history as a tapestry underscores the interconnectedness of all peoples and cultures, challenging notions of superiority and highlighting the shared heritage of humanity. It reminds us that, despite our differences, we are all part of the same intricate fabric of human experience, woven together by the threads of history.

We could also view time and changes across the entire earth like a gigantic jigsaw puzzle, in which we are trying to figure out how each piece tells us more about the overall picture.

“Civilisational” thinking has created a lot of erroneous analogies which give the impression that pure “White” “Western” Civilisations exist and have always existed which created everything themselves and which are at risk of being ruined by foreigners. The truth is the world has always been more interconnected.

The truth is like learning that light is photon but also possesses wave-particle duality, and explaining THAT to people that don’t know that an electromagnetic spectrum of radiation exists.


Muhammad Ali had a record player that played 45 rpm records built into his automobile. In the 60s, Norelco "Auto Mignon" only held one 45 rpm record at a time, for 4½ minutes of play, potentially distracting the driver with the need for multiple record changes.

Consumer Reports claims the Norelco players were able to keep the needle on the record while driving and that the needle performance was "unaffected by rough roads, car sway, and sharp braking." However, "a steady stylus had its price, wearing down the records from the high pressure required to keep it in place. And the RCA unit's turntable ran fast, speeding up records," according to CR. In addition, there was nowhere to put the vinyl since the Norelco didn't store any records, as the RCA model did.

Car record players soon made way for the eight-track tape deck. In September 1965, the Ford Motor Company introduced factory-installed and dealer-installed eight-track tape players as an option on three of its 1966 models (the sporty Mustang, luxurious Thunderbird, and high-end Lincoln), and RCA Victor introduced 175 Stereo-8 Cartridges from its RCA Victor and RCA Camden labels of recording artists catalogs.

🖊️ African American History


Evidence supporting the assertion that the word Ọba belongs to the Yorùbá rather than the Benin people is multi-faceted and deeply rooted in historical and linguistic analysis. Let's delve into each point with a bit more detail and expansion:

Firstly, the acknowledgment from Benin historians and revisionists themselves strengthens the argument that the term "Ọba" has Yorùbá origins. It is widely agreed among them that Ọ̀rànmíyàn, a figure of Yorùbá descent, introduced the title "Ọba" to the Benin kingdom. Prior to his reign, the title of "ogie" was used to refer to a king in Benin.

Secondly, the historical context surrounding the last ogie of Benin, Ogiso Owodo, and Odùduwà, who bore the title of Ọba in Ifẹ̀, supports the idea of the Yorùbá influence. Ogiso Owodo's reign probably coincided with Odùduwà's kingship in Ifẹ̀ according to Benin historian, indicating no shared linguistic and cultural heritage between the two regions. Kings were ogie or Ogiso in Benin then and kings were ọba in Ifẹ and other yorùbá states of the time.

Thirdly, Odùduwà's established kingship as an Ọba in Ifẹ̀ predates Ọ̀rànmíyàn's introduction of obaship in Benin, since they both agree that Ọ̀rànmíyàn was son to Odùduwà. This further reinforces the Yorùbá claim to the title of Ọba as emanating from them.

Fourthly, a semantic analysis of the term "Ọba" reveals its meaning as "king" in Yorùbá, aligning with its use as a royal title. In contrast, in Benin language, "Ọba" holds meanings such as "shining" or "red," while "ogie" is the term used for "king." This linguistic distinction underscores the divergence in royal terminology between the two cultures.

Fifthly, historical records indicate the existence of Ọba figures in Ifẹ̀ even before Odùduwà's time, such as Ọbàtálá. This historical continuity highlights the longstanding tradition of kingship/obaship within the Yorùbá culture, predating Odùduwà reign in Ifẹ and definitely many Ogiso reigns in Benin.

The historical revisionists in Benin made a crucial mistake by assuming that Odùduwà must have been the first ọba solely because we consider him our revered progenitor. Our reverence for Odùduwà in our history stems from his role as the first unifier of what later evolved into the Yorùbá culture. This is akin to how many Yorùbá people view Obafemi Awolowo as a great politician due to his significant role as another unifier during our era.

In like manner, another notable unifier was Ọ̀rànmíyàn, who ascended to the throne in Ifẹ, later extending his influence to Benin and ultimately establishing the ancient Ọ̀yọ́ Empire, the largest empire in Southern Nigeria at the time. These unifiers not only left a lasting impact on our cultural and historical narratives but also shaped the political and social landscapes of their respective eras.

Wednesday 24 April 2024


The assertion that Athens was the world's first democracy overlooks evidence of democratic practices in at least 20 cities and societies from various regions and time periods before Athens - Uruk, Sumerian City-States, Ébla, Mari, Mohenjo-Daro, Assur, Knossos, Babylon, Hattusa, Thebes, Sparta, Carthage, Corinth, Argos, Sicyon, Miletus, Bactra, Cyrene, Magadha, Chios. These cities and societies, spanning from Mesopotamia to Asia Minor to North Africa, East Africa, and India, had various forms of democratic governance, including assemblies, councils, and participatory decision-making processes. Athens itself had limitations on voting rights, oppressing 90% of its population and excluding women, slaves, metics, minors, and non-Athenian Greeks. Most officials were chosen by lottery, with some selected by merit for military posts. Decision-making involved popular votes by the citizenry, with mechanisms for feedback and accountability, such as ostracism. This broader perspective challenges the Eurocentric view of Athens as the sole originator of democracy. Don’t take my word for it, fact-check me. 


13 Facts You Need to Know About Somalia

(1). Somalia is located in the Horn of Africa, bordered by Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya, and the Indian Ocean.

(2). Mogadishu, the capital city of Somalia, has been inhabited for over 2,000 years and was an important trading center on the ancient Silk Road.

(3). The Somali people have a rich and diverse cultural heritage, with influences from Arab, Persian, Indian, and African civilizations.

(4). Somali is the official language of Somalia, with Arabic also widely spoken, particularly in religious contexts.

(5). Somalia is known for its nomadic pastoralist culture, with many Somalis traditionally living as nomads, herding camels, cattle, sheep, and goats.

(6). The Somali coastline is one of the longest in Africa, stretching over 3,300 kilometers and offering abundant marine resources.

(7). Somalia has a strategic location along the Gulf of Aden, making it an important maritime trade route connecting Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.

(8). Somali cuisine is diverse and flavorful, featuring dishes such as hilib ari (grilled goat meat), bariis (spiced rice), sambusa (fried pastry filled with meat or vegetables), and anjero (sourdough flatbread).

(9). The traditional Somali dance known as the Dhaanto is a lively and rhythmic dance performed at weddings, celebrations, and cultural events.

(10). Somalia has a rich tradition of oral poetry, with poets known as "bards" reciting epic poems and historical narratives.

(11). The Somali Civil War, which began in 1991, has had a devastating impact on the country, leading to widespread displacement, conflict, and humanitarian crises.

(12). Somalia is home to ancient archaeological sites such as Laas Geel, which contains some of the earliest known cave paintings in Africa, dating back over 5,000 years.

(13). The Somali economy is largely based on agriculture, livestock, and fishing, with livestock exports such as goats, sheep, and camels being significant sources of income.

#Africa #Somalia

The Life And Times Of HAUSA Musician Dankwairo 1902-1991

Alhaji Musa Dan Kwairo was a prominent and highly respected Hausa traditional musician. He was born  in Bakura Emirate, Zamfara State, Nigeria, in 1902 from Hausa family.

Musa Dan Kwairo’s musical talents and passion for traditional Hausa music emerged at a young age, and he would go on to become one of the most influential figures in the genre.

Hausa traditional music holds deep cultural significance in the northern region of Nigeria, and Musa Dan Kwairo played a pivotal role in preserving and promoting this rich musical heritage. He dedicated his life to creating beautiful melodies, heartfelt lyrics, and captivating rhythms that resonated with the Hausa people and beyond.

Musa Dan Kwairo’s music was characterized by the use of traditional instruments such as the kalangu drum. He skillfully blended these instruments with vocal harmonies and poetic storytelling to create a unique and enchanting sound. His songs often touched on themes of royal families, influencial people, love, unity, social issues, and moral values, reflecting the realities and aspirations of his people.

What set Musa Dan Kwairo apart was not only his exceptional musical talent but also his ability to connect with his audience. He had a warm and charismatic stage presence that captivated listeners, drawing them into the stories he told through his music. Whether performing at local gatherings, cultural festivals, or international stages, his performances were always imbued with authenticity and a deep sense of cultural pride.

Throughout his career, Musa Dan Kwairo released numerous albums, many of which became popular across the Hausa-speaking regions of Nigeria. His songs resonated with people from all walks of life, transcending boundaries and fostering a sense of unity among the Hausa community. Musa Dan Kwairo’s music served as a cultural bridge, reinforcing the importance of heritage and identity while embracing the beauty of diversity.

Some of his music include:

(1). Mai dubun nasara

(2). Yan Arewa

(3). Sarkin Daura

(4). Sarkin Dass

(5). Sarkin Kayan Maradun

(6). Sarkin Suleja

(7). Noma babar sana’a.

(8). Sarkin Suleja

(9). Ahmed Aruwa

(10). Shehu Kangiwa

(11). Sarkin Gwandu

(12). Bakalori

(13). Sarkin Minna

(14). Damburan na Katagum

(15). Hassan Chiroman Katsina

(16). Turakin Zazzau Aminu

(17). Dan’iyan Sarkin Katagum

(18). Atiku Turakin Adamawa

(19). Ibrahim Dasuki

(20). Dan kabo

(21). Faruku Dansarkin Shanu

(22). Sarkin Muri

(23). Yayi wa Maza Takun raini

(24). Alkali Bello

(25). Ahmed Aruwa

(26). Kabiru Mado

(27). Sarkin Zazzau

(28). Malami Sarkin Sudan

(29). Sarkin Keffi

(30). Alhaji Shehu Shagari

(31). Torakin Kano

(32). Ado Bayaro

(33). Ahmadu Bello Sardauna

(34). Bello Maitama

(35). Irin gidan Bawa jan gwarzo

(36). Dan Amadu Tsayayye

(37). Alkalin Sokoto

(38). Sa’idu na maska

(39). Ali na Malam Bawa 

(40). Ali Sikofivo

His contributions to the world of Hausa traditional music were recognized and celebrated both within and outside Nigeria. Musa Dan Kwairo received various accolades and honors for his outstanding musical achievements, including prestigious awards and commendations from cultural organizations and government institutions.

Sadly, Alhaji Musa Dan Kwairo passed away in the early 3rd September, 1991, leaving behind a remarkable legacy in the realm of Hausa traditional music. His influence can still be felt today, as his songs continue to be cherished and his musical style serves as an inspiration for a new generation of musicians. Musa Dan Kwairo’s dedication to preserving and promoting Hausa traditional music has solidified his place as a legendary figure in Nigerian music history.

Source: Taskar Afrika

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