Saturday 30 December 2023

Unveiling Bamenda: A Tapestry of History, Language, and Civilizational Splendor

In the heart of the captivating Northwest Region of Cameroon lies the enchanting city of Bamenda, a vibrant hub that echoes with the rich history, diverse language, and flourishing civilization of the Bamenda people. Join us as we embark on a journey through the captivating tapestry that defines this unique community.

(1). Echoes of Origin: A Tapestry Woven with Ancestral Threads

The history of the Bamenda people unfolds like a captivating story, tracing its roots to ancient migrations and cultural amalgamations. From the fertile soils of the Grassfields to the thriving highlands, Bamenda has stood witness to the ebb and flow of time, preserving the echoes of its origin in every hill and valley.

(2). Language: Dances of Diversity in Linguistic Harmony

The linguistic diversity of the Bamenda people is a testament to the richness of their cultural tapestry. With a mosaic of languages spoken, including widely recognized ones like Bafut, Kom, and Pidgin English, Bamenda becomes a linguistic symphony where every dialect adds a unique melody to the harmonious chorus of communication.

(3). Civilization Unveiled: A Flourishing Hub of Culture and Progress

Bamenda stands as a beacon of civilization, where tradition and modernity coalesce seamlessly. From the bustling markets that reflect the economic prowess of the people to the modern infrastructural developments that shape the city skyline, Bamenda is a testament to the dynamic and progressive spirit of its inhabitants.

(4). Cultural Festivals:  Celebrations of Heritage

The cultural festivals of the Bamenda people are a spectacle of vibrant colors, rhythmic dances, and symbolic rituals. Whether it's the Nso Fon's Palace Festival or the Kom Ngie, each celebration becomes a kaleidoscope of tradition, uniting the community in joyous revelry.

(5). Traditional Architecture: Majestic Structures That Tell Stories

The architectural marvels of Bamenda, from traditional huts to intricately designed palaces, stand as silent storytellers of the people's history. The grandeur of the structures mirrors the resilience and cultural sophistication embedded in the very fabric of Bamenda.

(6). Natural Beauty: Landscapes Painted in Splendor

Nestled amidst breathtaking landscapes, Bamenda is a haven of natural beauty. From the undulating hills to the picturesque valleys, every corner of this city is a canvas painted in the hues of nature, inviting both residents and visitors to immerse themselves in its serene charm.

In conclusion, Bamenda is more than a city; it is a living testament to the resilience, diversity, and progressive spirit of the Bamenda people. As we unravel the threads of its history, language, and civilization, we find ourselves immersed in a captivating narrative that continues to unfold with every passing day.

Ps: Even the former president of the United States of America couldn't resist the traditional attire of Bamenda.

Thursday 28 December 2023

The Black Nubian Queens (“Kandakas”) of Kush

Kandake was the title for queens and queen mothers (and often means the first royal wife) of the ancient African Kingdom of Kush, which was an ancient Nubian state in what is now the Republic of Sudan.

The Kingdom was a prosperous land ruled from the capital, Meroe. They were known as Nubian warrior queens, queen regents, and ruling queen mothers. They controlled what are now Ethiopia, Sudan, and parts of Egypt.

Kandake means “great woman”, and was used as a royal title or dynastic name. It is sometimes translated into English as “Candace”.

Some of the queens ruled in their own right; others ruled with their husbands, but these queens were not merely consorts, they usually had equal power with the king. At least one kandake was the ruler while her husband was consort.

The kandakes farmed, traded with Greeks and built the Pyramids, and some were warrior queens who led their armies into battle.

The word “Candace” itself is not a personal name in this context. Rather, it is a title used by the female monarchs “of the ancient Kingdom of Kush in the Nile Valley.”

Alternatively, it is transcribed as “Kandake” or “Kentake.” “Candace” itself is a Meroitic “term for ‘queen’ or ‘queen-mother.’”

It is most likely that the “Candace” in question, then, was a woman called Amanitore, whose reign began around the year 1 BCE and ended in an unknown year. She is buried in a pyramid at Meroรซ.

Tuesday 26 December 2023

THE MOORS By: Dr. Leroy Vaughn, MD, MBA. A Dynamic, Honest and Powerful View of Black History

During the European Dark Ages, between the 7th and 14th century AD, the Moorish Empire in Spain became one of the world's finest civilizations.  General Tarik and his Black Moorish army from Morocco, conquered Spain after a week long battle with King Roderick in 711 AD.  (The word tariff and the Rock of Gibraltar were named after him). They found that Europe, with the assistance of the Catholic Church, had returned almost to complete barbarism. The population was 90% illiterate and had lost all of the civilizing principles that were passed on by the ancient Greeks and Romans.

The Moors reintroduced mathematics, medicine, agriculture, and the physical sciences. The clumsy Roman numerals were replaced by Arabic figures including the zero and the decimal point. As Dr. Van Sertima says, "You can't do higher mathematics with Roman numerals." The Moors introduced agriculture to Europe including cotton, rice, sugar cane, dates, ginger, lemons, and strawberries. They also taught them how to store grain for up to 100 years and built underground grain silos. They established a world famous silk industry in Spain. The Moorish achievement in hydraulic engineering was outstanding. They constructed an aqueduct, that conveyed water from the mountains to the city through lead pipes from the mountains to the city.  They taught them how to mine for minerals on a large scale, including copper, gold, silver, tin, lead, and aluminum. Spain soon became the world center for high quality sword blades and shields.  Spain was eventually manufacturing up to 12,000 blades and shields per year.  Spanish craft and woolen became world famous. The Moorish craftsman also produced world class glass, pottery, vases, mosaics, and jewelry.

The Moors introduced to Europe paved, lighted streets with raised sidewalks for pedestrians, flanked by uninterrupted rows of buildings. Paved and lighted streets did not appear in London or Paris for hundreds of years. They constructed thousands of public markets and mills in each city. Cordova alone had 5,000 of each. They also introduced to Spain underwear and bathing with soap. Their public baths numbered in the thousands when bathing in the rest of Europe was frowned upon as a diabolical custom to be avoided by all good Christians. Poor hygiene contributed to the plagues in the rest of Europe.  Moorish monarchs dwelled in sumptuous palaces while the crowned heads of England, France, and Germany lived in barns, lacking windows, toilets, and chimneys, with only a hole in the roof as the exit for smoke. Human waste material was thrown in the streets since no bathrooms were present.

Education was made mandatory by the Moors, while 90% of Europe was illiterate, including the kings and queens. The Moors introduced public libraries to Europe with 600,000 books housed in Cordova alone.  They established 17 outstanding universities in Spain. Since Africa is a matriarchal society, women were also encouraged to devote themselves to serious study, and it was only in Spain that one could find female doctors, lawyers, and scientists.

Moorish schoolteachers knew that the world was round and taught geography from a globe. They produced expert maps with all sea and land routes accurately located with respect to latitude and longitude; while also introducing compasses to Europe. They were such expert shipbuilders that they were able to use their geography expertise to import and export as far away as India and China. It was not by accident that a Moor named Pietro Olonzo Nino was the chief navigator for Christopher Columbus on the flagship Santa Maria. He is said to have argued with Columbus as to who really discovered America.  One of the worst mistakes the Moors made was to introduce gunpowder technology from China into Europe, because their enemies adopted this weapon and used it to drive them out of Spain.

Europe then took the 700 years of civilization and education re-taught to them by the Moors and used this knowledge to attack Africa.

While the Moors were re-civilizing Europe, great empires were thriving in Western Africa and frequently traded with the Moors. These included the empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay, which prospered between 700 AD and 1600 AD. Africa was not a dark continent awaiting European civilization. In fact, Black African Egyptians and Black African Moors are credited with civilizing Europe."

Sourcebook: Black People & Their Place In World History  By: Dr. Leroy Vaughn, MD, MBA. A Dynamic, Honest and Powerful View of Black History. #africa #europe

Unveiling the Enchantment: Discovering the Splendor of the Bamileke People

In the picturesque highlands of Western Cameroon, a tapestry of culture, history, and elegance unfolds—the Bamileke people, a beacon of resilience and sophistication.

Embark on a captivating journey as we delve into the breathtaking essence of this remarkable tribe, where every facet tells a story of rich heritage and captivating traditions.

(1). Origin and Legacy: A Dance with Ancestral Echoes:

   - Rooted in the ancient Tikar Kingdom, the Bamileke people have evolved into a cultural force, carrying the legacy of their ancestors. Their journey is a mesmerizing tale of migration, cultural fusion, and an enduring dance with their storied heritage.

(2). Artistry Woven in Cloth: The Toghu Tapestry:

  - Witness the mastery of Bamileke craftsmanship through the intricate artistry of the 'Toghu' cloth. Adorned with symbolic motifs, this textile masterpiece serves as a canvas where history, spirituality, and aesthetics seamlessly converge.

(3). Ceremonial Symphony: Rhythms of Celebration:

  - Immerse yourself in the soul-stirring ceremonies of the Bamileke. From the lively 'Ngouon' dance, celebrating harvest and fertility, to the solemn 'Kwifoyn' rite marking adulthood, each ceremony is a vibrant celebration of tradition and community spirit.

(4). Palatial Heights: Chefferies in the Clouds:

  - Behold the architectural wonders of the Bamileke, with elevated palaces known as 'Chefferies' gracing the landscape. Perched on stilts, these structures mirror the heights of Bamileke social hierarchy and offer panoramic views of the surrounding hills.

(5). Mystical Masquerades: Dance of Spirits:

 - Explore the mystical realm of Bamileke masquerades, where sacred masks come alive in vibrant performances. Each mask carries profound symbolism, bridging the earthly and spiritual realms, embodying the ancestral spirits that guide and protect the community.

(6). Entrepreneurial Prowess: Trade Routes and Economic Brilliance:

  - The Bamileke people showcase an entrepreneurial spirit along strategic trade routes. Bustling markets echo their prowess in trade, becoming vibrant hubs of cultural exchange and economic activity.

(7). Social Harmony: Leadership and Unity:

 - Delve into the intricacies of Bamileke social organization, where chieftaincies and the revered 'Fon' (traditional ruler) play pivotal roles. The societal structure reflects wisdom and leadership crucial for maintaining community cohesion.

(8). Melodies of Identity: Harmony in Diversity:

 - Experience the heartbeat of Bamileke culture through its rich musical heritage. From rhythmic drumming to melodic tunes, their music mirrors a harmony rooted in diversity, echoing the essence of their cultural identity.

In conclusion, the Bamileke people invite us to witness a world where every tradition, every design, and every celebration is a stroke on the canvas of their profound cultural heritage.

As we explore the elegance of the Bamileke, we are captivated by a community gracefully balancing tradition and modernity, creating a breathtaking tableau that resonates with the senses and lingers in the heart.

Monday 25 December 2023

Thomas Sankara: “the African Che Guevara” who challenged France ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท

Thomas Sankara began his political activity in leftist circles secretly in 1974 (Getty)Thomas Sankara, an African military commander and political leader from Burkina Faso, ruled his country for 4 years, during which he made economic and social changes and gained it an international presence in supporting liberation issues.  He was assassinated in 1987 in a military coup that overthrew his rule, and his personality turned into an icon for generations of Africans, and he became known as “the African Che Guevara.”

Origin and formation:

Thomas Isidore Noel Sankara was born on December 21, 1949 in the town of Yako in Burkina Faso, then called “Upper Volta,” into a Catholic family from the lower strata of society.

His father was from the Falan nationality and he fought in World War I, while his mother was from the Musa nationality, and he was third in line among 11 brothers and sisters.

Study and scientific training:

After completing primary and middle school in Ouagadougou, he joined the military preparatory high school in the city, contrary to his family’s ambitions, which were nominating him to receive religious training to become a priest. He excelled at this stage with his academic excellence and high athletic skills.

In his twenties, he traveled on study missions as part of his military training to both Madagascar and Cameroon, and in Madagascar he witnessed the events of a revolution of workers and students that overthrew the government.

In the early seventies, he joined the Paratroopers Training Center in France, and took advantage of his presence there to initiate contacts with African organizations and African students with Marxist revolutionary tendencies.

Military and political experience:

Starting in 1974, Sankara began to be secretly active in leftist opposition circles, including unions, in parallel with his gradual promotion in the ranks of the army and assuming military responsibilities. His name emerged in a short military confrontation with neighboring Mali after a border dispute between the two countries, and he began to acquire the image of a national hero.  Then, in 1976, he assumed leadership of the National Center for Commando Training.

Between January and May 1978, he resided in Morocco as part of a military formation at the Paratroopers Training Center, where he was alongside his comrade Blaise Compaore (who would later turn against him). They founded, along with other officers, the “Communist Officers Group.”

The political and economic conditions in this poor country were deteriorating with the establishment of a one-party system in the country since November 1975, and the spread of corruption, political unrest, and coups.

In February 1981, he was promoted to the rank of captain and appointed commander of the Operations Division in the General Staff. In the same year, he entered the government as a state secretary in charge of communications, but he soon resigned as anger escalated over the repressive nature of President Sayi Zerbo’s regime, and he was thrown into prison with some of his companions.

On November 7, 1982, the country witnessed a new coup that overthrew Colonel Zerbo, followed by Jean-Baptiste and Drago, and Sankara was appointed Prime Minister in January 1983.

List Of Ancient African Writing System

Writing is a means by which people record, objectify, and organize their activities and thoughts through images and graphs. It is interesting to note that ancient Africans have been writing from modern Egypt, Sudan to Nigeria and Guinea.

Africa's Writing System was unique just like the Chinese System and it was developed uniquely without Arab or European influences, as they tends to be developed indigenously by Africans. 

Some were destroyed during colonialism this Writing system include.

(1). Ethiopic Writing System:

Created to holistically symbolize and locate the cultural and historical parameters of the Ethiopian people. In Ge'ez as its classic state, has a total of 182 syllographs, which are arranged in seven columns, each column containing 26 syllographs. Ethiopic is a knowledge system because it is brilliantly organized to represent philosophical features, such as ideography, mnumonics, syllography, astronomy, and grammatology.

(2). Egyptian (Kemetic) Hieroglyphs combined logographic, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. Written from left to Right.

(3). Afan Oromo Writing System:

It is the language by more than 25 million Oromo and neighboring peoples in Ethiopia and Kenya. Older publications refer to the language as "Galla", a term that is resented by Oromo people and no longer used.

(4). Sudanic Writing System:

By the 3rd CEN. BC a new indigenous alphabet, the Meroitic, consisting of twenty-three letters, replaced Egyptian script. The Meroitic script is an alphabetic script originally derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs, in writing the Meroitic language in Kush. It was developed sometime during the Napatan Period (by 700 - 300 BC) and first appears in the 2nd century BC. For a time, it was also possibly used to write the Nubian language of the successor Nubian kingdoms. It was Written from Right to left Vertically.

(5). Nsibidi Writing System:

It originated as an esoteric form of knowledge understood by a select group of people mostly members of a secret society in Southeastern Nigeria which some sources link to the Ejagham and later spread to Efik, Igbo, Ibibio, Efut, Annang and Banyang Areas. Some of the signs of the Nsibidi spread to the Caribbean and Brazil during the slave trade.

(6). Edo/Benin Writing Sytem:

Benin/Edo people of southern Nigeria have developed a chromatographic system of writing. Based on different color combination's and graphs.The system is also called quantography or pictography.

(7). Tifinagh Writing System (Libyan ancient writing system) Libyco-Berber symbols could date from the 3rd century BC.

(8). Bamum Writing System ( Ancient Cameroon)

(9). Kikakui Writing System ( Ancient Sierra Leone)

(10). N'ko Writing System (Ancient Guinea)

(11). Mandombe Writing System (Ancient Congo)

(12). Shumom Writing System 

(The Shumom people are the people of Cameroon in West Africa. Their country is located between Nigeria in the West, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Congo Brazzaville in the South and Chad and Central African Republic in the North).

Cameroon: A Tapestry of Diversity and Natural Splendor

Nestled on the Gulf of Guinea in Central Africa, Cameroon stands as a testament to the continent's rich cultural mosaic and diverse landscapes. This vibrant nation, often referred to as "Africa in Miniature," offers a captivating blend of cultures, languages, and breathtaking scenery that beckons explorers and enthusiasts alike.

Geographical Marvels:

Cameroon's geographical diversity is nothing short of spectacular. From the volcanic peaks of the Cameroon Mountains to the dense rainforests of the Congo Basin, the country's topography paints a mesmerizing canvas. The iconic Mount Cameroon, an active volcano towering above the Gulf of Guinea, adds an awe-inspiring dimension to the landscape.

Cultural Kaleidoscope:

Home to over 250 ethnic groups, Cameroon celebrates a rich cultural tapestry. Each community contributes its unique traditions, languages, and artistry to the national identity. The Bamileke, Tikar, and Fulani people, among others, showcase their vibrant cultures through traditional dances, ceremonies, and intricate craftsmanship.

Languages Unveiled:

Cameroon proudly claims status as an African linguistic crossroads, with over 250 languages spoken. French and English, inherited from colonial influences, serve as official languages. However, the linguistic diversity extends far beyond, encompassing indigenous languages like Fulfulde, Ewondo, and Duala, each carrying the echoes of centuries-old stories.

Wildlife Wonderland:

The country's commitment to conservation is evident in its diverse ecosystems. From the Waza National Park in the north, known for its savannah landscapes and diverse wildlife, to the lush Dja Faunal Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site teeming with rare species, Cameroon offers a haven for nature enthusiasts and wildlife photographers.

Cityscapes and Urban Vibes:

As bustling urban centers intertwine with natural wonders, cities like Yaoundรฉ and Douala emerge as vibrant hubs of commerce and culture. Markets burst with colors, offering a glimpse into daily life, while contemporary art galleries and museums contribute to the cultural renaissance shaping Cameroon's urban landscape.

Culinary Delights:

Cameroonian cuisine tantalizes the taste buds with a fusion of flavors. From aromatic street foods like puff-puff to hearty dishes like Ndolรฉ and Suya, the culinary journey reflects the diversity of the nation's regions and the influence of both local and international ingredients.

Football Fervor:

In Cameroon, football isn't just a sport; it's a passion that unites the nation. The Indomitable Lions, the national football team, have earned acclaim on the global stage, embodying the resilience and spirit that define Cameroonians.

In conclusion, Cameroon is a symphony of diversity, an ode to the harmonious coexistence of cultures and nature. Whether exploring the untamed beauty of its national parks, savoring the flavors of its cuisine, or immersing oneself in the rhythm of its cities, Cameroon invites travelers to embark on a journey that transcends the ordinary. With its welcoming people and enchanting landscapes, this African gem invites the world to discover its many facets and unravel the tales woven into its vibrant tapestry.

Patrice Lumumba's Last Message

He was the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and was assassinated in 1961 after a military coup supported by the USA and Belgian imperialism which was recognized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 2013.

My dear wife,

I am writing these words to you, not knowing whether they will reach you or not, or whether I will live when you read them.  Throughout my struggle for the independence of our country, I have never doubted the victory of our sacred cause, to which I and my comrades have devoted our whole lives.

But the only thing we wanted for our country was the right to a decent life, dignity without pretension, and independence without restrictions.

This was never the desire of the Belgian colonialists and their Western allies, who received support, direct or indirect, overt or covert, from some high-ranking officials of the United Nations, the body on which we placed all our hope when we appealed to it.  for help.

They seduced some of our citizens, bought off others, and did everything to distort the truth and distort our independence.

What I can say is that this - alive or dead, free or in prison - is not a question for me personally.

The main thing is the Congo, our unfortunate people, whose independence is being trampled upon.

That's why they locked us in prison and kept us away from the people.  But my faith remains indestructible.

I know and feel deep in my heart that sooner or later my people will rid themselves of their internal and external enemies, and will rise as one man to say “no” to colonialism, to insolent, dying colonialism, in order to win their dignity in a clean land.

We are not alone.  Africa, Asia, the free peoples and the peoples fighting for their freedom all over the world will always be side by side with the millions of Congolese who will not give up the struggle while there is even a single colonizer or colonial mercenary in our country.

To my children, whom I am leaving and whom I may never see again, I want to say that the future of the Congo is wonderful and that I expect them, as from every Congolese, to fulfill the sacred task of restoring our independence and sovereignty.

Without dignity there is no freedom, without justice there is no dignity, without independence there are no free men.  Cruelty, insults and torture can never force me to beg for mercy, because I would rather die with my head held high, with indestructible faith and deep belief in the destiny of our country than to live in humility and abandon the principles sacred to me.

The day will come when history will speak.  But it will not be the history that will be taught in Brussels, Paris, Washington or the United Nations.

It will be the history that will be taught in countries that achieved freedom from colonialism and its agents.

Africa will write its history, and it will be a history of glory and dignity in its north and south.

Don't cry for me.  I know that my suffering country will be able to defend its freedom and independence.

Long live Congo!

Long live Africa!

Patrice Lumumba

Sunday 24 December 2023

The Great Benin Empire

The Benin empire now in today Nigeria ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ was one of the oldest and developed states in west Africa From the 11th Century. With its mathematical layout and earthworks longer than the Great Wall of China, Benin was one of the best planned cities in the world Before London People stole/destroyed the City.

The Guinness Book of Records (1974 edition) described the walls of Benin City and its surrounding kingdom as the world’s largest earthworks carried out prior to the mechanical era.

According to estimates by the New Scientist’s Fred Pearce, Benin City’s walls were at one point “four times longer than the Great Wall of China, and consumed a hundred times more material than the Great Pyramid of Cheops”.

Situated on a plain, Benin City was enclosed by massive walls in the South and deep ditches in the North.

Beyond the city walls, numerous further walls were erected that separated the surroundings of the capital into around 500 distinct villages.

Pearce writes that these walls “extended for some 16,000 km in all, in a mosaic of more than 500 interconnected settlement boundaries. They covered 6,500 sq km and were all dug by the Edo people.

They took an estimated 150 million hours of digging to construct, and are perhaps the largest single archaeological phenomenon on the planet”.

Barely any trace of these walls exist today as it was plundered to the ground by the British who stole several artifacts.

Benin City was also one of the first cities to have a semblance of street lighting. Huge metal lamps, many feet high, were built and placed around the city, especially near the king’s palace.

Fuelled by palm oil, their burning wicks were lit at night to provide illumination for traffic to and from the palace.

When the Portuguese first “discovered” the city in 1485, they were stunned to find this vast kingdom made of hundreds of interlocked cities and villages in the middle of the African jungle. 

They called it the “Great City of Benin”.

Indeed, they classified Benin City as one of the most beautiful and best planned cities in the world. Benin City’s planning and design was done according to careful rules of symmetry, proportionality and repetition now known as fractal design "The mathematician Ron Eglash" notes

He examines the patterns underpinning architecture, art and design in many parts of Africa – notes that the city and its surrounding villages were purposely laid out to form perfect fractals, with similar shapes repeated in the rooms of each house, and the house itself and the clusters of houses in the village in mathematically predictable patterns.

As he puts it: “When Europeans first came to Africa, they considered the architecture very disorganised and thus primitive, It never occurred to them that the Africans might have been using a form of mathematics that they hadn’t even discovered yet.”

Ron Eglash..

Saturday 23 December 2023


The Victoria Falls (the group of falls is called Mosi-o-Tunya in Tong, which in Portuguese means the smoke that thunders) are one of the most spectacular waterfalls in the world.  They are located on the Zambezi River, on the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe, and are around 1.5 km wide and have a maximum height of 128 m.  When jumping, the Zambezi plunges into the Kariba gorge and crosses several basalt waterfalls.

Both the Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park and the Victoria Falls National Park, in Zimbabwe, have been inscribed since 1989 on the list of Cultural Heritage of Humanity maintained by Unesco.  It is also preserved as it is within the Cubango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area.

The predominant vegetation in the park is mopane forest (Colophospermum mopane) with small areas of “miombo”, but with a strip of tropical forest along the Zambezi, the most important and vulnerable is that which developed in the area where the falls release water , which is a fragile discontinuous ecosystem on alluvial sand.  Here you can find species of trees that are considered “precious wood”, such as the blackwood or “African ebony”, Diospyros mespiliformis, the “jambirre”, Afzelia quanzensis, in addition to other typical species of the “Zambeziac Flora”, such as the spinosa, Acacia nigricans, the “ivory palm”, Hyphaene ventricosa, the African olive tree, Olea africana, the date palm, Phoenix reclinata, the “water broom”, Syzygium guineense, the “mafurra”, Trichilia and several species of huge fig trees (Ficus spp.).

Large herds of elephants, Loxodonta africana, inhabit the park, sometimes crossing the river to the islands and going as far as Zambia during the dry season, when the water level in the river is lower.  Small herds of buffalo, Syncerus caffer, cocones, Connochaetes taurinus, zebras, Equus burchelli, wild pigs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Potamocherus porcus, giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) and groups of hippos (Hippopotamus amphibius) are also found above the cataracts.

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