Sunday 16 June 2024

MARY SEACOLE

Mary Seacole, a renowned Jamaican nurse, gained recognition for her remarkable contributions during the Crimean War. Born in 1805 in Kingston, Jamaica, she displayed exceptional nursing skills and compassion towards the sick and wounded. Despite facing racial prejudice, she persevered and traveled to the Crimea to provide care for British soldiers.

Seacole's dedication and expertise in nursing led her to establish the "British Hotel" near the battlefront, which served as a place of respite and healing for wounded soldiers. Her hands-on approach to healthcare and innovative treatment methods significantly improved the soldiers' well-being. She became known for her selflessness and unwavering commitment to the well-being of others, earning her the admiration and respect of many.

Mary Seacole's legacy continues to inspire generations, as she defied societal norms and overcame obstacles to make a lasting impact on healthcare. Her pioneering spirit and humanitarian efforts exemplify the highest standards of nursing practice, making her a revered figure in the history of healthcare. Mary Seacole's story serves as a beacon of hope and resilience, showcasing the power of compassion and determination in the face of adversity.

A statue has been erected to her outside Saint Thomas hospital in London, UK in memory of her achievements.

20 Amazing Facts About The Gambia 🇬🇲

(1). The Gambia 🇬🇲 is a small West African country that is almost entirely surrounded by Senegal.

(2). It is the smallest country in mainland Africa, with a total land area of about 4,361 square miles.

(3). The Gambia 🇬🇲 has a population of approximately 2 million people.

(4). The official language of The Gambia is English, but many Gambians also speak local languages such as Mandinka, Wolof, and Fula.

(5). The Gambia 🇬🇲 has a tropical climate with a wet and dry season. The dry season usually runs from November to May.

(6). The Gambia River, one of the country's most prominent features, flows through the middle of the country and is vital for transportation and agriculture.

(7). The capital city of The Gambia 🇬🇲 is Banjul, located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.

(8). Tourism is an essential industry in The Gambia, with visitors attracted to its beautiful beaches, wildlife reserves, and vibrant culture.

(9). The Gambia 🇬🇲 is known for its diverse birdlife, making it a popular destination for birdwatchers.

(10). The country is home to several national parks and nature reserves, including Kiang West National Park and River Gambia National Park.

(11). The Gambia 🇬🇲 has a rich cultural heritage, with traditional music, dance, and storytelling playing a significant role in Gambian society.

(12). The predominant religion in The Gambia is Islam, with about 95% of the population practicing the faith.

(13). The Gambia 🇬🇲 gained its independence from British colonial rule on February 18, 1965.

(14). The country has a strong tradition of wrestling, with traditional wrestling matches known as "Borreh" attracting large audiences.

(15). The economy of The Gambia relies heavily on agriculture, particularly the production of peanuts, which is the country's main export crop.

(16). The Gambian cuisine is diverse and includes dishes such as domoda (peanut stew), benachin (one-pot rice dish), and yassa (marinated meat or fish).

#Africa #Gambia

HISTORY LESSON

Thoth was most often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis. He often holds a scribe's palette and stylus but could also be depicted with an ankh (representing life) and a sceptre (representing power). Thoth sometimes wore a crescent moon on his head, but was also depicted wearing the Atef crown, and the double crown of Upper and Lower Kemet. When he was acting as the "voice of Ra", he carried the "Eye of Ra" (a symbol of the power of the sun). Occasionally he was depicted as an ibis, or a baboon. It is thought that the bird was associated with the moon because of its crescent shaped beak, and the baboon is nocturnal animal which has the peculiar habit of chattering at the sun every day before going to sleep.

Thoth was a great magician who knew "all that is hidden under the heavenly vault". He used his knowledge to help Isis after the murder of her husband Osiris by his brother Set. With the help of Anubis he created the first mummification ritual and helped resurrect Osiris (albeit in the land of the Dead). He also protected Isis's son Horus by driving a magical poison from his body when he was very young and supported him in his fight to gain the throne which was rightfully his.

Happy Youth Day South Africa 🇿🇦

On this day in June 16 1976 Soweto students embarked on a student protest against the use of Afrikaans language as a medium of instruction in school. Mbuyisa Makhubu is a significant figure in South African history, especially known for his involvement in the Soweto Uprising of 1976. This event was a series of protests led by black school children in South Africa against the apartheid regime's policy of enforcing Afrikaans as the medium of instruction in schools. The protests became a crucial moment in the struggle against apartheid.

Makhubu became internationally recognized after being photographed carrying the body of Hector Pieterson, a 12-year-old boy who was one of the first casualties of the uprising. The photograph, taken by Sam Nzima, became an iconic image representing the brutality of the apartheid regime and the struggle for freedom in South Africa.

After the uprising, Makhubu faced persecution by the apartheid authorities. He fled South Africa and sought refuge in various countries, including Botswana and Nigeria. For many years, his whereabouts were unknown, and there were numerous rumors and reports about his fate. In 2013, it was reported that Makhubu might have been found in Canada, living under an assumed identity. However, definitive confirmation of his identity and circumstances remained elusive.

Mbuyisa Makhubu's legacy endures as a symbol of the courage and resilience of those who resisted apartheid in South Africa. His actions on June 16, 1976, and the image capturing his bravery continue to inspire and remind people of the sacrifices made in the fight for justice and equality. #Africa

Saturday 15 June 2024

Amazing Facts About Malawi 🇲🇼 🇲🇼 🇲🇼

(1). Malawi 🇲🇼 is a landlocked country located in Southeast Africa, bordered by Tanzania, Mozambique, and Zambia.

(2). Malawi's official name is the Republic of Malawi 🇲🇼 .

(3). The official language is English and Chichewa.

(4). Malawi 🇲🇼 has a population of approximately 20 million people.

(5). The country's economy is primarily based on agriculture, with tobacco being the main export crop.

(6). Lake Malawi, also known as Lake Nyasa in Tanzania and Lago Niassa in Mozambique, is the ninth largest lake in the world and the third largest and second deepest lake in Africa.

(7). Malawi is known as the "Warm Heart of Africa" due to the friendliness of its people.

(8). Malawi gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1964.

(9). The country's flag 🇲🇼 features a full red sun with a rising rays on black field.

(10). Malawi has a diverse cultural heritage, with over 120 ethnic groups, each with their own unique customs and traditions.

(11). Malawi 🇲🇼 is also known as "The land of the lake".

(12). Malawi has a lot of natural resources like forests, wildlife, minerals, and water resources.

(13).  Malawi 🇲🇼 has a diverse range of fauna and flora, and it is home to several national parks and protected areas.

STEVE HARVEY

"The whîteman used to make our ancestors lose weight so they couldn't be strong enough to revolt before bringing them to America."~ Steve Harvey

"Every black person living should go to Ghana and see them slave castles, so you can see what they did to us. You've got to see what they did to us. You've got to see how they built these dungeons underground and they put these churches untop. And they dug holes in the ground to pump the music or what they call  their christianity into the holes. Let me explain something to you all, they walked our ancestors as far as they can first to make them lose weight. They put them in a room, they cut a door and after you've been in this room in two weeks, they walk you through this door. If you lose the right amount of weight, you fit through the door. If you don't fit through the door, you've to stay in the room. Then you go to a different room for another week and if you can't fit through the door, then you haven't lost enough weight. You've gotta go through four doors like this before you go through the door of no return where you become a slave."__American actor/TV host, Steve Harvey makes a shockîng revelatîon!!

Ghanaian slave castles include Elmina Castle and Fort Christiansborg. They were used to harbour enslaved Africans before they were loaded onto ships and sold in the Americas, especially the Caribbean. This "gate of no return" was the last stop before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

#Africa

TEACHING MOMENT THE GREEKS VISITED EGYPT (KEMET) AS STUDENTS TO LEARN ABOUT AFRICANS

◉ Plato studied in Egypt for 13 years.

◉ Pythagoras studied philosophy, geometry and medicine in Egypt for 22 years.

◉ Thales, the first Greek philosopher to study in Egypt for 7 years.

◉ Hypocrates, who is called father of medicine, recognised the Egyptian multi genius, Imhotep as the father of medicine.

◉ The "Pythagorean Theorem" used to build pyramids in Egypt 1000 years before Pythagorean was born.

◉ Plato said Egyptian education makes students more alert and humane. Plato told his students to go to Egypt if they wanted to study the minds of great philosophers.

◉ Heredotus, the Greek historian described ancient Egypt as the cradle of civilization.

Our ancestors opened the doors of our Nation to foreign people. These guests were welcomed with respect and honour according to our traditions but they used our kindness to destroy and cause division amongst Africans and our tradition.

This is what they don't teach in our schools. So, many people think that AFRICA history started from slavery 😭

LEAVE IT OR TAKE IT!

#Africa #Blackhistory #Kemet #Egypt

The book that will change everything you know about African history

When We Ruled by Robin Walker.

In 700 pages of groundbreaking research, Walker uncovers the hidden story of Africa's past.

If you don't have a couple of months to read it yourself, here are 10 important things I learned:

(1).  The Nubian Kingdom of Ta-Seti is the oldest kingdom on Earth.

(2). Sudan has more pyramids than Egypt.

(3). The libraries of Timbuktu housed more books than any European collection during the Middle Ages.

(4). In 951 AD, a cheque was written in Aoudaghost (Ancient Ghana) worth 42,000 dinars.

(5). Ile-Ife (Nigeria) had streets paved with maize cobs in 1000 AD - But maize comes from America and Columbus didn't get there for another 400 years 🤯

(6). Malian voyagers set sail for America in 1311 AD, 181 years before Columbus.

(7). The Malian Emperor, Mansa Musa, is the richest man in recorded history - On his journey to Mecca, he stopped in Cairo, and spent so much of his gold that Cairo's economy crashed due to the inflation, and didn't recover for 12 years.

(8). In the 14th Century, Timbuktu was 5 times larger than London.

(9). 15th Century manuscripts from Timbuktu show the planets revolving around the sun.  They were written over 150 year before Nicolaus Copernicus discovered this in 1543.

(10). The longest earthworks in the world carried out prior to the mechanical era are the Ancient Walls of Benin and Ishan, located in Edo State in present-day Nigeria. #Africa

THE ZULU PEOPLE

The Zulus were a part of federation under Dingiswayo, known as the Mthethwa Empire. "Mthethwa" means "the one who rules". It consisted of roughly 30 Nguni chiefdoms, lineages, and clans. Unlike its successor, the Zulu Kingdom, the Mthethwa Paramountcy was a confederation. The Zulu chiefdom was a vassal of the Mthethwa Paramountcy. The Mthethwas also had an alliance with the Tsonga people. 

According to Muzi Mthethwa (1995), the Mthethwas are descended from the Nguni tribes of northern Natal and the Lubombo Mountains, whose modern identity dates back some 700 years. They are among the first Nguni-Tsonga groups who left the Great Lakes in Central Africa between 200 AD and 1200 AD. On arrival in Southern Africa, they settled around modern-day Swaziland, mainly on the Lubombo Mountains, before leaving in the 17th century to settle in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal, in the Nkandla region.

In the Mthethwa Empire, which was a federation of Nguni communities, military training was required for initiation into manhood at age 15. Shaka first distinguished himself as a good soldier. 

He was elevated to the commander of his age set. When Dingiswayo died, Shaka Zulu became the leader. The Zulu kingdom therefore is actually just a continuation of the Mthethwa commonwealth, which dates back to centuries earlier. #Africa

Friday 14 June 2024

THE TALLEST MAN IN UGANDA

Here is the tallest man in Uganda by name Mr. Shipä. He is a source of tourism in Uganda 🇺🇬 as his height attracts tourists to come and take picture with him.

This is the results you get in your country when there’s peace and freedom of movement, tourists will even come to your area just to see your toilets and that’s generating of money for your country. 

#Africa #Uganda

PRESIDENT BASSIROU DIOMAYE FAYE

Senegal's President Bassirou Diomaye Faye has said profits from the sale of oil and gas will be “well managed” as the West African state started producing oil for the first time.

Australian energy giant Woodside described the extraction as a “historic day” and a "key milestone" for the company and the nation.

The Sangomar deep-water project, which also has gas, aims to produce 100,000 barrels of oil per day.

It is expected to generate billions of dollars for Senegal and boost its economy.

Thierno Ly, the general manager of the national oil company Petrosen, said the nation had entered a “new era” when production began on Tuesday.

"We have never been so well positioned for opportunities for growth, innovation and success in the economic and social development of our nation," he said.

Petrosen has an 18% stake in the project while Woodside owns the remainder.

Mr Faye, who was elected president in April, has been keen on renegotiating the deal as part of reforms he promised during the election campaign.

Speaking to students on Tuesday, he said that the earnings would be "well managed", and that an “inter-generation fund” had been set up for the benefit of "your generation and those to come”, the AFP news agency quoted him as saying. #Africa #Senegal

THE CHOKWE PEOPLE

The Chokwe people are an ethnic group of Central and Southern Africa. They are found primarily in Angola 🇦🇴 southwest parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo 🇨🇩 (Kinshasa to Lualaba), and northwestern parts of Zambia 🇿🇲 

The Chokwe, with an estimated population of 1.3 million people.

The Chokwe were once one of the twelve clans of the Lunda Empire in 17th and 18th century Angola.

Chokwe origin are said to be traced to the Mbundu and Mbuti Pygmies of Congo 🇨🇩

The Chokwe grow cassava, maize, yams, and peanuts. Sheep, goats, pigs, and chickens are kept as livestock.

Mwana pwo (young woman) masks, danced by Chokwe men at festivals for entertainment, are said to bestow increased fertility on the spectators. The masks represent female ancestors depicted as beautiful young women.

The traditional spiritual beliefs of the Chokwe center around ancestor spirits worship. In groups where chiefs exist, they are considered the representative of god Kalunga/ Nzambi, therefore revered and called Mwanangana or “overseer of the land.” With the colonial era, Chowke converted to Christianity yet the original beliefs were retained to produce a syncretism of beliefs and practices. They are another tribe which fused a colonial religion with their own indigenous spiritual practises. 

The Chokwe see Kalunga/ Nzambi the god of creation and supreme power, as well as of nature and mahamba (ancestral spirits). neglecting these spirits is sure to result in personal or collective misfortune. Evil spirits may also be activated by wanga (sorcerers) to cause illness, and this must be counteracted to regain health. The most common form of divination among the Chokwe is basket divination, which consists of the tossing of up to sixty individual objects in a basket. 

Male initiation sees young boys taken into the bush for a period of time. As the weeks go on, older men begin to train them in occupational tasks, as well as verbal abilities, sex education, psychological management techniques, and other skills they will need to be adult males and useful citizens. #Angola #Congo #Zambia

TEACHING MOMENT

Africa is not named after a Roman general! You have heard me say this before? If so, it is because I have pledged to repeat it again and again with the hope that it will someday sink in.

Africa is not named after Roman general Scipio Africanus. Nor is it named after Leo Africanus--a man who comes much later.  These are myths. I repeat, these are myths!

Scipio Africanus is the Roman general who engineered the defeat of the African nation called Carthage--centered in what is now Tunisia. Carthage was a colony from Phoenicia. It was established in 814 BCE. The Nile Valley was still thriving at this time and the civilization called Nok--based in what is now Nigeria--was rising up. The Phoenicians themselves had an African mixture and with the passage of time Carthage itself became increasingly African. Carthage means "the new town" and the most famous Carthaginian was General Hannibal Barca. The Romans called this entire area Africa. And so with the defeat of the Carthaginians Scipio is given the name "conqueror of Africa." So Scipio Africanus does not give his name to Africa. He gets his name from Africa! Get it? Make sense to you?

Now the man named Leo Africanus was himself an African. Indeed, his name means Leo the African!! He got his name from Africa.  He did not give his name to Africa.

Now before you tie yourself up in knots and begin to ask "Runoko Rashidi what was the original name for the continent of Africa" please ask yourself, "What makes you think that ancient people thought of themselves as living on continents?"

The notion of continents is a European notion and it is a relatively recent one at that. The word Ethiopian is Greek. It means land of the burnt faced people. And Alkebulan does not even appear to be an African word.

So why not start looking at things from an African perspective. Why not use our own frame of reference?

We need to spend more time educating each other. I try and do it each day.

MY OBSERVATION

I discovered that 100% of online racists who religiously believe incorrectly that black people have a lower IQ on average don’t actually know what IQ measurements are and the limitations.

Some people like to quote statistics but don’t actually have the wisdom to interpret the data correctly. This is what I have found when people make statements like “People from X have a lower IQ than ..”

The demography (the split of ages 0-15, 16-64, and 65+) is different from country to country, and continent to continent.

The concept of IQ tests was pioneered by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon in France in the early 20th century. Initially, their aim was to identify children who might need extra assistance in school. Their focus was on measuring a child's mental age in comparison to their chronological age.

Over time, IQ tests evolved in various ways. One notable change was the development of standardized tests, like the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), which provided a more consistent way to measure intelligence across different ages and populations.

Strengths of IQ tests include their ability to assess certain cognitive abilities and predict academic success in some cases. However, they also have weaknesses, such as cultural biases, as well as limitations in assessing creativity, emotional intelligence, and practical skills.

Valid measurements of intelligence go beyond IQ tests. Other methods include multiple intelligences theory by Howard Gardner, which identifies various types of intelligence (linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic). Additionally, assessments of emotional intelligence, problem-solving skills, and practical abilities contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of a person's capabilities beyond what traditional IQ tests measure.

Typically, children under 10 do not have the same IQ as adults aged over 18. IQ tends to develop and stabilize as individuals grow older. While some children may display high intelligence, their cognitive abilities are still in the process of development and are not typically at the same level as adults. IQ scores tend to increase as a person matures and gains more knowledge and experience over time.

In IQ testing, 100 is considered the average score. When someone scores above 100, it suggests they performed better than the average for their age group, and below 100 indicates they performed below the average.

Regarding the relationship between age group and an IQ score of 100, this number serves as a baseline or average score within a specific age group. For instance, a score of 100 for a 10-year-old means they performed at the expected level for a child of that age. Similarly, a score of 100 for a 30-year-old reflects an average performance for someone within that age bracket.

Comparing IQ tests across countries involves several challenges due to cultural, linguistic, and educational differences. One method used is to standardize the tests through extensive sampling and normalization processes. Researchers adapt tests to ensure they measure the same cognitive abilities across different populations. However, even with adjustments, cultural biases may persist, making direct comparisons challenging. Consequently, some researchers caution against making direct comparisons between IQ scores across diverse cultures and countries.

These strengths and weaknesses of the IQ test result in perverse results when scores are applied to Africa or quoted without context.

3% of Africa is over 65, whereas 40% is under age 15 (source: Statista 2022). In Europe 19% are over 65, while 16% are under age 15 (source: Statista 2022). In Asia, 10% of the population is over 65, while 24% are under age 15 (source: Statista 2022). The population of Asia is 4.6 billion, out of the world’s total population of 8.0 billion (57.5%). The global age percentage of the population under 15 of 25% and over 65 of 10% is therefore determined based on weighted averages by Asia.

Imagine for instance that a French person would never take an IQ test in Hausa. A German would never take an IQ test in Twi. Without 15 years of training, a French citizen would not be able to demonstrate the same level of verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, working memory and processing speed as a fluent Hausa speaker if they had to take the test in a foreign language.

Imagine also that a child is generally not smarter than an adult, which is why in most countries they can’t drive, drink, get married, work, vote or have sex until a certain age. Yet the average iQ of a continent with 40% children may be casually compared with a continent with 16% children, without any further explanations that an IQ score is not meaningful if it is not adjusted for age, culture and language fluency.

Moreover, the assertion that racial disparities in IQ within Western countries eliminate cultural biases is incorrect. Even within the same country, socio-economic factors, educational quality, and historical disadvantages play significant roles in shaping IQ scores. Black individuals in the US, for example, often face systemic barriers that impact their educational and cognitive development, making direct comparisons with other racial groups problematic. That is documented, and not disputed.

I wrote this reply to provide a comprehensive understanding of the complexities and limitations when comparing IQ scores across different populations, especially when making claims about the IQ of Africans or any other specific group. It highlights the historical context of IQ tests, their strengths, and limitations, emphasizing the importance of considering cultural, linguistic, and age-related factors.

I point out the challenges in directly comparing IQ scores between individuals or groups from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds, as well as the significant impact of age demographics on such comparisons. Additionally, it addresses the issue of language proficiency and its influence on test performance, underlining how individuals may perform differently when taking tests in their non-native languages.

Furthermore, I emphasize the importance of understanding that IQ scores are not standalone measures of intelligence but need adjustments for factors like age, culture, and language fluency to be meaningful in comparative analyses. Overall, this analysis provides a nuanced view, cautioning against oversimplified or generalized claims about IQ scores across diverse populations.

THE KANDAKE WARRIORS

The Kandake warriors of Kush were one of the most, if not the most, powerful group of woman in the history of the world. Also known  as Queen Mothers, controlling and ruling over territory in Ethiopia, Sudan, and parts of Egypt. Kandake was often used as a royal title or dynastic name. It is translated into English as “Candace”.

The kandake Queens would sometimes rule on their own or with their husbands. The queen would share an equal role with the king, or reserve most of the decisions making for herself.

In many situation the Kandakes had absolute authority and were tasked with creating their sons as rulers. Similar to the Hatshepsut situation in the 18th dynasty of Kemet. Where she took on a leadership role after her husband  died, and made sure his son,Thutmose III, received adequate training to prepare him to be the next Nswt in Kemet.

These Queen Warriors also played a significant role in spirituality, having pillars,  pyramids, engravings, ect erected in their honor. Shanakdakhete’s was one of the most prolific Queens of Kush owning one of the largest pyramids built by the kings of Kush. The pyramid featuring a unique chapel has two rooms and two columns.  Landscapes in the chapel depicting military campaigns to the south show large numbers of livestock and prisoners.

Amanishakheto was the most powerful and wealthiest among the rulers of Kush. There are several monuments of her and she is mentioned in the Amun Temple of Kawa.  She built a considerable amount of pyramids and temples at Wad Naqaa, where she resided and where she was buried with valuable treasures of the Nehesu.

VICTORIA RUBADIRI

Victoria Rubadiri comes from the lineage of the great Malawian diplomat Prof David Rubadiri. Her grandfather was a renowned poet, playwright and novelist.

The award winning journalist studied Forestry at Masinde Muliro University and later a Bachelor of Arts in Broadcast Journalism at Temple University in Philadephia, Pennsylvania.

Vicky as she is known in media circles worked in public relations before joining Capital FM as a business reporter. Her keen eye for details, nose for news, intellectual depth and delivering cutting edge content are the hallmarks of her illustrious career in media.

She started off as an intern at NBC in Linwood, New Jersey. She lived in the US for 14 years and gained valuable inter cultural experience across races and class, an ingredient that has enabled her tell exceptional stories on radio and on screen.

In 2020 she won the Komla Dumor Award. This award is given to individuals living and working in Africa with strong journalism skills, on air flair and exceptional talent in telling African stories..The reward is a 3 month training at BBC World News. The only other Kenyan  recipient is his former colleague Waihiga Mwaura in 2018. Vicky  is also a recipient of the KUZA Award by Communication Authority of Kenya.

Victoria Rubadiri has worked with NTV where she hosted Weekend Edition. Royal Media Services gave  a lucrative offer and she crossed over to Citizen TV as Senior Anchor and Reporter. She lastly co-hosted Sunday live with Jeff Koinange. As her star continued to shine, Victoria Rubadiri was recently head hunted for the enviable  assignment as CNN's International Connecting Africa Correspondent.

The eloquent and assiduous journalist is a mother to a daughter, Neema, who joined university in Aug 2023. Vicky's father is a long serving pastor at CITAM Valley Road, Rev. Kwame Rubadiri.

Victoria Rubadiri is a Conference Moderator, Corporate Events EmCee and runs a Mentorship program, Girlfriends Confidential Talk.

Photo Courtenay/Victoria Rubadiri Instagram

THE DOGON TRIBE AND THEIR MYSTERIOUS CONNECTION TO SIRIUS👽

Sirius the brightest star(s) in the sky, its name  comes from the Greek language and is translated as the glowing one or bright one. And what might appear as a single star is in fact a double or even possibly Triple Star System according to observations made in the 1920’s. A chunk of knowledge well known to the Dogon tribe in Africa.

According to the Dogon, the “instructor” gods descended from Sirius and brought knowledge and wisdom. What is interesting is that the Dogon knew about Sirius and its “Triple” Star System way before “modern” science found out its existence. According to studies, it is believed that Sirius C, the third system, is a red dwarf star a hundred times less massive than our own Sun, and a lot less bright making it hard to see with our equipment, thus the discovery is still awaiting confirmation from the astronomic community.

The Dogon are an extremely interesting tribe, their most sacred and most ancient traditions speak of a star that is accompanied by the planetary system Sirius. The Dogon believe the existence of a third star which they called “Emme Ya'.

So how did they do it? How is it possible that these incredibly intelligent people known as the Dogon tribe knew all these extensive astronomical details? How is it possible that the Dogon had all this astronomical knowledge without the tools to observe the sky properly? Apparently, we have to understand that there is a thin line between mythology and reality, it’s just a matter of interpretation.

MANY VERSIONS OF YORUBA DIALECT

All Yoruba cities, towns, and Villages referred to version of Yoruba they speak as the name of the towns, cities, or villages, isn't just Yoruba, the pattern is common among many people of the world.

Even the Bini language takes its name from Bini people.

What we call Yoruba people  today is the clusters  of different tribes that speak the same language and proudly  believe  they originated from the same source.

While the name "Yoruba" might be recent, it doesn't mean the people are.

For example: before the entirety of England was referred to as "English," the term originally applied to the Anglo-Saxon peoples and their culture.

Before the entire Yoruba was called Yoruba , it applied  to  people  living in the Oyo  area, which gradually  evolved  to all the people  that we called Yoruba today;this is called evolution. 

Yariba” is not a word— and doesn’t mean anything— in either the Fulani language (also called Fulfulde) or the Hausa language. Nor does it mean anything even in Songhai.

Can you speak Ife, or can you speak Ijebu? If you can't speak Ijebu, can you speak Ekiti? OK, you can't speak either of these dialects. But surely you can speak Eko.

Eko is another dialect of what we know as Yoruba today, the reason why the town is called Eko.

This is Copy and paste Below of the introduction  of  1858 dictionary:

"THE Yoruba country includes all the territory which is inhabited by people who speak the Yoruba language. It is bounded on the East by Ibinin or Benin and the Niger, on the West by Dahomi and Mahí, on the North by Barba (Borghoo) and Nufe, and on the South by the Bight of Benin. At the present time it is divided into eight independent kingdoms, as follows: 1. Iketu, situated immediately east of Dahomi, of which the extent is two thousand square miles, with a population of about one hundred thousand; *capital, Iketu. The surface of the country is level; timber and water are scarce, and the soil rather poor. Still this little kingdom has sufficient resources to repel the power of Dahomi, which it has done on two occasions.

(2). Eko, or Lagos, situated immediately on the sea coast, has an area of about four hundred square miles, and a population of thirty thousand. The greater part are in Lagos, the capital, which is situated on a small island in the lagoon or bay , called Osa by the natives, and Cradoo by the English . Lagos claims all the coast to a point some miles west of Badagry. If this claim be allowed, the area and population of the kingdom are two or three times greater than above stated. For many years Lagos was a stronghold of the slave trade. It was then nominally dependent on Benin; but the turbulent chiefs and people seem to have paid little regard either to Benin or to their own kings, who were frequently deposed and banished. Lagos is now under the protection of the English, but they claim no jurisdiction over the soil or people. It is the residence of several European merchants and missionaries, and bids fair to become one of the most flourishing towns in western Africa. The people speak the Yoruba language, which they frequently call the Eko; just as the Iketus, Egbas, & c. , call it, after the name of their own tribes, the Iketu, the Egba, & c. By Europeans it is generally called the Aku language .

(3). Egba is a small kingdom on the south of Yoruba and east of Iketu, lying on both sides of the Ogun river, but principally on the east . The whole area, including the fallen kingdom of Ota, is about three thousand square miles, with a population of one hundred thousand; the capital, Abeokuta, has a population of eighty thousand souls. The surface of the country is generally hilly, especially east of the river; the soil is unusually fertile, and the whole region well supplied with streams of clear water . In ancient times, as the Egba people relate , their country was a province of the Yoruba kingdom. After obtaining their independence, they were governed by a king of their own; but finally growing weary of monarchy, they determined that every town should be ruled by its own chiefs. This led to mutual jealousies and dissensions. About fifty years ago, these dissensions, stimulated by the slave trade and by the machinations of the Idźebus and Yorubas, resulted in civil war. The Egba country then contained more than a hundred towns, some affirm nearly three hundred, several of which were very populous. In the course of twenty - five years, every one of these towns was swept out of existence, with the single exception of Ọbà, which is yet standing, about ten miles south - west of Abeokuta. It is probable that five hundred thousand people perished by sword and famine. Many thousands were sold to the slave ships, and the remnant of the tribe was scattered abroad. The city of Abeokuta is situated on the east bank of the Ogun river, among twenty or thirty immense masses of granite, several of which rise to a height of two or three hundred feet. Forty years ago, a grotto or cave under one of these rocks, which surmounts an abrupt hill, was inhabited by a band"

-introduction of  Yoruba Dictionary 1858

Eko is a dialect and people, just like Ife is a dialect and people. In the 19th century, the island only comprised 30,000 people , relatively small compared to other Yoruba towns.

The language spoken in Eko is a version of Yoruba, not a version of Bini .

The argument is whether bini invaded the Island and had some influence, The argument is, did  Bini create and name the island.

Eleko ti Eko is actually  the Title of oba eko.

Thursday 13 June 2024

NANCY GREEN

The world knew her as "Aunt Jemima," but her given name was Nancy Green and she was a true American success story. She was born a slave in 1834 Montgomery County, KY... and became a wealthy superstar in the advertising world, as its first living trademark.

Green was 56-yrs old when she was selected as spokesperson for a new ready-mixed, self-rising pancake flour and made her debut in 1893 at a fair and exposition in Chicago. She demonstrated the pancake mix and served thousands of pancakes... and became an immediate star. She was a good storyteller, her personality was warm and appealing, and her showmanship was exceptional. Her exhibition booth drew so many people that special security personnel were assigned to keep the crowds moving.

Nancy Green was signed to a lifetime contract, traveled on promotional tours all over the country, and was extremely well paid. Her financial freedom and stature as a national spokesperson enabled her to become a leading advocate against poverty and in favor of equal rights for folks in Chicago.

She maintained her job until her death in 1923, at age 89.

AFRICA 🌍

Africa is a continent rich in history, culture, and diversity. From the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Ethiopia to the colonial era and struggles for independence, Africa's history is a tapestry of triumphs, challenges, and resilience.

The history of Africa dates back thousands of years, with evidence of early human ancestors found in regions such as the Great Rift Valley. Ancient civilizations like the Kingdom of Kush, the Mali Empire, and the Kingdom of Aksum flourished, leaving behind impressive architectural wonders and cultural legacies that continue to inspire awe today.

The continent's history was forever changed with the arrival of European colonizers in the 15th century. The scramble for Africa led to the exploitation of its resources, the imposition of colonial rule, and the devastating effects of the transatlantic slave trade. Despite these challenges, African nations fought for independence in the 20th century, leading to the birth of new nations and the struggle for self-determination.

Today, Africa is a continent on the rise, with a vibrant cultural scene, economic growth, and a young population driving innovation and change. As the cradle of humanity, Africa's history is a testament to the resilience and strength of its people, and a reminder of the rich tapestry of cultures and traditions that make the continent a truly unique and diverse place. #Africa

NAMIBIA

Namibia is Africa's emptiest country per landmass. Despite its large land mass, it has a very low population (2.6 million people).

Namibia is 3.37 times larger than the United Kingdom, 2.5 times bigger than Germany, three times bigger than France, two times bigger than Spain. There are more cows than people in Namibia.

On Sundays, you can drive for an hour without seeing anyone. 

Beaches in Namibia most often are empty.

#Africa #Namibia

THE TUTSI TRIBE OF RWANDA 🇷🇼 AND BURUNDI 🇧🇮 OF EAST AFRICAN REGION!!!!

The Abatutsi, or Tutsi are an ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region. They are a Bantu-speaking ethnic group and the second largest of three main ethnic groups in Rwanda and Burundi. They speak Kinyarwanda, Kirundi, and, Swahili languages.

They defined "Tutsi" as anyone owning more than ten cows (a sign of wealth) or with the physical features of a longer thin nose, high cheekbones, and being over six feet tall, all of which are common descriptions associated with the Tutsi.

Rwanda 🇷🇼 the 'Land of a Thousand Hills' and Burundi 🇧🇮 are countries located in East part of Africa

📸  Tutsi woman of Rwanda, photographed by Eliot Elisofon in 1959.

#Africa #Rwanda #Burundi #Africanhistory

INYAMBO COWS 🇷🇼🐄🇷🇼

Inyambo : are part of Rwanda’s creation myths. For Rwandans, their forebears dwelt in heaven, and when they erred and were expelled to earth, the most important of the mercies Imana (God) allowed them to take with them, for their survival on their new home, was a cow.

To understand what culturally cows mean to Rwandans, you look at their relationship with Inyambo. The cows are brushed, pampered, decorated with beads, and serenaded with poetry. They are often given names, to which they respond when they are called.

Inyambo were rarely ever slaughtered for meat. On the rare occasions that they were, rituals determined who could, or couldn’t eat the slaughtered animal. No self-respecting household for instance, would eat the meat from their milch cow. If for some reason such a cow was slaughtered, they would call upon the neighbours to come and ‘rescue’ that household, by eating the meat, which the neighbours could, since they weren’t so intimately connected to the cow.”

And no respectable family would ever slaughter cows given as dowry. When cows given as dowry had calves, the pride’s family would give some of them to the newlyweds. Indongoranyo as they are known, would also never be eaten by the family.

#Africa #Rwanda

BLACK HISTORY

The stealing of enslaved people was also a major economy, involving networks in the North where even free people of color were kidnapped and sold down South. The most famous case was Solomon Northup, kidnapped in March 1841 in Washington, D.C. and taken to New Orleans where he was sold to a planter from the Red River. He was freed in 1853 after twelve long years in bondage.

His 1853 memoir sold more than thirty thousand copies in its first three years and was eventually adapted into an Academy Award winning film. It can now, occasionally, be found on banned book lists, including the list for literature banned from Kansas prisons.

Image description: A first edition copy of Solomon Northup’s book Twelve Years a Slave is opened to the title page. It shows an etching of “Solomon in his plantation suit.”

Source: Whitney Plantation!!

#TheWhitneyPlantation #VisitTheWhitney #LouisianaHistory #BlackHistory #BlackLiterature #BannedBooks

Wednesday 12 June 2024

THE TWINS (IBEJI)

Ibeji, meaning "twins" in Yoruba, holds special significance in Yoruba culture. Historically, the birth of twins was celebrated but also came with high mortality rates. Families commissioned ibeji figures, small wooden sculptures representing deceased twins, believed to house their spirits. These figures were adorned and cared for as living children, receiving offerings and prayers. Today, ibeji figures serve as reminders of Yoruba cultural heritage and beliefs, symbolizing the enduring importance of twins in Yoruba society.

LAURYN HILL

Lauryn Hill at the 1999 Grammy Awards. She was the first rapper to ever win 'Album of The Year' for her one and only album ever, The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill. She is also the last black female artist to win the award since. That night she set the record for most nominations for a female artist in one night, broke the record at the time for the most wins by a female artist in one night, and became the first female rapper to win the Best New Artist award. She also won Best R&B Album, and for her song "Doo Wop (That Thing)" she won Best R&B Song and Best Female R&B Vocal Performance. This woman is a true legend.

The Democratic System Of ASSUR

The city of Ashur was the capital of the Old Assyrian city-state (2025–1364 BC), the Middle Assyrian Empire (1363–912 BC), and for a time, of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–609 BC). The remains of the city lie on the western bank of the Tigris River, north of the confluence with its tributary, the Little Zab, in what is now Iraq, more precisely in the al-Shirqat District of the Saladin Governorate.

This city developed the idea of decision-making by council of elders and assembly. A magistrate was elected by lot every year. Over 1,500 years before the birth of the first elected official of Athens, in West Asia, the city of Ashur, we have the names of 100 elected officials in Assur. The job of the magistrate was to manage the city finances, but also do more than this.

In the city of Assur during the 21st century BCE, the magistrate, known as the šakkanakkum in Akkadian, held a significant administrative and judicial role. The magistrate was responsible for overseeing the legal and administrative affairs of the city, ensuring the enforcement of laws, and adjudicating disputes among citizens. They presided over local courts, where they heard cases involving civil disputes, criminal offenses, and matters related to property rights, contracts, and family law. Additionally, magistrates were involved in tax collection, land management, and maintaining public order within the city. Their authority derived from the king or ruler of the Assyrian state, and they played a crucial role in upholding the legal and social order of Assur and ensuring the stability of the city-state.

The Peopling of Greece (from the Paleolithic to ancient times)

It not known when man first appeared in the Greek Peninsula, but animal bones and Palaeolithic tools bear witness to his existence there in the Middle Palaeolithic (100,000-33,000 BP). About 40,000 years ago, a new type of man, Homo sapiens, who made stone tools by a new technique, emerged on the forestage of history, radically altering the course of mankind. The major climatic changes that took place around the ninth millennium BC, with the end of the Ice Age, had a dramatic effect on man's life and created the preconditions for the Neolithic Revolution.

Thus, from the seventh millennium BC man became involved with agriculture and animal husbandry, and began to live in organized settlements, such as Nea Nikomedeia, Sesklo, Dimini and other sites in Greece. Around 2800 BC, the use of metals, primarily bronze, was introduced in Greece. The land was now inhabited by Pelasgians, Carians and Lelegians (prehellenic tribes). Other tribes from Asia Minor settled on Crete and created the Minoan Civilization, the earliest civilization in Europe. In the islands of the Cyclades another distinct culture developed, known as Cycladic. Concurrently, the Helladic Culture flourished on the Greek Mainland.

The Achaeans, the Ionians and the Aeolians were the first Hellenic tribes of Indo-European origin to reach Greece around 2000 BC. They created the first truly Greek civilization, the Mycenaean (1580-1100 BC). Around 1400 BC, the Achaeans occupied Knossos, Rhodes and Cyprus, set up trading posts (emporia) in Asia Minor and developed commercial and diplomatic relations with the Egyptians, the Assyrians and the Hittites. They built palaces on hilltops fortified by Cyclopean walls and fostered all branches of the arts.

Another Hellenic tribe, the warlike Dorians, appeared in the late twelfth century BC. The "Coming of the Dorians" caused the collapse of the Mycenaean Civilization, with the resultant uprooting of large population groups from their ancestral hearths. The system of writing - Linear B script - was forgotten, artistic production declined and maritime trade ceased. This period is known as the "Dark Age" of Greece. It was followed by the Geometric period (1100-700 BC), principal characteristic of which was the decoration of vases with geometric and linear motifs.

HISTORY LESSON

The wedding of Meghan Markle to Prince Harry sparked significant public interest due to its historical significance. Meghan Markle, an American actress of mixed-race heritage, married Prince Harry, a member of the British royal family, on May 19, 2018. This event was notable for several reasons, including Markle's biracial background and her previous career as an actress. It marked a departure from tradition in various ways, including the inclusion of elements from Markle's African-American heritage in the ceremony.

In the context of British royal history, Meghan Markle's marriage to Prince Harry drew comparisons to the wedding of Queen Charlotte, who married King George III in 1761. Queen Charlotte, who was of mixed-race ancestry herself, is believed by some historians to have African ancestry through a Portuguese branch of her family. While evidence of her heritage remains debated, her marriage to King George III makes her Britain's first known mixed-race royal.

The parallels between Meghan Markle and Queen Charlotte's backgrounds, as well as the historical significance of both weddings, sparked discussions about race, identity, and representation within the British royal family and broader society. Meghan Markle's entry into the royal family brought renewed attention to issues of diversity and inclusion, highlighting the monarchy's evolving role in a multicultural society.

Remembering the great Marcus Mosiah Garvey - who passed away on this day in 1940 🇯🇲

Honourable prophet Marcus Mosiah Garvey, was born on 17th August, 1887, in St Ann’s Bay, Jamaica.

He first worked as a printer and in 1906 he was elected as Vice President of the printers union.

In 1911, he moved to England to study at Birbeck College, he later went on to set up the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association).

He was determined to help liberate black people around the world. In 1916, Garvey headed to the USA and the first branch of the UNIA was set up stateside.

The association published newspapers and the popular ‘Negro World’ journal. By 1919 the UNIA had grown in popularity with 30 branches around the world and millions of members.

In the same year Garvey had formed the Black cross navigation and trading company and had purchased 2 steamships.

These ships were to bring black people out of the west, back to the motherland Africa. In 1920, Marcus Garvey and his wife Amy, published the first volume of his ground breaking biography, the Philosophies and Opinions of Marcus Garvey.

Marcus Garvey was a great speaker, who gathered crowds where ever he went. At the height of his career he had 12 million followers worldwide.

He published a newspaper in Jamaica called ‘The Blackman’ and even formed his own political party to stand up for the black majority who were under minority white rule at the time.

Garvey’s blue print for civil rights and black nationalism helped to influence other black leaders, in fact Malcolm X’s parents were members of the UNIA.

Garvey died on 10 June 1940 and his final  residence, was 53 Talgarth Road in Hammersmith, west London, United Kingdom.

Marcus Garvey remains one of the most important people in Black History. #Africa

EAT AND SELL WHAT YOU PLANT

EAT AND SELL WHAT YOU PLANT is a slogan among Village Farmers during Pre-colonial era. Farming in Africa is known as the basic of humanity for survival and reproduction. In Post-colonial Period, people are more than the food production due to modern civilization.

SOLUTION AND METHOD:

The focus must move from what the developed world dictates to what Africa needs. This requires countries developing production systems and livelihood opportunities for its people.

Africa should not stop exporting. But exports should not jeopardise local food availability and regional development. Proceeds from export should support rural economic development and the livelihood of local people.

Countries in the region should improve institutions and infrastructure, such as certified storage facilities for grains and food processing. This would facilitate value addition such as the ability to sell crops as prices increase following harvest or sell milled rice rather than paddy.

Barriers to independent national decision making, such as conditionalities set down by the International Monetary Fund and the terms set by the World Trade Organisation for free trade agreements, need to be challenged.

This would open the way for countries to make agricultural policies in pursuit of domestic development goals. And local farmers could begin to respond to local demands.

In addition, research needs to be redirected. Donor funds are currently channelled into training and educating young people from the continent in developed world institutions where they gain significant knowledge and capacity. However, this is often irrelevant or impossible to apply on the continent.

The same applies to the development of agricultural technologies that aren't applicable to local conditions. #Africa

TODAY IS JUNE 12

The June 12, 1993 election has remained a significant and emotional chapter in Nigeria's history. It is remembered as the fairest and most peaceful election Nigeria ever conducted. But what really happened then?

Nigeria had experienced series of military takeovers starting with the coup on Jan 15, 1966 coup. On August 27, 1985, Nigeria came under another military junta,  led by General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida (IBB). Babangida promised to restore Democracy in the country. He scheduled presidential elections for June 12, 1993. To facilitate this, two political parties were created: the Social Democratic Party (SDP) and the National Republican Convention (NRC). Chief Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola, a respected businessman and philanthropist, ran under the SDP, while Bashir Tofa was the candidate for the NRC.

On June 12, 1993, Nigerians across the nation went to the polls in an election widely regarded as free, fair, and peaceful. The high voter turnout reflected a strong sense of hope and unity among the people. Abiola, who had widespread support across various regions and ethnic groups, was set to win by a large margin.

Despite the peaceful conduct of the election and the clear indication that Abiola was winning, the military government, led by Babangida, annulled the results on June 23, 1993. The official reason given was allegations of electoral irregularities, but many believe it was due to internal power struggles and fear of losing control.

The annulment sparked widespread protests and civil unrest across Nigeria. Nigerians from all walks of life demanded that the election results be upheld and that Abiola be declared the winner. This created a political crisis, with significant pressure from both local and international communities for the military to respect the will of the people.

The annulment led to a prolonged period of political instability. Babangida eventually resigned in August 1993, handing over power to an interim national government led by Chief Ernest Shonekan. However, Shonekan's government was short-lived, as General Sani Abacha seized power in a coup in November 1993.

Abiola continued to fight for his mandate, bravely declaring himself president in 1994. He was subsequently arrested and detained by the Abacha regime, enduring imprisonment until his untimely death under suspicious circumstances on July 7, 1998, shortly after Abacha's own death.

In 2018, Gen. Muhammadu Buhari, the then president officially moved Democracy Day from May 29 to June 12 to highlight the election's significance. Today, June 12 is celebrated as Democracy Day in Nigeria, honoring the democratic ideals and sacrifices of the 1993 election.

#democracy #June12 #MKOAbiola #election #Babangida #military #malawicichlids

Hilarious Facts About Idi Amin (Updated)

(1). His long title:

His title was, “His Excellency, President for life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin Dada, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of all Beasts of the Earth and the Fishes of the Sea and the Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in particular”.

(2). King of Scotland:

The Scottish National Liberation Army, a paramilitary group, was fighting to acquire independence from Britain. The group approached Idi Amin for assistance. Idi Amin responded with a conditional offer. If he assist and they become free, he must be made King of Scotland.

(3). Ordered by God to expel Indians from Uganda:

90% of Indians who controlled 90% of Uganda's economy were expelled from the Uganda. One of the main justification for this expulsion was that God had visited him in a dream and ordered him to expel Indians from Uganda.

(4). He trolled Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere:

When Milton Obote was overthrown in a military coup by Idi Amin, Obote sought asylum in Tanzania and Idi Amin resented Tanzania for offering asylum to his enemy. In one telegram he send to Julius Nyerere, Idi Amin said "I want to assure you that I love you very much, and If you had been a woman I would have considered marrying you although your head is full of grey hair, but as you are a man that possibility does not arise."

(5). Interview with Conqueror of British Empire:

He once asked British journalists if they weren’t nervous and scared to interview the conqueror of the British Empire.

(6). He forced British diplomats to pledge allegiance to him:

To assert his imaginary dominance over Britain he awarded himself with British military's highest honors and titles. He went further by forcing British diplomats in Uganda to pledge allegiance to him by kneeling down and carry him around.

#Africa #Uganda

Monday 10 June 2024

You Have No Friends (READ TO THE END)

The man who assassinated Thomas Sankara was his childhood friend.

His name is Blaise Compaoré.

Blaise Compaoré and Thomas Sankara grew up together and lived together.

Blaise Compaoré was raised by Thomas Sankara’s father. They lived like brothers.

Blaise Compaoré and Thomas Sankara joined the Burkina Faso army together.

When Sankara became President of Burkina Faso, he made Blaise Compaoré his Vice President.

Little did Sankara know his childhood friend and brother would later kill him.

Five days before Compaoré assassinated Sankara, they both had an event where they danced and drank together.

Sankara was briefed by the country’s Intelligence Unit about Compaoré’s plans to assassinate him.

As someone he grew up together with, Sankara dismissed the possibility that his childhood friend and brother would do such to him.

Sankara was reluctant to go after his friend. He could not believe it.

October 15, 1987, Thomas Sankara was assassinated in a coup led by his childhood friend, the man he grew up together with, the man he loved, the man he took as his brother — Blaise Compaoré.

Sankara was shot eleven times in the chest, and four times in the head by Compaoré’s men.

Shortly after the coup, Sankara's father asked Compaoré "where is your brother, Thomas". He couldn't answer.

Blaise Compaoré became the President of Burkina Faso shortly after he had killed Sankara.

He reverted many of Sankara's Pan-African policies. He continued relations with France and rejoined the IMF. 

He is currently living in Ivory Coast. He never paid for his crimes. 

#Africa #BurkinaFaso

ANUAK (ANYUAK) JAR/LUWO PEOPLE: ROYALS AND HARDWORKING NILOTIC PEOPLE OF EAST AFRICA THAT WERE PERSECUTED BY ETHIOPIAN GOVERNMENT

Mythology and History:

The Anyuak account of their origin differs from that of the Shilluk. It is said that women, as they went to fetch water discovered a mysterious person with a kaak (fishing spear). The man would disappear into the river to avoid contact with the people.

Anuak also known as the Anyuak, Agnwak and Anywaa, are riparian or riverine, agro-pastoralist, and Nilotic ethnic group of the Luo cluster inhabiting parts of East Africa. They are primarily found in villages situated along the banks and rivers of southeastern South Sudan as well as southwestern Ethiopia, especially the Gambela Region.

The village cluster was the clan centre of the important Jowatcuaa clan (named after it's lineage founder, Ocala) although it had no headman but prominent clan elders. 

South Sudan. Circa 1935. 

Photographer: Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard

One day they managed to capture and bring him to the village. His name was Ocwudho. He, however, would not talk, eat nor drink. Afraid that the stranger may die of hunger, Akango told his small daughter to look after him. She took water and food to him, which he drank and ate and developed a relationship with the girl.

Language:

The Anyuak speak dho-Anywaa, almost a 100% intelligible to the dhi-Pari, and very close to dhok-Chollo (Shilluk language) and dho-Luo of Bahr el Ghazal. Dho-Anywaa or  Anuak  is a Nilotic language of the Nilo-Saharan language family. It is spoken primarily in the Western part of Ethiopia by the Anuak.

Anuak.

Ethiopia

Other names for this language include: Anyuak, Anywa, Yambo, Jambo, Yembo, Bar, Burjin, Miroy, Moojanga, Nuro. Anuak, Päri, and Jur-Luwo comprise a dialect cluster. 

The most thorough description of the Anuak language is Reh Anywa Language: Description and Internal Reconstructions, which also includes glossed texts. Anywa does not have phonemic fricatives.

The people call themselves Anywaa; others particularly their neighbours simply know them as Anyuak.

The name ‘Anyuak’ or ‘Anuak’ or ‘Anywaa (Anywaae)’ literally means ‘I shared’ or ‘to share’. 

The Anuak are a distinct people who have always had close ties to their environment.

As an indigenous population, they have been marginalised by the government for many years.

They sustain themselves mainly through farming, hunting and fishing, while some Anuak are also pastoralists. 

Some Anuaks are gold miners and iron technologists.

Anuak Girl, Gambella, Ethiopia

They share a similar language origin with their neighboring Nilotic peoples such as, Acholi in Uganda, Joluo in Kenya, Tanzania, and Congo; as well as Jor Chul, Paari, Shilluk and Pajulu in South Sudan. 

Most of Anywaae are Christians, although some traditionally believed in almighty spirit known as ‘Jwok’.

The total population of Anywaa worldwide is estimated to be 350,000.

In the early 2003 and 2004 the Anuaks were targeted for repression, mass rape and killings by The Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Defense Front and highland Ethiopian civilians, for daring to resist the government attempt to grab their bonafide traditional lands. Historically, the lighter-skinned Ethiopian tribes have shunned the darker-skinned African tribes, and sometimes raided the tribes to acquire slaves. The Anuak are one such dark-skinned African people indigenous to regions of the lower Nile, others including the Nuer, Dinka, and Shilluk. All these tribes are racially distinct from the olive-skinned Ethiopian tribes such as the Tigray, the Oromo, and the Amhar.

Anyuak man smoking pipe. Julio Garcia

The Anuak’s ancestral homeland of Gambella is not only geographically remote from the capital of Addis Ababa – it is also agriculturally fertile, relatively sparsely populated, and blessed with gold and oil reserves. This has made their land much coveted by the central government for economic development and population resettlement. “Gambella is potentially a very rich area,” said Gebre-Ab. “It could be the breadbasket of Ethiopia.

Displaced Anuak people in Ethiopia. Julio Garcia

Throughout the 20th century, the Anuak Kingdom has been studied by many Western anthropologists who have lived among the Anuak for long periods, including the famous British social anthropologist E.E. Evans-Pritchard. The Anuak have been admired in particular by anthropologists for their system of dispute resolution, in which all major arguments throughout the Kingdom are resolved by open discussion between all the disputants in front of the King and his cabinet which holds session every day in Otallo, Sudan.

Language:

The Anyuak speak dho-Anywaa, almost a 100% intelligible to the dhi-Pari, and very close to dhok-Chollo (Shilluk language) and dho-Luo of Bahr el Ghazal. Dho-Anywaa or  Anuak  is a Nilotic language of the Nilo-Saharan language family. It is spoken primarily in the Western part of Ethiopia by the Anuak.

Other names for this language include: Anyuak, Anywa, Yambo, Jambo, Yembo, Bar, Burjin, Miroy, Moojanga, Nuro. Anuak, Päri, and Jur-Luwo comprise a dialect cluster. The most thorough description of the Anuak language is Reh Anywa Language: Description and Internal Reconstructions, which also includes glossed texts. Anywa does not have phonemic fricatives.

Environment, Economy and Natural Resources

Lying in the plains below the Ethiopian highlands, Anywaa land has the characteristics of marsh land, rich savannah forest and grassland with annual rainfall of about 800mm. This has tremendous influence on the economy and lifestyle of the Anywaa.

They are predominantly subsistence agriculturalists growing sorghum, maize, simsim, beans and tobacco. They raise cattle, goats and fowl, which are used for trade and sacrifices to the spirits. The cattle-raiding practice of their neighbours, the Murle, has discouraged them from keeping large herds of cattle.

Anuak kids:

Anywaa-land has a huge potential in wildlife especially large game such as elephants, buffaloes, etc. The annual migration of the white-ear cobs pass through Anywaa-land, which becomes a yearly source of proteins but has a huge potential for tourist attraction. There is also a potential for exploiting the shea nuts, acacia Senegalese (gum arabica) and lalob which are abound in the forests.

The Anywaa youth pan and extract gold nuggets and dust from the streams that drain the western Ethiopian highlands near Dima and Maji.

The gold extracted is used for trade with Ethiopian highlanders or exchanged for dimuy – beads, used for settling marriages.

Mythology:

Mythology and History:

The Anyuak account of their origin differs from that of the Shilluk. It is said that women, as they went to fetch water discovered a mysterious person with a kaak (fishing spear). The man would disappear into the river to avoid contact with the people.

One day they managed to capture and bring him to the village. His name was Ocwudho. He, however, would not talk, eat nor drink. Afraid that the stranger may die of hunger, Akango told his small daughter to look after him. She took water and food to him, which he drank and ate and developed a relationship with the girl.

It turned out later that the girl had conceived. When, he discovered that the girl was pregnant, he disappeared into the river leaving beads (ocwak, nyalo, garmuto and ganga) as gifts for the father of the girl.

The girl gave birth to Gilo, who is renowned as the great grandfather of the Anywaa nation. When the Anywaa Nyie (king) passed away a few years ago, he is said to have gone back into the river like Ocwudho.

General Trends of Anywaa Migration

The early history and traditional political system of Anywaa-Anyuak headman/ kwarro will go back to about 2200 BC (Kevin, 1995) and Chief Cheway who had been a founding father, grandfather, and creator of the Anywaa ethnic, empire, and kingdom.

Anuak King: A man seated on the ground near his homestead (identified as King Aguaa-war-Akuon of Obuodhi village) sitting on floor covering, with seated youths to the side. He is wearing the royal strings of beads, which are used to invest all new Anuak kings, and are identified with the founder of the nobles lineage. It is possible that this occasion was the re-confirmation by the administration and nobles of Aguaa as king in 1935, having first held them in 1932. Circa 1935

Photographer: Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard

He is an Anyuak man whom we all believed in as Chief and divine God. He had moved from the Sahara Desert downward to settle around Lake Chad for number of years when he and his followers were struck by drought and then moved to live near confluence of White and Blue Nile Rivers; currently known as Khartoum Bare in Sudan. According to Kevin Shillington this was the same period of 2200 B.C "when Sahara was drying out increasingly… rapidly and the large numbers of Sahara pastoralists and hunter push into the Nile valley, disrupting the settled farmers whom they found there."

Anyuak Elder:

Cheway was a member of Nilo-Sahara African peoples’ group and had migrated together with his “Lou” people group along the Nile River downward to southwest. For instance, there is a proverb in Anyuak language that the name ‘Lou people’ was obsessed from migration. It means, let us (Innocent and good people) walk along the river bank to southward following this monster, longest, and giant river; the Nile.

Most importantly, Kwarro Cheway was a well-known architect, explorer, political leader, peacemaker, and pioneer who took the lead in certain areas around Nile River and its' tributaries.

As a pioneer, he had gone into the great unknown areas to explore strange new lands and settled there. In those new areas of space “We have already seen that the harvesting of sorghum, wild, domestic, was taking place in Khartoum region as early as 6000 BC" ( Kevin, 1995, P. 30) and there could be no more evidence other than this to confirm that Cheway and his people were among those settled communities to invent sorghum. This iconic figure created a new system of government known as Kwarr or Kwarro traditional political system.

His political system was personally headed by him and other leaders to administer and protect the entire Anyuak kingdom, empire, and ethnic group as they migrated along River Nile before his descendants scattered along its tributaries: Openo, Alworo, Gilo, Akobo, and Oboth rivers. On these tributaries we had many villages that were governed by his descendants. For further research about him, I would encourage scholars and recommend to them that they better carry out research in Jocheway clan villages such as Itang Burra, Pumoli, Edeni, Egilo, Erwanyo, Phino, Anyali, Perbongo, Pochalla Olura, Ojalo, Omilla and Pochalla Dhewatnyilak.

Furthermore, Cheway's cabinets who helped him to administer the first generation of Anyuak in the newly created political system had become our twelve clans. But in early headman chiefdom, evidences are indicating that there were only eleven senior officials (cabinet members). The secret of Chief Cheway success in protecting his kingdom from extinction was his quality leadership and performance in implementing the political and organizational structure he created. This early political system or governance and organizational structure are still functioning as a model in many chiefdom and kingdom villages today. For example in one of Jocheway villages of Itang Burra the governance and organizational structure of Kwarro /Granymatch Omot Oway Oja Gilo on diagram1 in this article was identical with that of Cheway in which ’Burra’ served as the governing body of Itang village. In the same diagram, as well as diagram 2 and 3, the headman/Kwarro was not only the head of governing body, but also chief peacemaker, commander in chief, head and political leader of the village.

The inception of Anywaa kingdom had become the introduction of new clan, political unit, and stable political culture which marked the beginning of the first ruling class in Anywaa political history. Prior to that, Chief Cheway had only one and the first clan known as Cheway. Kwarro Cheway was the only leader of that free one clan and nation. He had played a remarkable and decisive role in defending, protecting, and leading the Anyuak ethnic to peaceful way of life. He was also the only Kwarro, chief of justice, political leader to lead and protect the Anyuak ethnic (population) from enemy attacks for many hundreds of years. But some people views on delicate replacement of Kwarro Cheway by his daughter's son do reflect neither its appropriation nor misappropriation to his kindness, heirs and descents. The replacement itself was not only controversial but also full of ‘conspiracy’ theory and tactics. The mystery was that even though King Gilo Okiro/Ochudho came to throne/power by fortune and cleverness, he had marked the downfall of Kwarro Cheway chiefdom and beginning of the new era of kingship which was the hitherto political system of Chullo- Shilluk, one of the Lou people groups.

Traditionally, King Gilo Ochudho is believed to be son of a strange man known as Okiro/Ochudho who had been caught from fishpond nearby village. Up to now no one knows about where that fishpond and adjacent village are located. King Gilo Ochudho mother, Koree was daughter of Chief Cheway and First Lady (Gwanyo) Ajo. Many people believe that Koree was decent girl who obeyed order of her father to provide all accommodations to that stranger guest with whom she eventually had controversial pregnancy. Apparently, King Gilo Ochudho was the first Anyuak king who came to power through his grandfather family tree or lineage because of the mistake or conspiracy that was committed by another clan, Jowadtong, who killed Chief Cheway's heir apparent son. The killing became good opportunity for those of Jowadtong clan to introduce feudal monarchy political system. In many aspects, King Gilo had replaced Kwarro Cheway tradition and political system by changing ‘Burra’ into ‘Chwott ‘to conduct his political, administrative and court affairs independently. He became instrumental in the reformed political system which became second or another option to attract many Anyuak people into the Kingship’s political spectrum.

According to interview with Kwarro/Granymatch Omot Oway Oja Gilo conducted in 1993 by UNDP enumerators in Gambella (Ethiopia), youngest children of Cheway had revived movement to resurrect political power of the Chiefdom. The revival of the Chiefdom was led by Kwarro Cheway's youngest son by the name called "Owthwonth." Therefore Owthwonth Cheway was the first descent to reclaim Cheway's political power.

However, the son of Owthwonth known as Ogwyieno had migrated into today's Itang where Jottido Anyuak and Olani ethnic group were living. The movement of Ogwyieno to find his own new space was supported by King Gilo Ochudho who never wanted to hand over his throne to his uncle son. Instead of that King Gilo made a little favor by instructing the members of Cheway clan to move into separate and different new land known as Openo/Baro salient/ on the bank of Openo River.

His Excellency Kwarro Granymatch Omot Oway Oja Gilo in the same interview pointed out that Ogwyieno and Cheway clan people were accompanied by King Gilo's body guards on his way to Eastward where those of Itang village people resided until today (Omot Oway, 1993).

Origin and Functions of the Two Political Systems:

In recent history, Anywaa has two very close and identical political systems in running their affairs. In addition to the Kwarro traditional political system, Anywaa have /had a second Kingship political system. Most importantly, Anyuak kingdoms political system is almost a direct copy from that of the headman traditional political system. Of course slight changes have been made to formulate things differently while most of them stayed the same. Previously Kwarro was the head of the government and representative of the all village and its people. As the same as that, the King is also the head of his government and leader of his village and its people.

Anyuak kingdom has a conservatory of Kwarro Cheway early Chiefdom tradition political system and decent organizational structure, which maintained the ancient Lou tribal unity, political culture and societal stability. It’s political, administrative, social and economic institutions provided ample evidences that Anyuak is a nation that could manage its own affairs as a democratic republic rather than a political system that is based on old feudal monarchy of one man supreme authority. But how many people know that Anyuak kingdom was among the oldest kingdoms in the world with no written historical documents? Who were the first Anyuak Kwarro and Nyiea to establish the Anyuak kingdom? Why and when did Chief Cheway put his grandson to his own throne to be the King in the past and even today? These are mysterious questions that I would not intend to answer in this article. But there is fact that Anywaa themselves, friends, and other readers need to understand. That is about Cheway Kingdom's throne transference to Gilo Okiro when the empire was almost close to collapse and decline due to Chief Cheway physical malfunction; and his war commanders’ conspiracy and atrocity in killing his heir apparent son. In fact, the transfer of Cheway kingdom to his grandson, Gilo is the extension of Cheway chiefdom political system to several kingdoms in some villages around the east bank of Akobo River. Researchers and scholars need to do more findings about how Cheway kingdom was transferred to King Gilo Ochudho; by determining it as either the peaceful or unlawful mechanism in successions to power? In the following paragraphs in this article there will be short brief, comparison and contrast between the early Kwarro Cheway chiefdom and Kingship political system.

Culturally, there are some differences in term of the names of objects and possessions. For example the military headquarters of Kwarro is called "Balla", and "Bura" for his Capitol Hill, where as for the king is known as "Chwott." The farm land for Kwarro is known as "Omahal" while it is called "Odiek" to King. When it comes to other services, there are similarities and differences notably ‘Pandwong’/palace, and ‘Owanyongo’; ‘Kwaylwake/kwatchlwake’ for Kwarro is a person who is in charge of youth population. Whereas for Nyiyea, Kwatchlwake means is a strong person who is in charge of war as a commander.

The message here is that as the nobles spread and emblems circulated through many villages around eastern part of Akobo, the king for the short time of his tenure of emblems had great prestige but little authority outside his own village (Evans-Pritchard, 1977). This means that the king was powerful enough in his own village to penalize commoners/subjects who disobeyed him but no moral authority over other villages and commoners. Similarly, there was no central authority in Anywaa two systems of leadership that governed the entire Anywaa people.

Anyuak Elders:

Yet, few Anyuak exaggerate the old school of Kings central authority and jump to general conclusion that in Anyuak political and organizational structure there is one powerful king to preach to when we do not have any one at all. This is true also to Chiefdom in Anyuak tradition and political culture.

Many people do agree that there was no centralism obeyed by all chiefs/Kwarri or Nyiye due to absence of unification movement in Anyuak political history. In case some argue that there was one central leadership, I will be happier to review the tangible evidence rather than bringing cooperation acts and unity of the past in which ancient and modern Anyuak have been helping each other to defend and protect their livelihood from outsider enemies' attack.

Awesome Anuak woman:

On the other hand, the hierarchy of Kwarro and King is not set either into written law or unwritten law as to who has the supreme power over another. Historically, Anyuak Kings refer to Kwarri as their uncles or grandfathers while kwarri called Kings as their nephews or grandsons. Throughout the years we have never seen any power struggle between the two ruling families on issues of accountability. In reality, study on governing structure shows that all kwarri were independent and accountable to their respective villages. No Kwarro is/was accountable to other Kwarro or Nyiea. The records indicate that ordinary Anyuak people were subjects to their village chiefs/Kings. They paid taxes to their own village Kwarro or Nyiea.

Similarly, no Kwarro was required by law to pay taxes either to other village Kwarro or Nyiea. Taxes were paid in form of kinds rather than cash. No paper money existed in the traditional political system. Any Anyuak citizen was/is obliged to give expensive wild animals and products eligible to taxation, such as elephant, lion, and leopard, tiger, ’Kong’, rhino and ‘Omhoa’. Only Kwarri had the right to possess these tax items. Anyuak snipers and hunters were/are blessed and awarded by all villagers when they kill these expensive wild animals because of obvious reason that they would present them to Kwarro in the form of taxation. The whole purpose of giving these expensive wild animals to Kwarro was that Kwarro would be able to help other citizens in the village with these taxes or assets. He would award other poor people from taxation to become married couples. This system provided opportunities for prosperity and increased the population of the village.

Anyuak cultural troupe, South Sudan:

For further understanding of functions, the following were some of senior officials appointed in cabinet of kwarro to fulfill public duties.

(3).(1). Karwang, Special Administrator and Advisor to Headman/Kwarro to assist him in administrative matters, political policies and public issues. In the absence of Kwarro he would run all affairs of the village as speaker of Kwarro.

(3).(2). Nyikugu, Head of the Balla department who provided assistance in the administrative and political affairs of the village during the absence of both Kwarro and Karwang.

(3).(3). Nyitoga, General Counsel of internal affairs of the village who provided assistance to kwarro in social, economic and cultural matters. He was the strongest man in the village to advocate and mobilize the entire village for prosperity. He was responsible for awards and special ceremonies among the leaders and ordinary people in the village. He also performed as Chief of Security and Advisor.

(3).(4). Nyiburr, Head of land tenure and Census. He made decision on use of farm land. He distributed farms and residential lands for the landless people, and kept update on the statistics of land and population. He also provided justice for those in need of it and supervised village’s borders demarcation.

(3).(5). Nyieatowieli, Head of Public Relations and Information serving as Special Messenger.

(3).(6). Nyikano, Head of Home Economics, cook, and food services for Kwarro and offices of Pandwong. A chef of Kwarro should be a male in gender.

(3).(7). Kwatchtong, Military chief of staff & commander who provided assistance to Nyikugu in time of war in the defense services.

(3).(8). Nyipour, Head of Economic and Welfare services department responsible for management and sanitation of ‘Amoa’, food court.

(3).(9). Kwachluak of Joburra was one of the commanders who provided assistance to Nyikugu in the time of war. He was the war front commander who put a lot of efforts to make all assigned soldiers fight accordingly.

(3).(10). Nyibatbogo, Personal Advisor and Protocol Officer who provided assistance to Kwarro on personal matters. He protected Kwarro as security officer when moving on unofficial visits to other places out Burra and Pandwong.

(3).(11). Kwatchtongno, coordinator or contact person of Girls Club. He was responsible for management of the club and supply of drinks and sanitary services in Burra. He also organized youth of the village for occasional dancing and celebrations. In most of chiefdom political structures three senior officials: Kwatchtong, Kwachluak of Burra and Kwatchtongo are accountable to Nyikugu rather than to Kwarro.

Anuak Girl:

Society, Social Events, Attitudes, Customs and Traditions:

The Anyuak society was originally divided into two large clans: Tung Goc and Tung Odolla, which were perpetually feuding and competing for dominance. The Anyuak settled in big villages along the Akobo and Baro as well as Gilo Rivers and there are several such villages. Each Anyuak village has a Nyie (king) or Kway-Luak (sub-chief) in control of the social and administrative matters of the village.

Anyuak girl holding her kid sister:

The Anyuak society is communal. It is obligatory to share resources and assist one another in times of famine and disease. The Anyuak engage in collective construction and building of the King''s royal palaces; the cultivation and weeding of his fields and gardens.

The Nyie obligates for these services by providing drink and food for which the people feast, dance and sing for several days in his home. Other social activities include hunting and fishing. However, the acquisition of fire arms has made hunting a solitary affair.

The Anyuak have no ceremonies attached either to birth, graduation into adulthood; nyako for girl and wadmara for the boy or marriage. The only custom linked to marriage is the payment of demuy (beads) and a few heads of cattle as dowry.

Anuak woman:

The bride stays in her parents’ home until the dowry or half of it has been paid, after which she moves to her husband. Sometimes a poor groom may raise up to two children with his wife while she is still staying with her parents.

Anuak girls. Julio Garcia

The Nyie gives his daughters to wealthy grooms. Indeed, flirting with the Nyie’s daughter could invoke his wrath resulting in confiscation of one’s wealth or abduction of three girls from one’s village. Several (sometimes up to ten) Anyuak marriages could be broken by breaking one marriage in the line. The demuy have become rare, so they are circulated and hence could even come back to the original owner in the course of several marriages.

Anuak people preparing food

The Nyie does not die but returns to the river. When he discovers that he can no longer hold on, he announces to his court that he has already returned to the river so his anointed son remains with the people.The new Nyie is placed on the Ocwak (royal throne and bead). The deceased Nyie is buried in an ordinary way, since his spirit is assumed to have returned to where he came from.

People don’t cry, they instead beat the royal drums and blow the trumpets singing song of praise to the departed Nyie. Sometimes, a person would mention in praise of the Nyie all the materials things he received from him.

Anyuak woman, Ethiopia

Socio-Political Organisation:

The Anyuak kingdom used to be a federation of villages headed by an independent Nyie. These villages were constantly feuding among themselves for the control of the Ocwak – the royal throne and bead.

This state of insecurity prompted the British colonial administration to make Nyie Agada Akway king of kings ostensibly after the Ethiopian feudal system (Emperor Haile Sellasie, was king of Kings) rendering the Ocwak to permanently remain in his possession and protection (Adongo area has a huge army to protect the Ocwak).

Anuak kids

All other Nyie come to his court to be put on Ocwak temporarily, for a few days depending on how much he trusted him, after the payment of three demuy. The Nyie has several kway luak or sub-chiefs who administer smaller villages.

Spirituality, Beliefs and Customs:

The Anyuak are strongly religious and have strong beliefs in spirits to which one returns when one dies. One could communicate with the departed through a medium or when one becomes possessed by the spirit. The Anyuak attach important to "cien" or curse and "gieth" or blessing and the two create order in Anyuak society. For instance, before a man dies, he confides his will to somebody, who declares himself as the trustee of the will once the death is announced. Tradition has it that nobody can change or disobey the will of dead person.

Anyuak Riverine Man Julio Garcia

Marriage is expected of every adolescent. He pays bride price in demuy, cattle and sometimes money. The tradition of money started with the Ethiopian Anyuak and has now become common due to the scarcity of the demuy.

Marriage to blood relatives and incest is abhorred such that the social stigma can force one to find ease by going to live in a far off place. The Anyuak have an attitude of keeping pure by not marrying from certain ethnic communities neighbouring them.

Naming: The Anyuak have typical first (Omot/Amot), second (Ojullo/Ajullo), third (Obang/Abang) and twin (Opieu/Apieu; Ochan/Achan; Okello/Akello) births with ‘O’ and ‘A’ connoting male and female respectively.

Anyuak baby sleeping safely away from the hustles. Julio Garcia

A child left in the womb by the death of the father is named Agwa; and Ochalla/Achalla stand for the child born for a dead brother. Beside these names, the Anyuak have many different and occasional names including names of the important personalities in the clan or communities as a whole.

Anuak kids in their hut. Julio Garcia

Culture, Arts, Music, Literature and Handicraft

Anyuak literature is orally expressed in form of poems, songs, folktales, riddles and stories. These are handed over from generation to generation. The main music instruments included: thom (guitar), bul (large drum), tung (horn of kudu fitted with awal) (guard), odolla (small drum).

(ground for founding sorghum), lek (pole for founding) and lul (for winnowing of sorghum.) The Anyuak wear lots of beads and other artefacts like the tail of giraffe.

Neighbours and Relations with Foreigners

The Ajiebo (Murle), Nuar (Nuer), Dhuok (Suri), Galla (Oromo) and others neighbour the Anyuak. Their relations are far from cordial particularly with the Nuar who have perpetually pushed them to the east.

The Anyuak used to engage in slave raids on their neighbours. They sold their slaves to the Highlanders for firearms. This must have been the source of conflict between Nyie Akway Cham and the British colonial authorities in 1912.

Anuak people. julio garcia

Latest Developments:

Nyie Adongo Agada was enthroned in 2001. In May 2003, a peace agreement between the Anyuak and the Murle was sealed in Otallo under the auspice of Nyie Adongo. This has stabilised the relationship with the Murle. The conflict in Gambella between the Anyuak and Ethiopian Highlanders is affecting the Anyuak in Pochalla and Akobo.

Diaspora:

The war in Sudan and the demise of Mengistu in 1991 have pushed many Anyuak to seek resettlement in America, Europe and Australia. There is a large Anyuak Diaspora in Canada and USA.

Footnote:

Nyakim Gatwech

Born

January 27, 1993 (age 28)

Gambela, Ethiopia

Known for

Instagram

Biography Edit

Nyakim Gatwech’s parents lived in Maiwut, South Sudan, before they fled the South Sudanese civil war to Gambela, Ethiopia where Nyakim was born. From there, they migrated to Kenya where they lived in refugee camps, until they finally migrated to the US, when she was 14 years old. Originally settling in Buffalo, New York, Nyakim later moved to Minneapolis, Minnesota. She has stated that, while she has never been to South Sudan, she considers herself South Sudanese.[2] She considered a modelling career after taking part in a fashion show at St. Cloud State University.[3][4] She has appeared in promotional posters for the 2017 film Jigsaw.[5]

Social media Edit

Gatwech is known for her naturally dark skin color and has been nicknamed the Queen of the Dark.[6][7] Gatwech has faced self-esteem issues and comments from people who promote bleaching to lighten skin color,[8] but learned to embrace her beauty and pigmentation with love and support from her fans. She has over 974,000 followers on Instagram.[9] 

#Africa #Ethiopia

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