Sunday 31 July 2022

Chinua Achebe at his house in Enugu, Nigeria. 1959

He is one of Africa's most acclaimed authors and considered by some to be the father of modern African literature. His early novels, including the groundbreaking Things Fall Apart (1958) and No Longer at Ease (1960), describe poignantly the effects of European colonialism on Igbo society, Nigeria, and newly independent African nations.

He taught at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (1976-81), and was founding editor (1971) of the influential journal Okike. Achebe returned to the novel form with Anthills of the Savannah (1987). He has also written numerous short stories, children's books, and a book of essays, Home and Exile (2000), reflecting on his and his nation's coming of age.


African Voice


In an interview, Nigerian afrobeat star Burna Boy expresses some facts about Africa's education system. According to him, Africa's school curriculum focuses a lot on European 'mythical' stories and ancient Kingdoms as opposed to teaching things that are significant to the African child.

The need to revisit Africa's school curriculum has been a center of discussion for years now. Proponents of Afrocentric school curriculum believed that African students must be taught about skills that are needed to address issues facing the continent as well as human relations that reflect the realities of African societies and not others.

It's also argued that Africa’s policy makers must  be wary of the 'soft' approach by others to introduce school programs  that teach social and political thoughts that are written by western thinkers for western societies but often promoted as 'universal values' or 'best practice' for human relation.

By L. Mansaray for EYEGAMBIA

Saturday 30 July 2022


The Yoruba are an ethnic group of southwestern Nigeria and southern Benin Republic in West Africa who share a rich history and culture.

Here are eight interesting facts about the traditional Yoruba culture:

1. According to Yoruba mythology, all Yoruba people are descendants from the hero Odua or Oduduwa.

2. The language of the Yorubas, known as Yoruba, belongs to the Congo-Kordofanian language family. The language has many dialects, but most of its speakers are able to understand each other.

3. The Yoruba homeland is located in west Africa, with most Yoruba living in Nigeria. There are also some scattered groups in small neighbouring countries, Togo and Benin.

4. The Yoruba are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.

5. The Yoruba are a very sociable and expressive people who commemorate major events with colorful festivals and celebrations. Weddings, naming ceremonies, funerals and even housewarming parties are celebrated in a lavish and ceremonial nature.

6. As many as 20 percent of the Yoruba still practice the traditional religion of their ancestors. A large number of modern Yoruba also combine traditional Yoruba beliefs with modern day religions such as Islam and Christianity.

7. About 75 percent of the Yoruba men are farmers, producing food crops for their domestic needs. Women help plant yams and harvest corn, beans, and cotton.

8. The Yoruba present the highest rate of twin births in the world. This may be because of high consumption of a specific type of yam containing a natural phytoestrogen which may stimulate the ovaries to release an egg from each side. Twins are very important for the Yoruba; they are given special names and inspire wooden sculptures.

By: Oluwafemi Omodara



Erin-ile, an old Yoruba town was established around 1225 AD for example more than 878 years prior. History of Erin-ile goes back to the verbose return of Oranyan from Edo nation after his red hot military campaigns against the Igbos who were then annoying that piece of Oduduwa's reality.

Erin-ile is probably the most established town in the old Oyun Local Government Area, including Offa. Erin-ile town was established about a similar time as Ipee and the limit between these two was before the coming of Offa town. Solid oral custom and serious research agreeably spin the authentic cause of Erin-ile around one famous regal sovereign of Ife called ODUMOSA.

He was known to be an eminent tracker and marksman, subsequently his name "APAAYAN", for example a marksman who was presumed for his best games. As the fore-name recommend, Odu-mosa was additionally a faithful religionist and a figuring chief. He was a shrewd executive and appealling character. He was the grandson of lord OBALUFON of Ife. OBALUFON is the contracted from the OBA ILU IFE for example (The ruler of Ile-Ife), and Olufon its short structure implies OLU-IFE for example (the ruler of Ife).

He was an acclaimed skilled worker and the first to acquaint metal works with Ife. He is as yet being exceptionally venerated for that important commitment. Ruler Obalufon was ruling when his nephew sovereign ORANMIYAN drove his arrangement of military undertakings to Benin. Ruler Obalufon later kicked the bucket and sovereign ORANMIYAN who was the beneficiary obvious didn't return in time from the war front. In his nonattendance, lord Obalufon's child ALAIYEMORE was designated and introduced as the following Ife ruler.

From that point, sovereign Oranmiyan surfaced suddenly to Ife. Frenzy held everybody inspired by a paranoid fear of what might and could be the response of such a fierce military legend to his life aspiration being so run by his counsin's climb to the seat which he (Oranmiyan) had constantly desired. In such a disrupted and unsure circumstance, ODUMOSA who was the immediate child of lord Alaiyemore thought of it as foothardy to sit tight in Ife for ORANMIYAN's response.

He immediately chose to stop Ife so as to get away from the conceivable anger of Oranmiyan. It was everybody's conviction that whoever incited Oranmiyan welcomed searing war. Odumosa set off with a huge unforeseen of devotees including his child ALAWODE AREBIOPE and his stepbrother, ruler ALAPA. He conveyed with him enough supplies of essential needs. he brought various valuable fortunes from the castle. Among such were beaded crowns, glorious clothing types, regal staff (EDAN OBALUFON), Obalufon's celebration silver crown, set of strung coral dots, the way of life of Obalufon, Ifa prophet, war types of gear, arms and ammo, (for games and self preservation) and a puzzling clarion horn for collecting his adherents at whatever point they dispersed looking for games and food or were abandoned. He depended particularly on the horn which he likewise used to give war or harmony signs and headings of next developments to his supporters.

Like patriarch Abraham of the Jewish history who on divine requests left his folks in the land Haran for an obscure goal. Odu-mosa left Ife on Ifa prophet's guidance for the open wide world without learning his genuine goal. He was a man of confidence, without a doubt a man of dauntless boldness, never terrified of slopes or wildernesses, dry land or overwhelmed planes. He continued endlessly nudging his contingents to walk and head quick in the opposite direction from a potential pursue by Oranmiyan. He told his kin "E RIN E RIN; E RIN" for example WALK FAST, WALK FAST, WALK FAST. The name ERIN was later suffixed with "ILE", which signifies the terminal finish of the trek on Ifa prophet's heading to frame the compound name ERIN-ILE.

After a long spell of meandering and meandering aimlessly before they arrived at that goal, they ended and rested in various spots, as ERINMO or ERIN-ITADOGUN for example an intersection place where they laid on seventeenth day of their trek and made places of arrangement fronds. A major market was set up at the intersection settlement. When Odumosa left, a portion of his devotees stayed behind and settled for all time in ERINMO. Other spot of visit included ERIN-OKE, ERIN-IJESHA, which are all now remarkable towns in Osun State. At Erin-ile, Odumosa met three trackers; Olowe, Afolumodi and Gbaagba, who received him as their first ruler when they was aware of his august status.

At a last visit before Erin-ile, Odumosa, Odumosa overlooked his clarion horn. When they returned for it, it had sunk and shimmering water, presently the stream Owo has begun spouting out of it. It was at this crossroads that his stepbrother, ruler Alapa isolated from him while Odumosa moved west ward, Alapa moved east ward. Alapa now settled Eku-Apa now in Irepodun LGA of Kwara State.

An a lot later settlement of Odumosa's replacements are Erin Papa, established on an open meadow by the thirteenth Elerin of Erin-Ile in rebellion of Alimi, the Fulani Jihadist. Erin Papa was found in Osun State and is presently called Erin – Osun. Around 1907, Elerin olaojo chose to profit to Erin-Ile for discontinuance of threats by the Jihadist. A few residents tailed him while some picked to remain. Erin_osun is likewise a major toen and she imparts close proclivity to Erin-ile. Indeed,the two towns are "twain" towns.

Aside from towns and settlements set up legitimately by Odumosa or his replacements, there are additionally families who have blood or social proclivity with Erin-Ile and are living in different networks. They can be perceived by their surname (oriki) regardless of whether they are in Ibadan, Abeokuta, Ilorin, Oshogbo, Ilesha, Ogbomoso or Offa. Such names incorporate, "More, Mosa" (from Alaiyemore and Odumosa), "Omo Elerin Mosa", "Omo Elewe Ladogba", "Omo Obalufon L'Erin", "Omo Abinuwole" alluding to Olowe who sank alive and "Omo Abiowe" again alluding to Olowe star war pioneer of Erin-Ile. Some outstanding Nigerians with such names incorporate Ali Agboguleri; Saka Pena, Adegoke Adelabu (Penkelemi) and Oba Gbadamosi Adebimpe all in Ibadan, the balogun group of Iragbiji, the Duro Ladipo family in Oshogbo, the Ige family in Ijeshaland spreading to Ibadan, the Toki family in Offa and on the maternal side, the Olugbense imperial family in Offa and so forth.

By and by, Erin-Ile is in Oyun LGA of Kwara State and was the base camp of the Local Governement when it was first made in 1980. For odd reasons, the central command was moved when the Federal Military Government re-made the L.G.A. in 1990. Erin-Ile is on the southern-most edge of Kwara State and offers limits with Offa, Ilemona, Irra, Eku-Apa, Ipee, Igosun all in Kwara State and Oyan and Ila - Odo in Osun State. She is overhauled by current enhancements. A yearly celebration impossible to miss to her is the Obalufon celebration named after their begetter in Ile-Ife.

Gossip House


In the history of all 50 Ooni that have reigned in Ile Ife before the present king Oba Adeyeye Enitan Ogunwusi, Ojaja II, Obalufon Ogbogbodirin is said to have lived longest, thus the Ogbogbodirin sobriquet after his name which literary means one who lived for a very long time.

The statue of Obalufon Ogbogbodirin, the Ooni who lived for centuries.

Ooni Obalufon Ogbogbodirin is said to be the fourth king of Ile Ife. He is said to have reigned for centuries and later transfigured into a metal figurine as he aged and eventually become a deity.

But there is more to Obalufon even in death. He has become a prayer point for every Ooni that have reigned after him. The present Ooni once revealed that “Obalufon Ogbogbodirin holds the spiritual classified codes for Ooni‘s long reign.”

We gathered that every Ooni that has reigned after Obalufon Ogbogbodirin have gone to where his figurine his, knelt before it and prayed to live as long as he had lived before they are crowned. It was learnt that Obalufon shrine till date plays an important role in the installation of every Ooni after him as Aare crown is always blessed in his shrine before it will be placed on the head of the new Ooni.

Though Obalufon has a groove where he is being worshipped, Ooni Ogunwusi brought him closer to the people when he ordered that an image of him be erected in the Enuwa palace where he lives.

Gossip House

Thursday 28 July 2022


ADEGBORO left Ibadan for Lagos in search of greener pasture. He chose to be carrying loads (Alabaru) on his head at Oyingbo market to earn a living.

Few years after, he bought a cart from his savings and this eased the pain of carrying loads on his head for commercial purposes. The Cart also increased his income and he was able to acquire 6 more of its kind which he rented out to others.

Exactly 8 years in this cart pushing business, Adegboro bought a van which many called BOLEKAJA and learning how to drive, he handled the business by himself. 4 years into the Bolekaja business, Adegboro had been a proud owner of 6 Vans.

Being a bona fide Ibadan son, (omo bibi ilu Ibadan) ADEGBORO built a magnificent building at OJA OBA where the Olubadan Palace was situated when it was time to put a roof on his head.

Many people at this period approached Adegboro to show them the secret behind his success. He simply asked them if they could carry loads on their heads in the market to earn income (alabaru)? And their response had always been "NEVER".

He too would spontaneously say “ENI TI O LE SE ALABARU L'OYINGBO, KO LE SE BI ADEGBORO L'OJA OBA" - this is a replica of the adage also in Yoruba land that says; "ÌSASÙN tabi IKOKO TI YIO J'ATA (OBE), IDI RE A GBONA". (A pot that wants to consume a palatable soup must have its bottom burnt or heated with fire first).

In Life, to endure is to achieve. No short cut is sustainable. Enduring wealth is built over time in a small bit but in a persistent way.




Moremi made significant contributions to African freedom but her life has received little scholarly attention. She was a queen of the Yoruba nation, which is one of the most famous and influential black tribes in history. Moremi’s exploits helped preserve the commercial life of her people and freed them from oppressors. Today, there are over 41 million ethnic Yorubas who live predominantly in sixteen countries in West Africa, although, because of the transatlantic slave trade, large Yoruba communities have taken root in countries like Brazil Cuba ,Jamaica, Puerto Rico , and other parts of the Americas. There are also Yoruba communities in many European countries—most having migrated in the immediate decades after the end of colonialism in the 1970s and 1980s while fleeing economic and political instability in their home countries. But the Yorubas would have never survived to become a prominent black ethnic group in the 21st century if it were not for the bravery of some of its early heroes, among which is the remarkable Queen Moremi.

Unfortunately, there are hardly any original written documents to validate most of the things we know about Moremi. We must rely on folkloric accounts passed down over generations by the Yoruba themselves—which is a common limitation when studying ancient and medieval African history. Although accounts of Moremi’s exploits are now sparsely documented in popular culture, the Yorubas have always considered folklore (called ‘Aroba’ in the Yoruba language) the strongest medium for teaching and preserving history, rather than written documents or wall‐​carvings. This medium of preserving history is a feature common to many Sub‐​Saharan Africa tribes. We also do not know for certain exactly what year Moremi was born or when she died owing to the absence of written evidence. But we do know that she was a princess from the town of Offa  and was later married to the Ooni (king) of Ile‐​Ife. Her husband was either Ooni Obalufon Alayemoye II  or Ooni Oranmiyan—both direct descendants of Ooni Oduduwa, the legendary founder of the Yoruba tribe and the first Ooni of Ile‐​Ife. There are also claims that she was married to both Oonis at different times.  To figure out when Moremi most likely lived, we can consider the dates of some related entities. For instance, the Copper Mask of Obalufon II—first introduced to the world in 1937 by Ooni Adesoji Aderemi in Ile-Ife—is believed by archaeologists to have been created around 1300 CE while Obalufon II was still alive. We can peg Moremi’s lifetime to around this period since she was likely married to Obalufon II. Even if she was actually married to Oranmiyan, who succeeded Obalufon II, the timeframe of her life would not be much further from circa 1300. This is because Moremi’s hometown of Offa was founded in 1359 by a crown prince (Olalomi Olofa‐​gangan) from one of the older kingdoms (Kingdom of Oyo) founded by Oranmiyan.

Since Offa is an offshoot town of the Kingdom of Ife, Ife is the spiritual home of Moremi just as it is for any contemporary of Yoruba origin. Spirituality has a huge influence on the story of Moremi. The original religion of the Yoruba people, which is practiced in Ile‐​Ife and throughout the old Yorubaland, was the Ifa Religion—a divination system that considers the world controlled by Olodumare (the Supreme Being) through spiritual energies.  Ifa practitioners—including Moremi and the early Yoruba people—communicate with Olodumare through the Orishas (gods) and the Irunmoles (deities). 8 Moremi’s quest for freedom was informed by this spiritualism. But the popularity of Moremi started while she was still a young princess in Offa. She was well‐​known throughout the town and its neighboring territories as a beautiful woman and is still revered today as one of the most beautiful Yoruba women that ever lived.


There is a gap in history between Moremi’s youth and when shshe moved to Ile‐​Ife where she married the Ooni. We do not know what influenced her thought process while growing up or what might have influenced her zeal for freedom. But we know that while she was a queen in Ife, the kingdom was greatly troubled by raiders who occasionally looted the market in Ife and abducted citizens of the kingdom into slavery. These raiders also often stole properties, staple foods, and domestic animals. They are believed to be from a neighboring community called Ugbo.  Although the people of Ile‐​Ife were furious about these raids, they did not have the means to defend themselves. This is because the Ugbo invaders are seen as spirits by the people of Ife. Yoruba masquerades are always dressed in cotton robes but the Ugbo raiders—who appeared as masquerades—were completely covered in raffia leaves. Out of all the atrocities of the raiders, Moremi could not stand two in particular: the disruption of the Ife market and the enslavement of captured Ife citizens. The market in Ife was the mother of all markets in Yorubaland due to its location within the sacred Kingdom of Ife and its commercial vibrancy. Furthermore, citizens of Ife were direct descendants of Oduduwa and the Orishas. Having them in enemy captivity could have led to divine retribution on Ife. Moremi believed that despite the mystique surrounding the identity of the Ugbo raiders, there must be a way to stop them. To find answers, she consulted an Orisha at the Esimirin river. The consultation of an Orisha while contemplating major decisions is cardinal to the Ifa religion. In early Yorubaland, the Orishas were the conductor of the forces of nature and an individual will hardly take a definitive course of action in life without consulting an orisha either personally or through a Babalawo (Ifa priest).

Esimirin offered to help Moremi deliver her people from oppression but demanded an offering as a payment after Moremi’s request was met. Moremi agreed and went home to work on a classic spy plan. She would pose as a trader on the next market day and allow herself to be captured by the raiders. Once in captivity, she planned to infiltrate the Ugbo leadership with her beauty and magic in the hope of finding a weakness that the people of Ife could exploit.

As planned, during the next raid Moremi allowed herself to be captured and she was taken to Ugbo along with other captives. When the captives were put on parade before the leader of Ugbo, Moremi’s beauty captured his attention and he ordered she be brought to his court as a wife. Moremi spent some time in Ugbo studying the people’s way of life with a specific interest in the raffia‐​dressed masquerades. Eventually, she lured the leader of Ugbo into revealing the nature of the masquerades and their weakness. The leader told Moremi that the raffia masqueraders were not spirits but that they were humans disguised as such to intimidate the people of Ile‐​Ife into submission during raids. He also revealed that since the masquerades were dressed in dried raffia leaves, they would not survive the slightest touch of fire. Moremi kept this revelation to herself and soon made her way back to Ile‐​Ife.

When in Ile‐​Ife, she tipped the Ooni about her discovery and advised that on the next market raid, some people should be on the standby with Igita (short hard tree branch) and Oguso (a ball of the middle layer of a palm kennel font). She explained that the Oguso should be lit when the marauders were in the market and that the burning Igita be used to torch the masquerades. They did exactly as she advised. On the next market day, the torch‐​bearing people of Ife—many of who were market women—cast their burning torches at the Ugbo raiders. The prospect of being burned alive by the torches terrified the raffia‐​dressed Ugbo masquerades. The raids ended and Ife was victorious. The Yoruba people were successfully liberated by both the torch and the Moremi’s heroic plan.

📸: Moremi statue in Ile-ife, South West Nigeria.

African history group.


US-Sierra Leonean Abdul Karim Bangura is perhaps the most educated man in the world with 5 PhDs.

He's a Senior Mentor of the CODESRIA College of Mentors and a Researcher-in-Residence of Abrahamic Connections and Islamic Peace Studies at American University's Center for Global Peace.

He holds five PhDs; a PhD in Politics Science, a PhD in Development Economics, a PhD in Linguistics, a PhD in Computer Science and a PhD in Mathematics.  Incredible!!

Other include ; M.S., Linguistics, Georgetown University Grd Dpl., Social Sciences, Stockholms Universitet M.A, International Studies, American University BA, International Studies, American University.

He has reportedly written over 70 books and more than 600 academic articles.

He is said to be fluent in about 18 languages including Krio, Temne, Mende, Fula, Kono, Sherbro, Limba, Kiswahili, English, Spanish, Italian, French, German, and Swedish.

Abdul was born on August 26, 1953 in Bo, Sierra Leone. He's the son of Kunda and Fatmata(Jalloh) Bangura. He's a naturalised citizen of the United States.

Don't scroll without showing some respect for this great African.




I can't keep this piece to myself alone. It's forever going to be useful, even for our unborn generations. It is for keeps.


Get unripe pawpaw, unripe pineapple, ginger, lime orange and Lipton tea. Cut into pieces, boil with fermented corn water for one hour. Take one glass cup 3 times daily for one week. The ailment will disappear.


Get 7-8 unripe plantain, peel them, cut them to pieces and pound. Put everything inside a plastic container, fill it with one gallon of water. Allow it to ferment for three days. Take one cup 2 times a day for one week. The ailment will disappear.


Get some seeds of mango, cut it into pieces and keep under the sun to dry. Grind to powder. Put one spoon of the powder into a glass cup of water, stir it and drink. Once in a day for 3-4 weeks.


Get 5 seeds of English pear (Avocado pear), cut into pieces and dry under the sun, grind to powder. Mix with a glass of honey to form paste. Take one spoon, 3 times daily until the 6th day.


Take three teaspoons of salt and one teaspoon of sugar, add half spoon of dry gin. Drink all as a single dose. The cholera will stop immediately.


Get 4 seeds of English pear (Avocado pear), cut into pieces, dry under the sun and grind into powder. Put a teaspoon of this powder into your prepared palp and drink. Once daily for 2 weeks.


Get a handful of garlic, grind to extract the juice. Drink a spoon and use the juice to rub the chest and back. That will close the chapter.


Get about 10 pieces of bitter cola, grind to powder, add half cup of original honey. Take 2 spoons thrice daily for 4 days.

9. TUBERCULOSIS: Get 20-23 pieces of bitter cola, ginger of equal quantity and 3 bulbs of garlic grind everything and add a bottle of original honey. Take one spoon thrice daily for one month.


Grind 6 bulbs of big onions, add one original bottle of honey. Take one spoon thrice daily for one month. Alternatively; get a handful of bitter leaf and scent leaves, squeeze out the water in them, add lime(orange)juice, grinded garlic and small potash. Take half glass of it twice daily for one month.


Get 2 pieces of Aloe-vera, cut into pieces and put it in a container add one bottle of original honey and a glass of water. Take half cup of it 2 times daily for one week.


Get some leaves of Cochorus Olitorus(Vegetable Leaf) squeeze out the water and give it to the woman under hard labour. She will deliver the baby instantly.


Get the leaves of pawpaw, scent leaves and bitter leaves, squeeze out the water take half cup twice daily for 4 days.


Get 4-5 cola, ginger and garlic, cut them in pieces mix it with lime orange juice. Take 2 spoons daily for 3 days.


Get some corn silk, boil with lime orange juice. Drink half cup of it daily for one week and also embark on physical exercise.


Mix a native soap with ground potash, add lime orange. Apply the mixture after bath.


Get 3-4 pieces of cola, ginger and garlic, cutinto pieces. Mix everything with lime orange juice. Take 2 spoons daily until it is over.


Get some quantity of dry pawpaw leaves and cashew leaves, boil with water and drink half cup daily for one week.


Add 3 spoons of honey into a glass cup of milk. Take all at bedtime for one week.


Grind 12 bulbs of onions and 12 bulbs of garlic together. Get 3 bottles of honey, mix together. Take 2 spoons thrice daily for 2 weeks.


Get a mixture of lime juice and honey; let it be of equal quantity. The child should take one teaspoon twice daily until the problem is over.


Get large quantity of guava leaves, pound, add water and filter. Drink one glass cup thrice per day for 1 week. As you are taking that, eat carrot and cucumber daily for 2 weeks.


Get 3 bulbs of Okro, slice them get the dry seed of it, ferment everything with soda water for 2 days. Take half cup daily for one week.


Get 6 bulbs of white onions, grind and extract the juice. Mix the juice with honey. Take 2 spoons thrice daily for one week.


Get 3 pieces of bitter cola, some ginger and garlic, grind and add lime juice .Take 2 spoons twice daily for one week.


Get one onion, small garlic and ginger, grind all. Mix with palm kernel oil. Give the child to drink and use the mixture as cream for the child.


Rub the affected area with pure honey daily.


Get one bottle of olive oil and one bottle of honey. Mix together and warm it for few minutes. Use the mixture to wash your hair.


Grind bird pepper, unripe pawpaw seed and mix with lime orange juice. Use the mixture to rub the head, hair will start growing in the affected area.


Eat about 20 pieces of unripe palm kernel seeds everyday for about two months.


Get some quantity of pumpkin leaves and garden egg leaves, squeeze out the liquid, add milk. Drink it for three days; your blood will be boosted.


Apply the Aloe-vera gel to the affected eyes every night until the problem is over.


Eat small quantity of ginger continuously for one week.

Wednesday 27 July 2022



Benin Was first Igodomigodo and Greater than Ife(Oduduwa) Igodomigodo kingdom Was the greatest Ogiso and first King in West Africa Region to receive foreign traders.The Last Ogiso Son who was to succeed his Father was banished from Edo and arrived Yoruba kingdom and was crowned as the king  of Ile Ife. Izoduwa in Edo Language which is corrupted to  Oduduwa in Yoruba understanding. The Powerful Kingdom in Nigeria and first Empire recognized by foreign traders was (Ubini) Edo Kingdom. Edo King capture many towns such as Eko which is now Lagos and also capture Ijebu and Edo Kingdom were stretch from Ijebu and Lagos to Republic of Darhomey which is now change to Republic of Benin. Respect for the priestly functions of the Oni of Ife was a crucial factor in the evolution of Yoruba ethnicity. The Ife model of government was adept and derived its military strength from its cavalry forces, which established hegemony over the adjacent Nupe and the Borgu kingdoms and thereby developed trade routes farther to the north.

Edoland established a community in the Yoruba-speaking area east of Ubini before becoming a dependency of Benin Kingdom at the beginning of the 14th century. By the 15th century it became an independent trading power, blocking Ife's access to the coastal ports as Oyo had cut off the mother city from the savanna. Political and religious authority resided in the oba (king) who according to tradition was descended from the Ogiso dynasty in Benin Kingdom. Benin, which may have housed much inhabitants at its height, spread over large square km that were enclosed by concentric rings of earthworks. By the late 15th century Edo Kingdom was in contact with Portugal (see Atlantic slave trade). At its apogee in the 16th and 17th centuries, Edo encompassed parts of southeastern Yorubaland,and the western parts of the present Delta state.


The Nri Kingdom in the Awka area was founded in about 900 AD in North Central Igboland. The Nsukka-Awka-Orlu axis is said to be the oldest area of Igbo settlement and therefore, homeland of the Igbo people. This ancient kingdom is still considered the cradle of Igbo culture. The Nri people are children of the historical and mythical divine king Eri (founder of Aguleri of the Umueri clan on the Anambra river valley). It was a center of spirituality, learning, and commerce. They were agents of peace and harmony whose influence stretched beyond Igboland. The Nri people's influence in neighboring lands was especially in Southern Igalaland and Benin kingdom in the 12th to 15th centuries. As great travelers, they were also business people involved in the long distant Tran Saharan trade. The development and sophistication of this civilization is evident in the bronze castings found in Igbo Ukwu, an area of Nri influence. The Benin kingdom became a threat in the 15th century under Oba Ewuare. Since they were against slaves and slavery, their power took a downturn when the slave trade was at its peak in the 18nth century. The Benin and Igala slave raiding empires became the main influence in their relationship with Western and Northern Igbos their former main areas of influence and operation. Upper Northwest Cross River Igbo groups like the Aro Confederacy and Ohafia peoples, as well as the Awka and Umunoha people used oracular activities and other trading opportunities after Nri's decline in the 18th century to become the major influences in Igboland and all adjacent areas. This includes parts of Igalaland and places west of the Niger river indirectly affected by the Benin kingdom.


Historically the Yoruba have been the dominant group on the west bank of the Niger. Of mixed origin, they were the product of periodic waves of migrants. The Yoruba were organized in patrilineal groups that occupied village communities and subsisted on agriculture. From about the 8th century adjacent village compounds, called ile, coalesced into numerous territorial city-states in which clan loyalties became subordinate to dynastic chieftains. The earliest known of these city states formed at Ife and Ijebu. The latter city was fortified by a wall and ditch known today as Sungbo's Eredo around 800 AD. Urbanization was accompanied by high levels of artistic achievement, particularly in terracotta and ivory sculpture and in the sophisticated metal casting produced at Ife. The Yoruba placated a luxuriant pantheon headed by an impersonal deity, Olorun, and included lesser deities who performed various tasks. Oduduwa was regarded as the creator of the earth and the ancestor of the Yoruba kings. According to myth Oduduwa founded Ife and dispatched his sons to establish other cities, where they reigned as priest-kings. Ife was the center of as many as 400 religious cults whose traditions were manipulated to political advantage by the oni (king).


Trade was the key to the emergence of organized communities in the savanna portions of Nigeria. Prehistoric inhabitants adjusting to the encroaching desert were widely scattered by the third millennium BC, when the desiccation of the Sahara began. Trans-Saharan trade routes linked the western Sudan with the Mediterranean since the time of Carthage and with the Upper Nile from a much earlier date, establishing avenues of communication and cultural influence that remained open until the end of the 19th century. By these same routes, Islam made its way south into West Africa after the 9th century AD.

By then a string of dynastic states, including the earliest Hausa states, stretched across the western and central Sudan. The most powerful of these states were Ghana, Gao, and Kanem, which were not within the boundaries of modern Nigeria but indirectly influenced the history of the Nigerian savanna. Ghana declined in the 11th century but was succeeded by Mali Empire which consolidated much of the western Sudan in the 13th century. Following the breakup of Mali a local leader named Sonni Ali (1464-1492) founded the Songhai Empire in the region of middle Niger and the western Sudan and took control of the trans-Saharan trade. Sunni Ali seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His successor Askiya Mohammad Ture (1493-1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (died c. 1505), the founder of an important tradition of Sudanic African Muslim scholarship, to Gao. Although these western empires had little political influence on the Nigerian savanna before 1500, they had a strong cultural and economic impact that became more pronounced in the 16th century, especially because these states became associated with the spread of Islam and trade. Throughout the 16th century much of northern Nigeria paid homage to Songhai in the west or to Bornu, a rival empire in the east.


Bornu's history is closely associated with Kanem, which had achieved imperial status in the Lake Chad basin by the 13th century. Kanem expanded westward to include the area that became Bornu. The mai (king) of Kanem and his court accepted Islam in the 11th century, as the western empires also had done. Islam was used to reinforce the political and social structures of the state although many established customs were maintained. Women, for example, continued to exercise considerable political influence.

The mai employed his mounted bodyguard and an inchoate army of nobles to extend Kanem's authority into Bornu. By tradition the territory was conferred on the heir to the throne to govern during his apprenticeship. In the 14th century, however, dynastic conflict forced the then-ruling group and its followers to relocate in Bornu, where as a result the Kanuri emerged as an ethnic group in the late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The civil war that disrupted Kanem in the second half of the 14th century resulted in the independence of Bornu.

Bornu's prosperity depended on the trans-Sudanic slave trade and the desert trade in salt and livestock. The need to protect its commercial interests compelled Bornu to intervene in Kanem, which continued to be a theater of war throughout the fifteenth and into the sixteenth centuries. Despite its relative political weakness in this period, Bornu's court and mosques under the patronage of a line of scholarly kings earned fame as centers of Islamic culture and learning.


By the 11th century some Hausa states - such as Kano, Katsina, and Gobir - had developed into walled towns engaging in trade, servicing caravans, and the manufacture of various goods. Until the 15th century these small states were on the periphery of the major Sudanic empires of the era. They were constantly pressured by Songhai to the west and Kanem-Bornu to the east, to which they paid tribute. Armed conflict was usually motivated by economic concerns, as coalitions of Hausa states mounted wars against the Jukun and Nupe in the middle belt to collect slaves or against one another for control of trade.

Islam arrived to Hausaland along the caravan routes. The famous Kano Chronicle records the conversion of Kano's ruling dynasty by clerics from Mali, demonstrating that the imperial influence of Mali extended far to the east. Acceptance of Islam was gradual and was often nominal in the countryside where folk religion continued to exert a strong influence. Nonetheless, Kano and Katsina, with their famous mosques and schools, came to participate fully in the cultural and intellectual life of the Islamic world. The Fulani began to enter the Hausa country in the 13th century and by the 15th century they were tending cattle, sheep, and goats in Bornu as well. The Fulani came from the Senegal River valley, where their ancestors had developed a method of livestock management based on transhumance. Gradually they moved eastward, first into the centers of the Mali and Songhai empires and eventually into Hausaland and Bornu. Some Fulbe converted to Islam as early as the 11th century and settled among the Hausa, from whom they became racially indistinguishable. There they constituted a devoutly religious, educated elite who made themselves indispensable to the Hausa kings as state advisers, Islamic tribunes, and teachers.


One such story is the common Ife and Modakeke war of 1835–2000, which according to history was one of the longest intra-ethnic wars in Yorubaland. According to legend, Ifes and Modakekes are the sons and daughters of the same parents. Their ancestors can be traced back to Oduduwa, the Yoruba race’s progenitor.

Modakeke is a town in Osun State, South-West Nigeria, with nearly 300,000 inhabitants who are predominantly farmers and warriors. The town is about 45 kilometres from Osogbo, capital of Osun State and 90 kilometres from Ibadan in Oyo a state. Modakeke came into existence in 1945 after the fall of the Oyo Empire, below is a brief history of Modakeke town.

The whole of Yorubaland was thrown into chaos and confusion after the Oyo Empire fell to the Fulanis in 1835. The inhabitants of Oyo ran for safety and therefore were dispersed across Yorubaland, some founding new settlements and others, joining existing settlements like Ile-Ife. A group of Oyo refugees settled in Ile-Ife to begin a new life which unknowing to them will later birth the town called Modakeke.

On getting to Ile-Ife, they have already lost all their possessions and then took up menial jobs in the town. They also got recruited in the Ife army and it was through their bravery that Ife had its territory extended to Alakowe, its present boundary with Ilesa. They started growing and producing different types of food crops on farmlands given to them by their Ife people.

The then reigning Ooni of Ife, Oba Akinmoyero, received the Oyo refugees well and later gave them an expanse of land to live. The name Modakeke was adopted after consultation with the oracle which directed them to go to Ebu-Alako near Oke-Owu where they met a swarm of Ako (Stork) birds. The name was derived from the cries of the storks (Mo-da-ke-ke-ke-ke). This is also the origin of the appellation Akoraye (the stork has a place) and since the founding of Modakeke, eighteen traditional heads known as ‘Ogunsua’ had ruled the town.

Ife and Modekeke Crisis

There have been controversies about the conflict between these two parties, which to date has remained a discussion in the Yoruba lineage. Historians believe that the major causes of their conflict (Ife and Modakeke) were land ownership, payment of land rent (Isakole), the establishment of local government, and the placement of its headquarters, all of which are reflected in cultural identity, economics, and politics. The most prominent causes were the creation of local government and the location of its headquarters.

The Yoruba see Ife as their source, and they regard the Modakekes as their ‘landlords.’ Following the collapse of the Old Oyo empire in the 19th century, the latter migrated to the area. This was the underlying element in the Yoruba ethnic conflict that resulted in the deaths of thousands of people.

How was the Ife-Modakeke Conflict resolved?

In March 2000, Nigerian former President Olusegun Obasanjo announced a government-brokered truce and the formation of a 27-member peace committee in an effort to settle the long fight over land rights. In addition, the two towns were subjected to a dusk-to-daawn curfew, and hundreds of armed riot police were sent to enforce the truce.

A peace accord was also struck in February 2009 between Ife and Modakeke. The Ogunsua of Modakeke was elevated to the rank of Oba as a result of this peace deal. Also, the Osun State Government, the Ooni of Ife, Oba Okunade Sijuwade, Olubuse II, and the Ogunsua of Modakeke, Francis Adedoyin, signed the deal.

Source: Gossip House

Brief History Of Northern Nigeria Before Amalgamation

To understand Nigeria you need to know the history to explain the politics.

When the British arrived in what became Northern Nigeria, there were by then lets say for arguments sake two nations ruling the North predominantly the Fulani and then also the Indigenous Hausa, the latter of which the Hausa kingdoms were constantly being attacked by the Fulani who are conquers by nature. The British to keep a balance assisted the Hausa and with their help confronted the Fulani.

The Fulani understanding conquest took to their new masters the British and in return for their new found compliant attitude Lord Lugard made every Emir in every town in the north a Fulani, inadvertently giving power back to the Fulani. (I wonder if this is where the phrase “the only thing Nigeria understands is war” stems from).

Then in 1914 for financial reasons the British amalgamated the Northern Nigeria Protectorate with the Southern Protectorates, now these were entirely two very different regions, as the southern protectorate wasn’t a conquered region it was a democratic area of many nations that had been developed over thousands of years of trading with foreign lands (the southern protectorate agreed upon to protect trading) and was religiously predominantly Judea Christian and in every sense was far more developed than the north in every aspect; education, standard of living etc.. following the amalgamation there was a great need in the north for jobs only the southerners could really do for development of the country like railways, education etc..

So they were sent to the north, however they were still the foreigners and they could never fit in, understandably deep seated bad feelings embedded itself as the Northerners felt the Southerners were lauding their social standing over them and the Southerners could never fit into the social/political system as it was not designed to do so. (Oil doesn’t mix with water). Now the British have left following independence the Fulani are still conquering as is there nature by political means.

To explain in full detail one must read: Historical background of Northern Nigeria in the Report of the Justice G.C.M Onyiuke Tribunal 1966.

For a century before the advent of British administration in Nigeria, the Fulani provided the ruling class of most of Northern Nigeria.

The notable exception is the Bornu Emirate to the north/east which is inhabited by the Kanuri. What we now know as the provinces of Sokoto, Gwandu, Katsina, Kano, Zaria, Bauchi, Adamawa, Plateau and Niger fell under varying degrees to the influence of the Fulani aristocracy. Northern Nigeria was by no means a void nor was it without history. We do not propose to delve into ancient history. This is hardly a useful exercise here. Suffice it to say that British expansion met established Hausa states at varying levels of development and prosperity.

They were in all at this stage 14 Hausa states which comprised, Darua, Kano, Zaria, Gobir, Katsina, Rono and Biram (the Hausa Bakwai or legitimate 7 states); Zamfara, Kebbi, Nupe, Gbagyi, Gauri, Ilorin (Yoruba) and Kwararafa (the banza Bakwai or upstart seven which developed to the south and west of the original group). Each state had its own traditions and legends of origin and at varying degrees had embraced or come under the influence of Islam. It had been said that it would be strictly incorrect to refer to these Hausa states as if they belong to the same ethnic group. They were people who spoke the Hausa language and adopted the Hausa mode of dress and life generally.

When the 19th century opened, the Fulani appeared to be the predominant race in the Sudan. Fulani is the Hausa name for the people who call themselves Fulbe. They themselves made a distinction between the Cattle Fulani and the Town Fulani; The latter included the aristocratic families such as Torobe. The origin of these people is less than clear. What is more certain, however is that by the 16th century, there was a steady movement of those Fulani people from the region now known as Senegal towards the East through Messina and the Hausa states toward Chad and Adamawa and beyond.

From the rank of the Fulani the great religious leaders of the 18th and 19th centuries came in the Sudan to launch a series of religious movements which, as often happened in Islam, passed into political wars. We are here concerned with the religious movement that affected Northern Nigeria.

Usman Dan Fodio who was subsequently known as Shehu or Sheikh was born a Fulani in the Hausa state of Gobir about 1750. He was brought up with his brother Abdullahi as a strict Muslim and after studying for some years in Agades he felt the call to dedicate his life to teaching the faith. On his return from Agades, Dan Fodio acted as a tutor to the Sarkin Gobir’s two sons in Alkaluwa. One of these was Yunfa who was later to succeed to the throne.

In the interval before his accession Dan Fodio felt obliged to withdraw from Alkaluwa giving his reason the reversion to pagan practices by the court on the hostility shown towards the Muslim faith. When Yunfa finally became king, he sort out his old tutor and encouraged him to resume his itinerant preaching. Dan Fodio soon fell out with the new king and in 1804 was driven to flight. A party rallied to him, defeated the king, and proclaimed Dan Fodio, (now their leader) Sarkin Musulmi Commander of the Faithful, a title which is still held by his successor, the Sultan of Sokoto. A general movement broke out all over the area which later became Northern Nigeria.

The line of cleavage did not run clear between the Fulani and the Hausas but the Fulani who provided the energy and ambition to the apparent religious cause. Everywhere followers of the Shehu, appointed or self-appointed, received flags from his hands. They called upon the faithful to drive out the old Hausa or as they were called the Habe dynasties and then set themselves up in turn as rulers subject to Sokoto which had become the seat of the Fulani authority in 1810. Not only was this change accomplished in the old Hausa kingdoms but in the impetus of the movement, Fulani leaders pushed the boundaries of Islam south, incorporating in varying degrees many pagan tribes.

As indicated earlier the movement for religious revival degenerated into a political war of conquest. Consequently the son of the Shehu, Bello, who succeeded him became more interested in the military and political results of the religious revival than in spreading the faith.

The record for Fulani success had some important exceptions. The ancient Kanuri kingdom of Bornu with its capital near Lake Chad and itself Moslem, threw back the Fulani invaders. The holy man of Bornu, El-Kanemi, taunted Shehu Usman Dan Fodio with having turned a war of religion into one of conquest and with attacking his co-religionists.

El-Kanemi frankly admitted that some of his Chiefs had relapsed into heathenism, that the Alkalis or Moslem judges sometimes took bribes and women went unveiled; but he argued that this was not sufficient excuse for war. This opposition from Bornu, as we shall see when we come to consider the pattern and the spread of the atrocities in the 1966 program, seems to appear its head once again in 1966. Bello in his defense of his fathers action justified mainly on the ground of proselytism. Said he:

@And the second reason for our Jihad was that they were heathens, the people of Hausa. A further reason for the war was that we sought to aid truth against falsehood and to strengthen Islam. For to make war on the heathen from the beginning, if one has the power is declared a duty. So also it is it’s a duty to make war on those heathen who have converted to Islam and later have reverted to heathenism, if one has the power. In truth we stated at the beginning of this that the Hausa chiefs, their people and their mallams were evil doers”.

At the beginning of the present century, the British administration emerged in Northern Nigeria. They based their title on conquest. Sir Frederick Lugard, the first British governor of Northern Nigeria asserted in one of his early reports as follows:- “The Fulani hold their suzerainty by right of conquest. I can myself see no injustice in the transfer of the suzerainty thus acquired to the British by the same right of conquest”.

The Fulani caste seemed to have accepted their masters without much resistance. The explanation of this, it is said, was due in part to the insecurity of the Fulani position in relation to their subjects who had shown little loyalty to the Fulani during the period of their confrontation with the British.

The British, by force of arms, broke the Fulani ascendancy in the north, but by twist of irony, restore that supremacy under the system of indirect rule. Once the suzerainty of the British was accepted by the Fulani, the British were content to allow an even to support and consolidate the authority of the Fulani Emirs in their various Emirates.

The Fulani Emir was left as the head of the native administration, the head of the native judiciary, the religious head, and practically the head of everything in his emirate. Offices in the native administration, in the native administration police, in the native judiciary, what filled by appointees of the emirs. These appointees were invariably the relations of the Emir or his courtiers. Moslem religion preempted every aspect of life in the Emirates. This society became a ‘closed shop’. Strangers especially non-Moslems, had no place in the society.

It is generally accepted that in 1966 there were over 2 million Easterners in Northern Nigeria. Their presence in the north it was all connected with the amalgamation of northern and southern Nigeria in 1914 by the British. Unfortunately, although they were there in such large numbers and for so long and filled a very important position in the economic and political development of Northern Nigeria, they were never fully integrated into the mainstream of life in society. They became what sociologist call a privilege pariah class- ‘privileged’ because participating in and benefiting from the modernizing sectors of the economy to which the northern Muslims had been induced to turn their back.

Their standard of living was higher than the normal run of life of most northerners. They were ‘pariah’ because they were kept outside the rank system of society. Because of the attitude of northern Muslims to modern education, the administrators of the day were compelled to employ these Easterners though they disliked having them. It cut across the policy of the day of separating the north from the south.

‘Divide and rule’ is a cliché which is grown odious by being frequently used for all situations weather appropriate or not; but it really enshrined an important gem of British colonial policy. The north and south were amalgamated in 1914 ostensibly under One government yet the ‘writ’ of the legislative Council in Lagos did not run into Northern Nigeria. The British colonial administrator reserved the right to legislate alone for the north until the Richards constitution of 1946.

Easterners is and in fact other non-northerners were restricted in most of the towns to strangers quarters called Sabon Gari. In these circumstance the Easterners and Northerners grew up a separate communities. Dissimilarities were accentuated and old prejudices hardened. Since 1950 attempts, especially by southerners, were made to bridge the gap but such attempts were regarded by the northern aristocracy as an imposition from the south and were smashed.

The emergence of political parties in Nigeria did not improve matters in the north either. As far as the north was concerned it did not succeed in breaking down the old barriers. The dominant political party in the north (the Northern People’s Congress) started off as a party of native administration functionaries and appointees of the Emir‘s and never really went beyond that. 

It is our view that the foundation of Nigeria contain the seeds of her own destruction.


THE BENIN CITY PILGRIMAGE STATIONS, by Aisien Ekhaguosa; Pages 164-65

The new Benin City Quarter sitting astride the gateway to these riverine territories could conceivably have been known as 𝑂𝑑𝑒 𝑈𝑧𝑒𝑏𝑢: “Ijebu Road”, or more simply Uzebu.

The military title of Ezomo with which Ekenika was ennobled could be regarded as one of the happy imports brought by Orhogbua from Lagoon lands. Some tenuous bit of evidence would localise this word to the Ijebu in particular. In the 1930’s Akenzua II, the Oba of Benin conferred the title of 𝐴𝐿𝐴𝑅𝐸 𝐸𝑍𝑂𝑀𝑂 on a prominent son of Uzebu Quarter of Benin City. Now, all Ijebu Ode native children in Yorubaland are known as 𝑂𝑀𝑂 𝐴𝐿𝐴𝑅𝐸: “Children of 𝐴𝐿𝐴𝑅𝐸”. 𝐴𝐿𝐴𝑅𝐸 is the ancestral deity of the Ijebu Yoruba sub-tribe. It is said that all that an Ijebu person owns, be it money, land or other property, is the property of 𝐴𝐿𝐴𝑅𝐸, the ancestral god of the race. The Ijebu man does not possess the freedom to part with any portion of his wealth because technically the wealth is not his to dispense with as he likes. The right to part with it belongs only to 𝐴𝐿𝐴𝑅𝐸 who owns it. This is said to be the secret of the apparently relative ease with which an Ijebu man accumulates wealth. He can accumulate, but he has no personal right to give any of it away. ( See 𝐍𝐢𝐠𝐞𝐫𝐢𝐚𝐧 𝐏𝐫𝐨𝐟𝐢𝐥𝐞𝐬, S. I. Kale. Bishop of Lagos, a Biography, by Folarin Coker, page 20.)

The coincidence is perhaps more than just a happenstance, that it is in Benin City called “Uzebu” that the name of this Ijebu Ode god would feature in a title tied to the name of the traditional Head of the Quarter. It is conceivable that Ekenika came originally from the Epe/Ijebu Ode area, and that the memory of the Ijebu ancestral god still lingered in the Uzebu folk memory until recent times.

There are many “Ijebu” place-names in the country, both in Ijebu land and also in some non-Ijebu areas. Strung parallel to the Bight of Benin lagoon system are such Ijebu towns as Ijebu Ode, Ijebu-Munshin, Ijebu-Ife, Ijebu Ugbo, Ijebu Remo, Ijebu-Oru. In the non-Ijebu lands there are “UZEBU” in Benin City, Ijebu-Ijesha in Ijeshaland, and Ijebu-Owo in Owo land. The interesting about the Ijebu-Owo Quarter in Owo town is that the traditional Head of the Quarter bears the same title, 𝑂𝐽𝑂𝑀𝑂, as in Benin City Uzebu. His full title is the OJOMO-OLUDA of Ijebu-Owo. More intriguing still is the fact that the word OLUDA which features in the title of this personage is also one of the titles found in the Uzebu Quarter of Benin City (Prince Ena Eweka’s 𝐁𝐞𝐧𝐢𝐧 𝐂𝐡𝐢𝐞𝐟𝐭𝐚𝐢𝐧𝐜𝐲 𝐓𝐢𝐭𝐥𝐞𝐬, page 154).

Photo of Ezomo of Uzebu-Benin, Ehenuwa (1914-1960)


QUESTION: What is a numeral system, and what is it supposed to do?

ANSWER: A numeral system is a TOOL that enables us to express numbers. Numbers, of course, are of vital importance the propagation of knowledge in science, technology, engineering, and  and mathematics (STEM). As a TOOL, the objective therefore is to learn to use it PROPERLY AND ADEQUATELY so we can go and perform the task at hand. It is not the task to be performed.

When a young boy is preparing to accompany his father to the farm, he may be given a cutlass with which to clear the bush for planting. The cutlass is of course a TOOL but the objective is to clear the bush for planting. Once he learns to use the cutlass, he then proceeds to fulfil the objective. Yorubas call a child who spends most of his time examining the cutlass: ALAINIIKANSE. 

For us Yorubas, our numeral system must allow us to perform the function of learning science, technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) IN A TIMELY fashion, which is our objective. Otherwise, we become the aforementioned ALAINIIKNASE.

These therefore are the attributes of a numeral system that will give our children the capability of using OUR LANGUAGE TO LEARN STEM:

1. A number must be called as it is written and written as it isa called. A child that sees 108 in a number must be able to call out those numerals as it is written. When an English child see the number 108, he sees numerals 1,0, and 8 in the number and calls it as such. He calls it ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHT

When a Yoruba boy see the number 108, he must also see the numerals 1, 0 and 8 and not EJI DIN NI AADOFA– 2 less than 10 less than 20 times 6. A small child learning how to use the number system cannot process numbers this way for it puts the cart before the horse.

2. It must be capable of handling numbers with as many numerals as required. Not even a Yoruba science professor can call the number1,108,108. An English boy will call out this number, and even larger numbers with no difficulty. Our number system must be able to call out numbers into the billions and trillions.

3. It must be able to do this in a timely fashion compared to other number systems. An English boy will call out the number above, 1108108 in a twinkle of an eye. It will take even an ardent Yoruba expert some minutes to figure out what to call this number.

4. It must be capable of being taught to a primary one schoolchild old in its entirety. This is in conformity with the explanation above (3).

5. Learning it must not become a chore in itself. The numeral system IS ONLY A TOOL. It must be learnt as quickly as possible so the schoolboy can use it to learn STEM.

6. It must be capable of being easily manipulated. Now, imagine someone asking you to divide 108 with 104 in Yoruba language!! Laughable.

7. Finally, it must be competitive with other numeral systems, particularly English. This point is of SUPREME IMPORTANCE. This is one of two most important reasons we are losing our language to English. If our number system cannot compete with the English system, our science, commerce, culture, education, history, etc. will only be communicated in English.

And in Fela’s inimitable parlance, This is the main definition for COLO-MENTALITY.

Again, to learn more about the Yoruba DECIMAL system of counting, GO TO:òòkà-ati-òòkà-kika-numbers-and-counti

Association of Educators of Science and Technology in Yorùbá Language

Meet Tobi Amusan the 25-year-old Nigerian athlete who broke World Record!

Tobi Amusan has become the first to win a World Athletics Championship Gold after she won in the women's 100m hurdles.

She broke the record in the Women's Hurdles twice at 12.06seconds and 12.12 seconds and went home with $100,000.

Awesome Congratulations!!!


ASMA’U, NANA (1793–1864).

A celebrated poet, Asma’u was a respected Fulani public figure. She was active in politics, education, and social reform. One of 40 children born to Usman dan Fodio, her name indicates that she was a twin. Her twin brother was Hassan. Instead of naming her Husseina, however, Dan Fodio named her after a famous Muslim’s daughter (Asma bint Abu Bakar). Asma’u also means “beautiful” or “noteworthy” in Arabic. “Nana” is an honorific that served to deepen her respectability. Asma’u managed a household of several hundred in an age when technology was limited. During times of war, she witnessed battles and recorded them. She was quadrilingual (Arabic, Fula, Hausa, and Tamachek) and a devoted member of the Islamic Qadiriyya order. She had six sons with her husband, Gidado.

She sent elderly women to do in-house teaching. Many of her poems were mnemonic devices for literacy training. She wrote 19 elegies and didactic works for her students in whatever language was most comfortable for them. In her work, she demonstrates her respect for the realities of building an Islamic state and living a blameless life. Readers may also find several key features of Islamic poetry from northern Nigeria.

Asma’u incorporated Sufi Islamic recitation, Koranic commentary, and praises of the Prophet Muhammad. She also wrote acrostic poetry (quite unique for the time), where the first pg. 66 letter of each line forms its own message, which relates to the message contained in the verses of the whole work. In her poem “So Verily,” the last letters of each line spell out the Koranic line “so verily with every difficulty there is relief.” She wrote about her brother, Muhammad Bello, and father, Usman Dan Fodio, as well as other notable descendants of Usman lost to the historical record. Asma’u died in 1864 and was buried close to her father in Sokoto.

Source: Gossip House

Tuesday 26 July 2022

𝐏𝐨𝐢𝐧𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐬 𝐎𝐧 𝐎𝐝𝐮𝐝𝐮𝐰𝐚, 𝐊𝐚𝐥𝐚𝐝𝐞𝐫𝐡𝐚𝐧, 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐎𝐫𝐚𝐧𝐦𝐢𝐲𝐚𝐧 𝐈𝐧 𝐄𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝟏 𝐨𝐟 𝐉𝐚𝐜𝐨𝐛 𝐔. 𝐄𝐠𝐡𝐚𝐫𝐞𝐯𝐛𝐚’𝐬 ‘𝐀 𝐒𝐡𝐨𝐫𝐭 𝐇𝐢𝐬𝐭𝐨𝐫𝐲 𝐨𝐟 𝐁𝐞𝐧𝐢𝐧’

[1] Oduduwa ruled at Ile Ife.

[2] Oduduwa’s eldest son was named Obagodo.

[3] Oduduwa sent Obagodo away to start a kingdom at another land.

[4] Obagodo founded his own kingdom at Igodomigodo and became Oba.

[5] He was given the title Ogiso and became known as Oba Ogiso.

[6] Oba Ogiso had only one child and his name was Kaladerhan.

[7] Kaladerhan and his mother were banished from Igodomigodo on a false accusation.

[8] Kaladerhan went to found a kingdom at Ughoton.

[9] Kaladerhan’s mother advised him never to return to Igodomigodo.

[10] Kaladerhan refused and resisted all attempts to compel him to return to Igodomigodo after the death of Oba Ogiso.

[11] Kaladerhan heeded his mother’s plea and never returned to Igodomigodo.

[12] Oranmiyan was sent to rule Igodomigodo by Ile Ife as requested by Igodomigodo elders after the failure of the elders to convince Kaladerhan to return from Igodomigodo.

[13] Oranmiyan renamed Igodomigodo to Ile Ibinu.

[14] Oranmiyan renounced his obaship after several years at Igodomigodo.

[15] Oranmiyan left his son Owomika (Eweka) to rule Ile Ibinu and returned to Ile Ife.

* 𝘑𝘢𝘤𝘰𝘣 𝘌𝘨𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘦𝘷𝘣𝘢 𝘸𝘢𝘴 𝘉𝘦𝘯𝘪𝘯’𝘴 𝘧𝘰𝘳𝘦𝘮𝘰𝘴𝘵 𝘩𝘪𝘴𝘵𝘰𝘳𝘪𝘢𝘯 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘮𝘢𝘵𝘦𝘳𝘯𝘢𝘭𝘭𝘺 𝘳𝘦𝘭𝘢𝘵𝘦𝘥 𝘵𝘰 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘉𝘦𝘯𝘪𝘯 𝘳𝘰𝘺𝘢𝘭 𝘧𝘢𝘮𝘪𝘭𝘺

PHOTO: Jacob Uwadiae Egharevba

Here is an official photograph of the first 30 Nigerian officers in Nigeria's military

Date: June, 1959

Left to right sitting: Captain Robert Adeyinka Adebayo, Captain Philip Effiong, Captain Umeh Ogere Imo, Major Samuel Adesoji Ademulegun, Major Wellington Bassey, Major General Norman Forster (GOC, Nigerian Army), Major Aguiyi Ironsi, Major Ralph Adetunji Shodeinde, Captain Zakaria Maimalari, Captain Conrad Nwawo, Captain David Akpode Ejoor.

2nd Row Standing: Lt Igboba, Lt George Remunoiyowun Kurubo, (non Nigerian standing next to Kurubo), Lt J Akahan Akaga, Lt Patrick Awunah, Lt Louis Ogbonnia, Lt Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, Lt Eyo Ekpo, Lt Author Unegbe, Lt Abogo Largema.

3rd Row Standing: Lt Hillary Mbilitem Njoku, 2nd Lt Macauley Nzefili, 2nd Lt David Ogunewe, 2nd Lt Shadrack, Lt Alexander Madiebo, 2nd Lt Anthony Eze, Lt Yakubu Gowon, 2nd Lt Sylvanus Nwanjei, Lt Yakubu Pam, 2nd Lt Hassan Katsina.

The very first Nigerian to be commissioned officer was "Wellington Bassey" with Army number (N1). Two months later, "Aguiyi Ironsi" (N2) and "Samuel A. Ademulegun" (N3) were also commissioned. A short while later, "Ralph Adetunji Shodeinde" (N4) was also commissioned officer.

Source: Gossip House

The First Lady Who Served As Police Officer Throughout Her Tenure

Madam Clara Ogbemudia was a serving police officer throughout her period as first lady of Mid West state.

On the 20th of August 1975, Assistant Superintendent of Police Mrs Clara Ogbemudia and 94 other officers of the Nigerian Police were prematurely retired.

They were victims of the civil service purge of the Murtala regime.

One other retired officer was the terror of "danfo and molue" drivers, Mrs M. Oyebade, popularly known as Mama Toyin.

Over 10,000 civil servants lost their jobs during the purge.


In July 1975, when Murtala Mohammed became Head of State, he retired the twelve military Governors who had served under Yakubu Gowon amongst who was husband to Clara Ogbemudia and Military Governor of the Mid-Western State, Brigadier Samuel Aigbovo Ogbemudia.

Samuel Ogbemudia died on the 9th of March 2017 at aged 84 years old having been born in 1932.

Source: Gossip House


The history of Omu-Aran town can not be completed without relating it to its place in Igbomina land history and to the larger Yoruba race and Ile-ife, the cradle of Yoruba Civilization.  Omu-Aran town was founded five hundred years ago as at 2002, when the first chronicle of Omu-Aran was Published. The Omu-Aran community came into being as a result of outward movement from Ile-Ife.  These outward movements of people were in four phases, and the one relevant to the people of Omu-Aran was “The Private entrepreneurial post Oduduwa Migration”.

At one time in Ile-Ife, there was famine occasioned by prolong drought, and necessitated the consultation of Ifa Oracles by the divine Priests at that time in order to find solution to the famine problem.  It was the priests that pronounced Ile-Ife as been overcrowded and therefore prescribed emigration as the panacea.

The adoption of this recommendation led to the departure of princes and selected leaders from Ile-Ife to other places, they were given royal  blessings and symbol of authority.  Many Yoruba kingdoms of today arose as a result of this emigration.  From this emigration emerged the personality of an Ife Warrior by name Olomu-Aperan who became the progenitor of the Igbomina town of Omu-Aran in today’s Kwara State.

The existence of Omu-Aran could be traced back to a woman by name Omutoto who once live in Ilodo compound in ile-Ife.  She was one of the Oloris (royal wives) of the Oba Olofinaiye of Ile-Ife.  This woman bore no child, and therefore adopted some children of her relations.  She took great care of these children, and Olomu Aperan was one of them.

The mother of Olomu Aperan was a sister to Omutoto.  There were other children adopted by Omutoto, and one of them was Owa Ajibogun, the founder of Ijesha land.  They all grew up under Omutot.  The young Olomu was described as a mighty man of valour.  He was much respected, honoured and became known among Ijesha’s and Ife people as Olomu Aperan.  He was much respected, honoured and became known among Ijesha’s and Iffe people as Olomu Aperan.  He was a distinguished warrior an his successes at warfares  earned him several name such as Olomu Aperan, Olomu Aperin, Olomu Apeje and Olomu Aperindinlogun (conqueror of hosts).

His successes earned him the title of the Esikin Ologbomona, a title synonymous with there Aare-Ona-Kakanfo in the old Oyo  empire.  As the Esikin, he was perhaps the chief of defence staff and was the linkman between the chief of defence council and the warrirors of the land on one hand and between his royal highness, the king and the warriors on the other hand.  He was the custodian of the artifact of state called the “Ogbo” an antiquity of eminent significance in custom and governance.

“Ogbo” is a cultic of histotical relics which Oduduwa and his people inherited from the original settlers of Ile-Ife, after the conquest of the place by Oduduwa. The Oduduwa age adopted the relic as a symbol of unity and trust.  It became an instrument of authority of the highest ruling council in the land.

On the Civil matters, ogbo was believed to have the power of sorting out complex matters and unraveling the truth against all odds.  Ogbo was therefore regarded as an infallible pathfinder and coined out of the refrain Ogbomona meaning that Ogbo charts the course.  Olomu Aperan being the custodian of this Ogbo held on to it on his departure from Ile-Ife in the great commission of the time.  He was also given a crown and some royal drums.

On leaving Ile-Ife, olomu Aperan first settled at Omu Ijaregbe Otherwise called Oke-Omu.  This settlement is about 8km from the present day Ilesha and is still in existence today.  The Oba of Ijaregbe maintained the title of Olomu for many years but has recently adopted Ajaregbe as his new title.  The domain is a little village, but the Oba does not bow to the Owa of Ijesha land.

It was at Omu-Ijaregbe that Olomu Aperan relinquished the title of Esikin to one of his children and assumed the title of full Oba like other founders of his time.  It was at Omu-Ijaregbe that Olomu Aperan first encountered major resistance after departure from Ile-Ife.  At a time however, a dispute arose between Owari, the reigning Owa Obokun of Ijesha land at that time and Olomu Aperan.  Owari was assisted by Ogboni of Ijebu-Ijesha and their combined forced defeated that of Olomu Aperan.  This led to the departure of Olomu Aperan from that place to settle in the present day Omu-Aran.  Similarly, other leaders also departed to other places to found new kingdoms of Omuo in Ekiti State, and Olomu near Abeokuta.  All these place today continue to incorporate Omu in their names in honour of their deitified mother, Omutoto.  Omu-Aran town is made up of people from various places and background that migrated to the present site of the town.  Not all the compounds in Omu-aran share the same ancestry from Omutoto but it is an established fact that the founder of Omu-Aranwas Olomu Aperan.  It was believed that Olomu Aperan left Ijaregbe along with his people at about the 12th Century to settle initially in a place called Odo-Omu near Ola in Isin Local Government Area of kwara State.

Later, he moved along with his people to settle in the present place called Omu-Aran.  It was believed that he encountered lots of resistance on his way from the Nupe’s who were settlers in some of the places inhabited by the Yoruba’s, it was believed that he was guided on his journey by the Ogbo which was claimed to have mythical power.  This Ogbo could be found in the present day Omu-Aran.

Source: Gossip House


The first Housing estate in Nigeria was the Bodija Housing Estate, Ibadan.

The Ibadan Housing Estate was birthed in 1959 when the regional government decided to increase the number of modern houses available in the city. The Estate was built on a 400-acre of land in the area known as Bodija. At the time, the location of what is now Bodija was the outskirt of the city of Ibadan.

All the houses in the Estate had all the basic amenities: light, water, garden, etc; however, the difference was in the number of rooms and the quality of materials used to build the structures and the architectural designs. The Estate project housed 3 types of structures for different classes of people.

The first types of houses were priced at £1,200 for lower-income folks, and the initial deposit was £50. The second type of houses available in the estate project were houses priced at £1,650, and an initial deposit of £200 was required before the houses could be occupied. The third type of house cost £3,000 and an initial deposit of £650 was required. As you may have guessed, the highest-priced houses were the houses that were more than a story building.

Most of the houses were occupied by white-collar workers and professional people. Few persons in the older and more congested parts of Ibadan jumped on the opportunity of buying even the lowest-priced houses.

The picture in this throwback post was the largest house available in the Estate and it sold for £3,500.

Source: Gossip House

Monday 25 July 2022


The Arole Oodua and Ooni of Ife Ooni Adeyeye Enitan Ogunwusi Ojaja II has sent a message of commiserations to the government and good people of Oyo State, indigenes of Iseyin town and Oke-Ogun in particular over the death of the Aseyin of Iseyin, Oba AbdulGaniy Adekunle Salawudeen, has joined his ancestors.

Speaking through his Director of Media & Public Affairs, Otunba Moses Olafare in a statement on Monday, Ooni Ogunwusi who doubles Co-chairman, National Council of Traditional Rulers of Nigeria (NCTRN) described the Oyo State frontline monarch as unimaginable suprise and colossal loss to the Oduduwa race.

"Arole Oduduwa Olofin Adimula,Ooni Adeyeye Enitan Ogunwusi, Ojaja II, the Ooni of Ife has received the news announcing the demise of late Aseyin of Iseyin Kingdom in Oyo state Oba  AbdulGaniy Adekunle Salawudeen who he is reported to have joined his ancestors yesterday Sunday 24th July 2022 with an unimaginable rude shock"  Olafare said.

Describing the late Iseyin's traditional ruler as an unforgettable close ally who was strongly convinced about the unity of the Oodua people and who selflessly joined in his peace and unification agenda, Ooni Ogunwusi recalled how the Aseyin made his entourage to several local and international peace and unity trips.

"Kabiyesi Aseyin will be greatly missed as a close ally of the Ooni with whom he traveled many times alongside other Yoruba kings to meet their teaming subjects in countries like UK, Ghana, USA & Brazil. The late Aseyin was indeed a peaceloving and easygoing Yoruba frontline progressive monarch who devoted his reign for the progress of Iseyin Kingdom, Oke-Ogun and Oyo State at large. He was a patriotic descendant of Oduduwa and very dependable ally who worked closely and with strong commitment with the Ooni and other dedicated Oodua monarchs for peace and tranquility of the entire Oduduwa race." Olafare said.

While praying for the departed king and his family, Ooni Ogunwusi, the Natural Head of the Oduduwa race worldwide enjoined people and the kingmakers of the ancient town of Iseyin not to leave any stone unturned to give the late great king a befitting burial rites in total compliance with the customs and traditions inherited from their ancestors.

Did you know that?

1 Ojota

Ojota used to be a military settlement in the late 18th century and soldiers practised their shooting there. The area had several gun firing spots and became known as “Oju Ota” in Yoruba which means “Bullet spots”. It later metamorphosed into Ojota which it is called now.

2. Abule Egba

This area is on the outskirts of Lagos and got its name from the early settlers who were Egba people from Abeokuta. The area was first called “Abule awon egba” in Yoruba, which means “Village of Egba people”. It later became “Abule Egba”.

3. Apongbon

Apongbon is one of Lagos’ most popular markets, and it’s also quite close to the popular Oke-Arin market. It got its name from the then acting governor of the Lagos colony, William McCoskry, who had a Red Beard. The Yorubas who couldn’t pronounce the colonial governor’s name decided to describe him by his red beard and started calling him *“Oyinbo to pon ni agbon”* (Apon l'agbon) meaning a red-bearded man. It later became Apongbon.

4. Magodo

Magodo is now a posh area, but in the past, it used to be sacred land. The residents had a lot of taboos and one of them was to avoid using mortars and pestles, “Ma gun odo” which means “Don’t pound it”. It later became Magodo.

5. Epetedo

Epe is named after the early settlers who were Epe traders. The area became dominated by the Epes and they still trade there until today.

6. Ebute-Metta

Ebute-Metta is one of the earliest harbour docks where British ships berthed at. It was a hub for trade and commerce in colonial times. Ebute-Metta is a fusion of the words “Ebute” which means the seaside in Yoruba, and “Metta” which means three. The three shores are Iddo, Otto and Oko baba.

7. Broad street

Broad street used to be one of the longest and widest streets in the city. It got its name from its broadness. However, Broad Street was later changed to Yakubu Gowon Street but later changed back to Broad street when Gowon was accused of participating the coup that led to the death of Murtala Ramat Mohammed.

8. Agidingbi

The British Naval forces invaded Lagos in 1885 under the pretext of stopping slavery and human sacrifice. The noise their canon made was really loud, and the sound was heard round the streets of Lagos Island. The people described the sound as “A gidi n gbinnn”. Which means a loud groundbreaking noise. The name Agidingbi was borne out of this.

9. Victoria Island

Victoria Island was also a major hub for commerce and British ships berthed there often. It’s named after Queen Victoria of England who was Queen from 1837-1901.

10. Ikeja

Ikeja, the capital of Lagos, is actually an abbreviation for “Ikorodu and Epe Joint Administration”, IKEJA. It was coined by the colonial masters for ease of administration.”

Source: Gossip House



Alphaeus Taiwo Olunaike is not a name that many Nigerians are familiar with. But once you mention Alajo Somolu, the eyes of millions of Nigerians will light up. Yes, they are more familiar with this name!

He was born on September 16, 1915 in the tiny city of Isan-Oyin (now called Isonyin); close to Ijebu-Musin and Ijebu-Ode in Ogun State, southwestern Nigeria. Alajo Somolu was just three years of age when he lost his father. However, he was able to proceed with his education. He started his primary education at the Emmanuel Primary School, Ijebu-Isonyin. He had not finished his education at his small hamlet when his paternal uncle, Torimoro came and took him to Lagos where he was able to further his education. He arrived in Lagos and he was enrolled at the St. Johns School, Aroloya. From there, he proceeded to the Christ Church Cathedral School, Lagos, and finished there in 1934.

Two years after his education, he was enrolled as an apprentice under a tailor named Rojaye. He was a tailor-in-training for nine good years before he got his ‘freedom’. When he started working as a tailor, he noticed that the income was not just going to be sustainable for him and he needed an alternative and fast.Therefore, when the younger brother of his late dad, Torimoro , was going to Cameroon on a commercial trip, Alajo Somolu decided he would also seize the opportunity and go along. And so it was that in 1950, Alajo Somolu went to Cameroon. 

Upon reaching there, he unleashed the ferocious entrepreneurial spirit that was in him. A very determined fellow, he tried his hands on various tasks and duties in Cameroon. He sold goods and newspapers; tried his hands on many ventures.

In Cameroon, one of his neighbours was a thrift collector and told our young friend about the business. The details immediately caught his fancy. As a result, by the time he returned to Nigeria in 1954, he already had it in mind that he was going to start the business of ajo gbigba (thrift collection). He was 39 at that time. Before he left Cameroon, he took with him a copy of the thrift collection card used by his Cameroonian neighbour.

Upon reaching Nigeria, he made his own copies of the card and he named his own venture ‘ Popular Daily Alajo Somolu‘.

In September 1954, Alajo Somolu went out for the first time to collect thrift from his clients. He had launched his business and he had great hopes. Unfortunately, not a single person patronised him that first day. Many of the market women even taunted him saying he would simply collect their money and vanish into the thin air. But he was not discouraged with the negative atmosphere. He persisted in riding his bicycle from stall to stall, from shop to shop until some of the market women pitied him and decided to give him a trial and gave steady contributions of some kobos.

At the end of the first month, all his clients got their money complete with not a penny missing! Baba Alajo too also made his own profit and he was doubly delighted: his clients had renewed hope in him and the new business was actually more lucrative than the tailoring he was doing. With time, the news of his honesty, transparency and hard work spread and his clients swelled in number. Baba Alajo’s prosperity too also shone! He built his first house at No 10, Odunukan Street in Ijesa. He later sold the house and built another in the Owotutu area, Bariga, Lagos.

In a shortwhile, his fame spread like wildfire. He was the thrift collector for the entire axis covering Awolowo Market, Oyingbo Market, Olaleye, Mile 12, Ojuwoye, Baba Oloosa, Sangross and, of course, in Somolu (Shomolu) from whence he got his nickname. His customers fell in love with him for his truthfulness, his ability to save them from financial ruins by providing life-saving loans and most importantly, for his outstanding memory.

He did not use a calculator and there were no computers either. The most amazing part of his prodigious memory was the thoroughness of it. He did not only pay back the exact amount to his clients, he also paid them back with the same notes and coins that they contributed with! He was so exact that if a client should write down the number on his notes, he would be astonished to get the same notes back at the end of the month. Such brilliance!


– “Your brain is as sharp as that of Alajo Somolu, who collected thrift for three years and paid back all his customers without writing down a single name and without making a single mistake with the payment”. Anytime one of his vehicles returned after a trip of thrift collection, it would be checked. If the car had depreciated to the point that it is no longer economically viable, he sold them off and bought bicycles instead. Therefore, when people noticed that one of his vehicles was missing and a brand-new vehicle had appeared instead, they would say: “Alajo Somolu has sold his car to buy a bicycle!” “ORI E PE BI AALAJO SOMOLU, TO TA MOTO, TO FI RA KEKE ”.

But Baba Alajo Somolu knew what he was doing. To him, there was little point in maintaining cars that no longer brought in profit? It was better to sell it and buy more Raleigh bicycles to access all the hitherto inaccessible areas. It is worthy of note that many of his customers stayed with him for decades and many up to the time he died. They described him as a very friendly, reliable and honest man.

He was also praised for his willingness to help others. When he died, one of the other thrift collectors in the area named Oladini Olatunji gave this testimonial. He said that there was a time he ran into financial trouble with his business. This became a huge debt on him. He said that it was baba Alajo Somolu that helped him pay off the entire debt and saved him from bankruptcy. Furthermore, this man never told a soul. For this and many more, all other thrift collectors looked up to him as their father figure and even held the alajo (thrift collector) meetings in his home.

Alajo Somolu continued his job with joy until 2010 when he was 95 years old. At this age, his children pleaded with him to retire. Much as he tried to, customers continued to bring their monthly payments to his home!

On the 11th of August, 2012, Baba Alajo Somolu breathed his last. Surrounded by family and clients who had become family, he passed due to old age. 

A legend indeed!

Rest in peace

Source: Gossip House

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