Sunday 30 October 2022


Ibadan, the capital city of Oyo State back in the days, is known to be a camp of notable war soldiers mostly from Egba, Ife, Oyo, and some other parts of Yorubaland.

One of these warlords whose name must be mentioned whenever the creation and survival of the city are being discussed however is Ibasorun Oluyole. After Lagelu’s first and second Eba Odan, as it used to be called, being an abandoned settlement, was discarded by raging wars across the Yoruba land back in the 16th century, Iba Oluyole ruled over what is today referred to as Ibadan land. In fact, he was said to have commanded enormous respect among warlords back then. Having been born into the house of a warrior; his grandfather, Yamba Bi Ekun, was Basorun in Oyo during the reign of Alaafin Ojigi. His father’s name was Olukuoye Ajala.

His mother, Agbonrin was the daughter of Alaafin Abiodun 1. Though Oluyole’s age couldn’t be ascertained, he was said to be born around 1740-1750A.D. At the initial stage, Oluyole learned the trade of Blacksmith and thereafter specialised in modeling weapons of war. But he was later to become a fearless warrior. Probably because of his background, as the grandchild of Basorun, Oluyole was said to be very vast in charms. The source or logic behind this is his diabolical powers nobody knew.

It was also recorded that Oluyole, alongside Alaafin Atiba, Kunrunmi, and other warriors fought gallantly to protect Oyo and indeed Yoruba kingdom from being captured by Fulani, in what was tagged the Eleduwe war.

After this particular war, Aladeleye Atiba installed the Alaafin in Ago Market and he made Oluyole his second in command (Basorun) and Kunrunmi as Aare Ona Kakanfo.

During the Ota war, Oluyole was said to have fought on the beach where he met Eleko of Eko and a Portuguese who liked his war skills and later presented him with a brass rod which he always held.

Oluyole was later to be installed as the first Baale of Ibadan land after the demise of Aare Oluyedun who ruled for less than a year. As Baale, Oluyole’s influence was phenomenon; he lived like the great war commander that he was. He was said to have married over 30 wives out of which 25 bore him children. His bravery, achievements, and immense contributions towards stability, and development of Ibadan land can’t be over-emphasized as it was well documented and has been historically confirmed by many writers.

He founded what is today referred to as Oja Iba in Beere area of Ibadan, where his statue is stylishly placed, and Oja Bode in Molete area. He died in 1850 and January 28 2017 marked 167 years since the great warrior passed away.

In his remembrance, the Ile Iba clan of Oja Iba led by the family head, Alhaji Nureni Akanbi packaged a program in year 2017, which had several important personalities former Governors of the state, Chief Akin Fagbemi (Mogaji of Agunleyinju Compound), prominent chiefs of Ibadan land and a whole lot of others in attendance. At the program, a book on Iba Oluyole was launched and there was commissioning of the reconstructed ancient Iba Oluyole Rest House.

The Alaafin of Oyo HIM Oba Lamidi Adeyemi 111, in his brief Foreword on the book that was launched in honour Iba Oluyole, described the great warrior as an illustrious patriach, a distinguished warrior, and quintessential military tactician of the early 19th century who ruled Ibadan for fourteen years.

All the above-mentioned the Iba Oluyole exploits and many more are the reasons his family is still very prominent up till today. They own the largest portion of land in Ibadan hence the popular saying, Iba owns the land (Iba lo ni le).

Iba Oluyole died in 1850:

According to the Head, Iba Family clan, Alh. Nureni Akanbi, the present Ibadan we are in the third Ibadan to have come to existence and that was made possible by Galant efforts of Iba Oluyole alongside other warriors. The first Ibadan was discarded, and the second one went the same line. It wasn’t called Ibadan then, it was called Eba Odan. So the Ibadan that Iba Oluyole ruled over is the one we are now.

He said, there is nothing like Oja-Oba in Ibadan, the market we have here is Oja Iba, which was formed by Iba Oluyole. The Oja-Obas in Ibadan is Oba Aleshinloye and Oba Akinbiyi. Though there used to be a market called ‘Labosinde’ beside Oja Iba. Their family is the one occupying the post of Oluwo Afobaje of Ibadan land now.

All the foreign religions in the land first came here; Islamic Religion, Christian Religion first came to Oja Iba. That is why all religions are practiced around there. But the most significant thing is that the Iba Palace in Ibadan is on 10 acres of land and all the occupants of the houses on it are direct descendants of Iba Oluyole.

He said, "Oja Iba is on two acres of land and it is own by Iba Oluyole. And in this part of Ibadan that we are, we only share a border with Ijebu and Egba, up to Ogunmakin and Mamu. Other warriors have lands in Ibadan around Oje, Gate, Mokola, and so on. But here, about seven local governments are presently on Iba Oluyole’s land. Ibadan South-West, which has now been divided into two; part of Ido Local Government; Ona-Ara; Egbeda and others are some of these local government".

Mogaji is an Hausa language, Am the family Head (Arole) and I’m the 11th Family Head for Iba Oluyole. My role is to see to the family affairs and properties and make peace within the family. We have so many properties that we are taking care of and we are not selling. Though many of these properties have gone into other peoples’ hands but thank God that the remaining ones are blessed. There is no way you will have so many properties and some will not go to other peoples’ hands.

On how a Head of Family is chosen, Mogaji Nureni Akanbi said "Whenever there is vacancy, heads of the twenty five branches, which must be direct descendants of Iba Oluyole and be eighteen years of age and above, whether male or female as the case maybe, will seat down to choose the next Family Head. Part of the criteria they look at is the antecedents of the proposed candidates. They interview them to know their plans for the development of the family. They choose the best among them and sometimes put it into voting when the candidate are more than three. The chosen name will then be forwarded to Olubadan for confirmation".

Chinua Achebe at his house in Enugu, Nigeria. 1959

He is one of Africa's most acclaimed authors and considered by some to be the father of modern African literature. His early novels, including the groundbreaking Things Fall Apart (1958) and No Longer at Ease (1960), describe poignantly the effects of European colonialism on Igbo society, Nigeria, and newly independent African nations.

He taught at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (1976-81), and was founding editor (1971) of the influential journal Okike. Achebe returned to the novel form with Anthills of the Savannah (1987). He has also written numerous short stories, children's books, and a book of essays, Home and Exile (2000), reflecting on his and his nation's coming of age.

The Mugbamugba War – Second Attempt by Yorubas to Regain Control of Ilorin

After the Fulani Jamma murdered Are-Ona-Kakanfo Afonja and seized control of Ilorin, Abdulsalam, the son of Shehu Alimi, became the first Fulani ruler of Ilorin.

Abdulsalam ruled with the title of Emir and not Oba which proved that the Yorubas had completely lost control of Ilorin, a Yoruba town, to the Fulanis.

In a bid to restore the control of Ilorin in the hands of the Yoruba people, Toyeje, the Baale of Ogbomoso and the new Are-Ona-Kakanfo, led an attack on Ilorin to expel the Fulanis but failed.

After sometime, between the months of March and April when garden egg (Igba) was ripe for harvest, another attempt was made by the Yorubas to chase Fulani people out of Ilorin but failed again.

During this period, the whole land was already devastated by the previous wars and consequently there were no farms for foraging. Ilorin had also ran out of food, so both sides had no food to eat than garden egg (ìgbá) thus the war was named Mugbamugba.

The Yorubas suffered untold defeat in the Mugbamugba war. They did not know how else they could fight the Fulanis who were expert horsemen with potent charms. Monija, the king of Rabbah and a mercenary fighting on the side of the Yorubas, fled to his town leaving the Yorubas to their fate.

To crown their victory, the Fulanis of Ilorin attacked all towns in the directions of Offa, Erinle and Igbona. The Olofa of Offa with Asegbe (his Ilari) escaped to Ikoyi.


Johnson, Samuel; The History of the Yorubas; Lagos; CSS Limited; 1921; pg. 80-81

Omipidan, Teslim; The true and sad story of how Afonja lost Ilorin and its kingship to Fulani people; OldNaija

Tuesday 25 October 2022

History Of Ondo-Ekimogun

The history of Ondo-Ekimogun sprang from the Palace of Alaafin of Oyo in the ancient city of Oyo when the wife of Alaafin Oba Oluaso bore him twins a male called Orere and a female also called Olu which is forbidden in the palace of every Oba in Yoruba land. The then Alafin of Oyo love the twins mother called Olori OLu so much and on hearing the news of the twins he lamented that this is a mysterious child "ese-omo-re" which later transform to Osemawe as Oba's title in Ondo kingdom.

The Alafin Oba Oluaso ordered that the twins and their mother be taken out of Oyo, he also gave instruction that one stroke of facial mark should be cut on each cheek of the twins as kese or ibaramu mark will cause agony for them on their journey. The single facial stroke mark became an established custom in Ondo town till today. Olori Olu and the twins were accompanied by the Alafin of Oyo warrior's leader called "ija" or " Uja" to a place called Epin.

They later return to Oyo after the death of Alafin Oba Oluaso in 1497 AD. The new Alafin Oba Onigbogi also ordered them out of Oyo in 1498 AD with Alaafin warrior leader to the direction of Ile-Ife. They continue the journey until they reached a place called "Ita Ijama" from where they also arrived at Epe where Iyanghede of Epe received them with joy. This is how Ondo are referred today as "Ekimogun ara ita ijama, a fi ide agogo m'omi".

After a brief stay at Epe they desire to look for a permanent settlement. As they left Epe they arrived at a place which is today called Ile Oluji. Where Olori Olu Alafin wife slept for days and did not wake up " Ile ti Olu sun ti ko ji". After another short stay Olori Olu and Princess Olu the female twins left the town with one Ogunja from Epe leaving Prince Orere behind in Ile oluji and continue a journey until it ended at the foot of a hill known in Ondo up to the present day as "Oke Agunla." This is also how Ondo are referred today as "Opon inu odi Ogunja." At the hill they spotted a smoke rising from below, they followed in that direction down the hill and met a man whose named was Ekiri neither farmer or a hunter. 

Ekiri later lead them to a place called Oriden where they tried to stick their yam stick unto the ground prove futile as instructed by an Ifa Oracle before they left Epe. They were happy and exclaimed "Edo du do to Edo do to Idi edo" and finally transform to Ondo in 1510 AD. Princess Olu the female twins finally became first Oba Pupupu of Ondo in 1516 AD while Prince Orere the male twins became the first Jegun of Ile Oluji.

The other historical facial marks are cut unto the right breast of the descendant of past Osemawes from the male lineage and the rights to Otunba title are from both lineages. All Otunbas title bearers in Ondo are headed by the Olotu Omo-Oba in Oke-Otunba quarters in Ondo kingdom. The Ondos are known to be Traders, farmers or produce merchants, their staple food is Iyan made from yam and they have their own peculiar dialect and very hard working. It must be noted however that Ondo emigrants settlers also founded towns like Igbado, Igbindo, Ajue, Igburowo, Odigbo, Oro, Imorun, Ilu Nla, Erinla, Igunshin, Araromi, Araromi Obu, Ajebandele, Agbabu, Oboto, Bolorunduro, Fagbo, Tekuile, Owena, Oke-Opa, Aiyesan, Laje, Oka, Oke-igbo and etc. The Ondo warriors of that time are Ago, Taagba and Jomu-Nla known as High Chief Jomu till today and that chieftaincy title are family hereditary.

The first Osemawe palace was built by Oba Airo first son of Oba Pupupu who became Oba in 1530 AD. Oba Adeuga Fidipote 11 built the first modern palace in Ondo when he became Oba in 1935 AD while Oba Festus Ibidapo Adesanoye - Osungbedelola 11 built the best recent Oba's palace in Ondo when he became the 43rd Osemawe of Ondo Kingdom in 1992. The Ondo chieftaincy title are The Iwarefa, Ekule, Elegbe, Otu headed by the His Highness Osemawe while Upoji female chiefs headed by the Her Highness Olobun Oba Obirin in Ondo Kingdom. Popular festivals in Ondo are as follows, Odun Oba, Odun Ogun, Odun Oramfe, Odun Moko, Obiton and etc.

The Ondos embrace Roman Catholic Christianity in 1875 under the CMS Missionary worker Rev. Bishop Phillips and accepted by Oba Ayibikitiwodi while Oba Jimekun accepted the CMS Anglican Communion in 1884 and Islam in 1888. The first Ondo Rev. Father John Akinwale was ordained in 1947 while the first Ondo Anglican Bishop was Rev. D.O. Awosika and Rev. T.O. Olufosoye was the first Archbishop of the Anglican communion of Nigeria while Alhaji Muhammed Alimi was installed the first Imam of Ondo in 1888. In conclusion The Ondos are known for a pride, proud of what they represent and very stubborn.


Congratulations Rishi Sunak!!!

In his own words, “I am thoroughly British, this is my home and my country, but my religious and cultural heritage is Indian, my wife is Indian. I am open about being a Hindu”. Rishi who is married to the daughter of Indian IT czar,  billionaire Narayana Murthy, was the first Indian-origin headboy at  Britain’s oldest public school, Winchester College. He went to Oxford and then to Stanfird as a fulbright scholar. He is a successful investment banker. Perhaps he is the only person in the political arena with the vision, potential and financial acumen to steer the UK out of the financial mess, she is in today.

Rishi Sunak, whose father was born in the colonial Kenya, will be the the Prime Minister of the United Kindgom.

Diwali in the UK, this year has become a lot more meaningful. 



1. Ndjamena, Chad 🇹🇩 

2. Standerton, South Africa 🇿🇦 

3. Kampala, Uganda 🇺🇬 

4. Bloemfontein, South Africa 🇿🇦 

5. Bamako, Mali 🇲🇱 

6. Khartoum, Sudan 🇸🇩 

7. Roodepoort, South Africa 🇿🇦 

8. Vanderbijlpark, South Africa 🇿🇦 

9. Centurion, South Africa 🇿🇦 

10. Springs, South Africa 🇿🇦 

11. Rustenburg, South Africa 🇿🇦 

12. Johannesburg, South Africa 🇿🇦 

13. Pretoria, South Africa 🇿🇦 

14. Abidjan, Cote D’Ivoire 🇨🇮

15. Cape Town, South Africa 🇿🇦 

16. Accra, Ghana 🇬🇭 

17. Bethal, South Africa 🇿🇦 

18. Middelburg, South Africa 🇿🇦 

19. Polokwane, South Africa 🇿🇦 

20. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 🇪🇹 

Source -

Monday 24 October 2022


After brilliantly warding off six consecutive but abortive attempts to invade it, Ilorin moved out of its shell and mounted a counter offensive. The offensive eventually shattered the Oyo empire and resulted in the establishment of both MODAKEKE and present day IBADAN. ABEOKUTA too, was founded by Egbas who were dislodged from Ibadan by Oyo refugees who survived ravages caused by the Ilorin cavalry.

IIorin was victorious in nearly all its expansionist wars. Few ended in tragedy and one of the tragedies caused a protracted hostility between Ilorin and OFFA. The protracted military hostility against Offa by Ilorin hampered the commercial interest of the British colonial administration in both Lokoja and Lagos. This gave the colonial Government an excuse to intervene and militarily subjugate Ilorin ultimately in 1897.

              (1) THE PAMO WAR

The Pamo war was the first external war Ilorin participated in. IT WAS NOT AN ILORIN WAR, as such, but a war between IKOYI and an ALLIANCE  comprising OGBOMOSHO, EDE and IWO. Ilorin’s participation in the war was queer because two different contingents of troops from the town fought simultaneously on the opposite sides of the battle line. SOLAGBERU leading a contingent of his own followers from OKESUNA joined the Ogbomosho side to besiege Ikoyi. Abdulsalami’s cavalry, on the other hand, came in later, on Ikoyi’s invitation, to break the siege and liberate the town.

The war was caused by disaffection between TOYEJE and the ONIKOYI. It was a by-product of the OGELE WAR between Ilorin and the Yorubas which ended in a disaster for the Yorubas. The defeat was, however, attributed to Toyeje’s military incompetence and used as a pretext to remove him as commander of the Yoruba army. Onikoyi was, therefore, chosen to lead the next military expedition by the Yorubas against Ilorin. That expedition, too, which Onikoyi led ended in a similar catastrophe for the Yorubas.

Toyeje, however strongly suspected that his removal as commander of the Yoruba army was instigated by the Onikoyi. He, therefore, resolved to punish the Onikoyi for it whenever opportunity availed itself to him to do so. The failure of the fresh expedition led by the Onikoyi provided the desired opportunity for vengeance. It disgraced him, resuscitated Toyeje’s popularity and aggravated their mutual disaffection. The animosity between Onikoyi and Toyeje,  “at length broke out into an open war, each of them being now independent, and neither would submit to the other.”

The forces led by Toyeje encamped at Pamo, a strategic road junction on the main road from Ogbomosho to Ikoyi. There, a very fierce battle took place and Ikoyi was hemmed in on all sides. So great was the pressure on the town at a stage that a surrender to Toyeje by the Onikoyi seemed imminent. Just at that critical moment, the Onikoyi was advised to quickly declare allegiance to the Emir of Ilorin and solicit help from him to lift the siege. This he did and for it he received the Emir’s prompt support. It was ASEGBE, the ILARI of the OLOFFA (who himself was a fugitive within the besieged Ikoyi), that muted the idea.

However, before Oba ABDUSSALLAMI sent in troops to assist the Onikoyi, he tried to persuade Solagberu to pull his own troops out of the siege and return to his Okesuna quarters in Ilorin. The plea was intended to avoid the ugly and unpleasant situation of Ilorin fighting Ilorin. THRICE the Emir sent emissaries to Solagberu with this plea but they were rebuffed each time.

The Emir then by-passed Solagberu and directly appealed to his troops at the battle front, urging whoever among them was faithful to SHEHU ALIMI to return immediately to Ilorin. Those who took advantage of this appeal were welcomed into safety in Ilorin. Those who adamantly remained with Solagberu risked dire consequences. The Emir's cavalry eventually arrived at the war front to confront Kakanfo Toyeje's troops and lift the siege laid on Ikoyi. In the resultant battle, the cavalry: "completely routed the Kakanfo’s army. Solagberu fled back to his quarters at llorin, and the Yorubas were dispersed." (Johnson)

Having been so rescued by the llorin cavalry, the Onikoyi pledged allegiance to the Emir of llorin and pleaded with the Emir for the fugitive Oloffa who was in Ikoyi to return to Offa. The Emir accepted this plea and the Oloffa was allowed to return to his domain accordingly. The Pamo war thus ended on a happy note for both the Onikoyi and the Oloffa by the grace of Oba Abdulsalami.

                (2) THE ESIELE WAR

ADEGUN, the Onikoyi, died later in another war and two cousins engaged themselves in a desperate tussle to succeed him. The two cousins were SIYANBOLA, the son of Adegun and OJO, the son of Adegun’s predecessor on the throne. Ojo went to Oyo in accordance with the tradition to have the title conferred on him by the Alaafin. As soon as he left for Oyo, Siyanbola usurped the throne. The Alaafin ignored this usurpation and conferred the title on Ojo who thereafter set for home with the determination to punish Siyanbola for the usurpation.

The usurper realised that he could not withstand Ojo’s onslaught so he “fled from the town with all his party to Ilorin" (Johnson) to pledge, allegiance and seek the Emir’s protection and assistance to retain the Ikoyi throne. Being the son of Adegun, the Emir’s late friend, he won the Emir’s heart and got the desired support.

Ojo who was not aware of this development underrated Siyanbola's military might. So when he reached Esiele which was the last town before Ikoyi on his way from Oyo, he decided to have a rest there. But a week after this, the Ilorin horses came against Esiele to espouse the cause of Siyanbola, and they had seven days of hard fighting.

The Ilorin cavalry did not prepare for a war that would last so long. It therefore, retreated to prepare adequately. When the cavalry returned, it put Esiele under siege hopeful that the sieged would surrender quickly but Esiele held out for a long time, being heroically defended by its Balogun KURUNMI, and another notable war chief, DADO. However, brave as the defenders of Esiele were, their courage failed them at last, and they fled. Ojo was slain and according to Rev. Samuel Johnson," Siyanbola having now no rival, obtained the title of Onikoyi from the Emir of Ilorin, and returned with those of his party who went with him to Ilorin to reoccupy the town. Thus, Ikoyi was re-peopled but no longer as a vassal state of Oyo but of Ilorin." (Johnson)

         (3) THE GBOGUN WAR

Victories at war, coming in rapid and unbroken succession broadened Ilorin’s sphere of influence and extended its territory deep into the heart of Yoruba-Iand, leaving Gbogun as the only town of significance in the Ikoyi zone that was not enveloped by that sphere of influence. EDUN, the chief of GBOGUN, who had by this time become the reigning Aare Onakakanfo, was disturbed that Ilorin’s sphere of influence extended so dangerously close to him. In that circumstance:

"Ikoyi being already a vassalage of Ilorin and a neighbouring town, Edun regarded her as an enemy and insisted that it should be deserted at once or he would take her by surprise."

Siyanbola, the Onikoyi took the threat seriously, knowing fully well that Edun, the greatest Yoruba warrior at that time, was an obstinate man of his words. The Onikoyi, therefore, ran to Ilorin, once more, to apprise the Emir of the latest threat to Ikoyi as a vassal of Ilorin.

The Emir immediately despatched an army to Ikoyi not only to defend the town but also to subdue Gbogun and bring it, too, under Ilorin's sphere of influence. On the orders of the Emir,

"Gbogun was soon besieged by the Ilorins and desperate battles were fought, the defenders fighting heroically and could not be overwhelmed until at last the city was reduced by famine and thus Gbogun fell the last of the powerful towns of the Yorubas.

Having lost the battle, Edun, the Aare Onakakanfo, fled. He was pursued by the Ilorin cavalry, overtaken and killed at GBODO. The fallen warrior's head was taken off, raised upon a pole and carried in triumph to the camp and from thence to Ilorin.

The head was presented to the Emir and buried inside the palace at Ilorin. The fall of Gbogun brought the whole of the northern province of the Oyo empire under the vassalage of Ilorin.


The first Oshogbo war occurred after the sack of Oyo-IIe and was deliberately instigated by Ilorin to satisfy its territorial aggrandizement. The intention was to bring Oshogbo under llorin’s suzerainty and thereby secure an effective foothold in the eastern territory of the Yoruba nation. Oshogbo at that time was the most prominent Yoruba town south-east of llorin which was yet to be overrun by the Ilorin cavalry.

After necessary preparations, Ilorin’s troops set off on the expedition, and when they reached Oshogbo, a siege was laid on the town as planned. They were confident of victory as: The command this time was entrusted to their brave and experienced general, ALI, the Hausa Balogun of Ilorin.”

The battles which ensued were, however, terrible, putting to test both the valour and experience of the two armies. In each of the battles, llorin was victorious, and when the ATAOJA of OSHOGBO found the Ilorins too strong for his army, he sent to Ibadan for help. The help came. A contingent of lbadan troops under the leadership of one OBELE, alias MOBITAN, and ALADE ABINUPAGUN, arrived and joined in the battle. This reinforcements made no difference, as it could not help Oshogbo to repel the advancing Ilorin cavalry. They put up a manly fight but still the Ilorins were gaining ground after every battle until the besieged and their auxiliaries were confined to the thickets surrounding the town which in all Yoruba towns were reserved for the purpose of defence. The Ibadan contingent thereupon sent an express report home to the BASORUN that they would soon be over-powered and the town taken if timely aid was not forthcoming."

The Basorun fully appreciated the consequences of a defeat for the combined Oshogbo/Ibadan forces in this war. He knew that with Oyo gone, if Oshogbo fell, the next target obviously would be Ibadan. He therefore resolved to take no chances or to leave no stone unturned in order to ensure victory over Ilorin this time. He ordered further reinforcements to be sent immediately to the war front at Oshogbo, consequently, “Balogun ODERINLO now marched out with the whole of the Ibadan mighty men save ELEPO and the Basorun, the former having been rejected by the war-chiefs for his actions at the late AGBAMAJA expedition.”

Again, even with all these reinforcements, the Yoruba army was no match for the Ilorin cavalry under the experienced leadership of ALI, the ageing Balogun Gambari. So grave was the situation for Oshogbo that: “When the Ibadan army arrived at the seat of war and saw the situation, they had some misgivings as to the probability of success without the aid of Elepo, their champion. They could not show their face in the open field for fear of the Ilorin horse, and for about 20 days after their arrival at Oshogbo, they also could not fight outside the town thicket.”

As the Ilorin army mounted further pressure on the besieged troops, the Oshogbos became more and more bewildered. To find solution to the problem, “Again and again, they held councils of war, and at length they fixed a day for the venture. Still they were afraid to attack the llorins during the morning hours, Oshogbo being practically in a plain, the Ilorin horse might have the advantage of them with disastrous results: from prudence, therefore, they resolved to make the attack in the afternoon, as they might be able to hold on until dusk when Ilorins would no longer be able to use their horses to advantage, or if defeated, the shades of night would assist them in their retreat. "

This cowardly design by the Oshogbos was translated into action. The combined Yoruba army took off for the battle front well after mid-day, moving very slowly to avoid being noticed by the Ilorins and to ensure that they did not get within sight of the Ilorin army until it was night. So, when they were, “About a mile from the llorin camp, they halted and arranged the order of attack.”

At last, hiding under the cover of darkness in the night, the combined Yoruba armies encircled Ilorin’s troop. Yet, they delayed launching of the attack until the thin hours of the night when llorin troops were expected to have gone asleep. The decision to delay attack till dead in the night was informed by the fear that mere darkness alone would not give them sufficient advantage over the more experienced and superior llorin army. Finally,

“About midnight the llorin camp was attacked on all sides.” Thus, the llorin army woken from sleep was made to battle with THREE forces, each formidable in itself, namely, SLEEP, DARKNESS, and the YORUBA ARMY. With these three forces to battle with, the Ilorin army required sound experience, courage and good leadership to break the encirclement and create a passage for retreat.

Naturally, the army was panic-striken in the face of such a surprise attack at such odd hours of the night. Yet, “ALI, the commander-in-chief, was calm and resolute; he ordered his horse to be saddled, and gathering around him a goodly portion of his cavalry they dashed through the ranks of Ibadan army: these quickly making way for them to gallop through without daring to oppose them."

During the consternation which resulted from the attack, a few notables in the Ilorin army were captured. They included Jimba, Adamu (the son of Balogun Gambari), Usman, the ageing Balogun Ajikobi, and a few others. When Balogun Ali noticed that these men were missing, he ordered the retreating army to go back and rescue as many of the captives as possible. Both Jimba and Adamu with some others were rescued. But Balogun Ajikobi was not found. He was later taken to Ibadan by the Yoruba troops and from there to Oyo for the Alaafin to decide his fate.

Ilorin, thus, tasted real defeat for the first time, not because it had a superior opponent to contend with but because it was grossly negligent by not making contingency arrangement for possible night attack by the enemy. This defeat suffered by the Ilorin army at Oshogbo significantly slowed down the pace of military activities by the army and 

 “saved the Yoruba country, as such, from total absorption by the Fulanis as a tributary state.”

Saturday 22 October 2022

More on Miss Ina, Lee Scratch Perry Yoruba Mother, from the book "People funny boy : the genius of Lee Scratch Perry"

At this time, the family attended Rock Spring Church, an Anglican congregation in Kendal, though most of the family has indicated that the church was not central to their lives then. More meaningful to Miss Ina was the Ettu dancing her mother passed down to her, a ritualistic form of West African dance whose express purpose is to invoke ancestral spirits for atonement. Centring on representations of natural phenomena, Ettu ceremonies are typically retained for special occasions such as Nine Night and Forty Night, the culmination of funeral celebrations held when a member of the community passes away; they may occasionally form part of wedding events, or may be held after an ancestor appears in a dream. The word derives from the Yoruba etutu, meaning appeasement or reconciliation, connoting a rite that placates ancestral spirits through reverence.

Unlike the majority of Jamaica’s black inhabitants, descended from slaves taken from West and Central African peoples such as the Ashanti, Ewe, Mandinka, Hausa-Fulani, Igbo and Bantu, practitioners of Ettu typically have Yoruba origin, hailing from what is now southwest Nigeria; most arrived in Jamaica by a circuitous route as indentured labourers in the period immediately following slavery.1 In 1807, the British Parliament declared slavery illegal, but Spanish, British and American merchants continued the trade covertly; during the 1830s, hundreds of Yoruba slaves bound for Cuba and Brazil were freed en route by blockaders patrolling the Gulf of Guinea and deposited in Sierra Leone, established as a place of return for former captives. Slavery was officially abolished in the British Caribbean in 1834, but the ‘apprenticeship’ system that replaced it saw former slaves forced to continue their labour; then, after full emancipation finally arrived in 1838, many plantation owners faced financial ruin, so during the 1840s and ‘50s, British agents surreptitiously convinced many of the formerly captive Yoruba in Sierra Leone to travel to the Caribbean under the dubious premise that they would be returned to their homeland after completing a period of tenure. In the same era, indentured servants from Central Africa and India were also brought to Jamaica via St. Helena, while Chinese labourers sailed from Hong Kong, with others later arriving via Trinidad and British Guiana.

Between 1841 and 1861, several thousand West Africans, many of them Yoruba, sailed to Jamaica from Sierra Leone as indentured labourers, typically bound by five years servitude; others arrived during the 1850s on intercepted slave ships forced to land in Jamaica by blockaders. For those that survived the journey across the Atlantic, the unfortunate reality they experienced in Jamaica was little better than that of slavery, if at all; many were subjected to brutal treatment and wages were often withheld. After eventually quitting the plantations, Yoruba founded villages in Hanover, Westmoreland, and St. Mary, where certain cultural practices were maintained.

Unique to a handful of such communities in western Jamaica, Ettu dancing is accompanied by a large kerosene pan that is beaten with both hands to provide a rattling sound, along with the beats of a smaller goatskin drum, with call-and-response chanting utilising Yoruba language; the ritual is usually begun by the sacrifice of an animal, its blood used to mark the foreheads of participants with the sign of a cross, with grated kola-nut distributed and white rum poured on the ground as a libation. Though Jamaica’s colonial rulers were intent on wiping out all cultural practices the Africans had brought from their homeland, a proliferation of underground activities saw certain customs retained and adapted during and after slavery, while those the authorities did not see as threatening were occasionally tolerated. Ettu thus thrived in remote bush communities, its survival allowing Miss Ina to retain a link with the ways of her ancestors, preserving traditions that dated from before the treacherous migration of her fore parents to the bleak reality of bondage in a hostile land; in time, she would eventually emerge as an Ettu Queen, the elder in her community that leads the dance.

“It’s an ancient order from Africa,” Lee Perry explains. “It has something to do with chanting spirits, keeping ancient spirits together; even when our people are getting old, they still show respect and holler out for them. They drink rum, so you might buy rum and put rum on the earth, cook rice without salt, make porridge without sugar and throw it on the earth for the spirit to eat, then start playing drums and start to do the culture dance; my mother happens to be one of the Ettu Queens, so she do the culture dance and talk to the spirits and the spirits tell them what goes on. The ancient spirit who was here before them, those that are dead and gone, they talk to those people and those people talk to them.” 

Another related African custom that had pervasive influence on the region’s inhabitants was a universal belief in the spirit world, the existence of benign and malevolent spirits and their corresponding powers to assist or harm viewed with absolute gravity. Such beliefs continue to be the norm throughout most rural areas of Jamaica, despite a majority adherence to Christianity.

Source: ShakaRa Speaks


Onitsha Mmili was known as Ado N'Idu, it was founded by one of the sons of Chima, the founder of Issele-Uku kingdom in western Igboland. Chima, a prince of the ancient Benin kingdom emigrated, settled and founded what is now known as Issele-Uku in Aniocha North Local Government Area. The eldest son of Chima eventually emigrated across the Niger River to establish the Onitsha community. It is a town in South East Nigeria famed for its commerce, education and religious centre that lies beside the Niger.

Onitsha is the largest markets in West Africa, a center point where billions of naira are transacted every day.

Onitsha operates a traditional government headed by the Obi, the titular head of the town who is assisted by Ndi Ichie, titled red cap elders or chiefs. Among these are Ndi Ichie Ume, who are the First Class Chiefs. The Ndi Ichie are classified into six, namely: Onowu Iyasele, Ajie Ukadiugwu, Odu Osodi, Onya Ozoma, Ogene Onira and Owelle Osowa, with Onowu Iyasele as the traditional Prime Minister. There are also other Ndi Ichie, who are ranked second class, known as Ndi Okwa and third class, known as Ndi Ichie Okwareze. The Ndi Ichie serve as Council of Advisers to the Obi who solicits their advice in major decisions he takes in the Kingdom.

When the ruling Obi joins his ancestors, the Onowu Iyasele takes charge until a new Obi is enthroned.

Once a year in October the kingdom of Onitsha holds the Ofala Festival which coincides with the traditional New Yam festival held in many parts of Igboland. It is a way for the people of Onitsha to keep their culture alive and it has become a major event that draws visitors from far and wide to the city.

There are nine groups of Kindred, (Ebo Etenani), making up Onitsha Ado Community.

Onitsha traditionally consists of nine villages, otherwise known as Ebo Itenani. These are descendants of the progenitor Umuezechima comprising Isiokwe, Olosi, Umuezearoli, Okebunabo, Obikporo and Ogbeotu which claim origin from Igala in Kogi state, Awada (Ogbeozoma), Obamkpa comprising Umuasele, Iyiawu and Odoje Ndugbe and Odumegwu Gbuagu, Ubulu na Ikem, Ulutu, Ubene, Ogboli Eke, Obior and Ogbeotu. Within these groupings there are six administrative wards namely Okebunabo, Umuezearoli, Ogbeolu, Isiokwe na Ogboli Olosi, Obamkpa and Eke na Ubene.

The history of Onitsha began with the migration of its people from the Benin Empire towards the end of early part of the Sixteenth Century AD. The migration was as a result of a wave of unrest, war and displacement unleashed by the Islamic movement from North Africa.

It was during their passage through the outskirts of Ile-Ife that they acquired the name Onitsha - a corruption of the Yoruba word Orisha and Udo, the famous shrine worshipped by the people. As time went on, the combination of the two words, Onitsha for Orisha and Ado for Udo culminated in the present name, Onitsha Ado.

The people of Onitsha left the outskirts of Ile-Ife and resettled in the Benin Kingdom and soon established themselves as one of the clans in the Benin Kingdom exercising all the rights and privileges attached thereon.

As a result of a long process of acculturation in Benin, the Onitsha people jealously guarded their acquired rights particularly with regard to their revered Shrine Udo.

It was suggested that the reason why the Onitsha people quarreled with Oba Esigie, (1404-1550), of Benin was because of the slight, the Oba gave their shrine-Udo. It was customary for newly installed Oba to pay homage to all important Shrines in the Benin Kingdom by slaughtering a cow in the shrines enclave. Oba Esigie failed to do this at the Onitsha people's Udo-Shrine, hence the quarrel.

It took the Onitsha people several years before they got to Obior and Ilah and finally crossed the River Niger and established Onitsha Ado. They stopped at several places in the then Mid-West now called Delta State, places like Agbor, Issele-Uku, etc. This explains the affinity with the inhabitants of Delta State like Ilah, Issele-Uku, Obbaamkpa, Onitsha-Olona, Onitsha Ugbo, Agbo, Obior, Onitsha Ukwu and so on.

After their arrival on the east bank (Onicha-mmili, "Onitsha-on-water"), the community gradually became a unitary kingdom, evolving from a loosely organized group of "royal" villages to encompass "non-royal" villages comprising Igala settlers, and the native Igbos to form a more centralized entity.

Eze Aroli was apparently the first genuinely powerful Obi of Onitsha, the ruler of the city.

Onitsha slowly grew to become an important trading port for the Royal Niger Company in the mid-1850s following the abolition of slavery and with the development of the steam engine when Europeans were able to move into the hinterland.

Trade in palm kernels, palm oil, and other cash crops on the coast of Bight of Biafra increased around this river port in the 19th century.

In 1857 British palm oil traders established a permanent station in the city with Christian missionaries joining them, headed by the liberated African bishop Samuel Ajayi Crowther (a Yoruba receptive) and Reverend John Taylor (an Igbo Recaptive).

In 1900 Onitsha became part of a British protectorate.The British colonial government and Christian missionaries penetrated most of Igboland to set up their administration, schools and churches through the river port at Onitsha.

Dennis Memorial Grammar School established by the Anglican Church Mission Society in 1925

More immigrants from the hinterland of Igboland were drawn to the emerging boom town as did the British traders who settled there in Onitsha, and coordinated the palm oil and cash crops trade.

In 1965, the Niger River Bridge was built across the Niger River to replace the ferry crossing. This has helped to grow trade routes with western Nigeria and created significant economic linkages between Onitsha and Benin City and Lagos particularly.

Friday 21 October 2022


Olu Jacobs and Benita Hamman (Joy Girl) appearing as guest stars in the 1970s British TV series, The Crezz.

Here is youtube link to the excerpt from the episode:

Thursday 20 October 2022

𝙏𝙝𝙚 𝙊𝙨𝙤𝙜𝙗𝙤 𝙒𝙖𝙧 𝙤𝙛 1840

After the Fulanis systematically captured and made Ilorin their territory, they sacked the old Oyo Empire in 1835/1636.

They were still not satisfied with their victory; they wished to extend their rule deep into the heart of Yoruba land. Thus in 1840, they set to capture Osogbo, a Yoruba town. The Fulanis, under the command of Ali, the Hausa balogun of Ilorin, laid siege on Osogbo. 

When the king of Osogbo realized that the Ilorins were too strong for the Osogbo army, he summoned the Ibadans for help. Ibadan immediately sent some auxiliaries to Osogbo under the command of Obele alias Mobitan , and Alade Abimpagun. As this force could not stop the Ilorins, another contingent was sent to Osogbo under a more experienced leader. But still the Ilorins won every battle and gained more ground.

When Ibadan realized that the Ilorins were becoming more threatening to Yoruba land, they sent a large and stronger force under Balogun Oderinlo to crush the intruding forces and Jammas of Ilorin . When Oderinlo and his men arrived at the battlefield, they realized that things had gone worse than they thought. 

They could not show their faces in the open field for the fear of the Ilorin horses, and for about 20 days after their arrival at Osogbo, they could not fight outside the town thickets. Oderinlo suggested that Elepo, a brave Ibadan warrior was badly needed at the war-front. Elepo had been rejected by the war-chiefs of Ibadan for his actions at the late Agbamaja expedition.

As soon as the message from Oderinlo reached Ibadan, the Bashorun wished he could send Elepo to Osogbo but could not go against the wish of other war-chiefs. The Bashorun gave Elepo a cow to worship his god, Ori, and pray for the victory of Ibadan at the war-front.

At the war-front, the Ibadan could not attack the Ilorins during the day because Osogbo was practically in a plain and the Ilorin horses might have advantage of them with disastrous results. 

They decided to attack at dusk when the Ilorins would no longer be able to use their horses. About 2:pm, the well prepared Ibadan army left the gate of Osogbo for the battlefield. They were to keep a strict watch and arrest anyone suspected to be a spy. 

About a mile from the Ilorin camp, they halted and arranged the order of the attack.

The Osogbo army and the earlier auxiliaries were to handle the center of the battlefield, chiefs Abitiko and Labuju were to command the right wing, Balogun Oderinlo with the rest of the Ibadan war-chiefs were to form the left wing of the army. The Ilorin camp was then attacked at midnight. The watchword was “ Elo ni owo odo? ” (How much is the ferry fare?).

The reason this watchword was chosen was because the river Osun had to be crossed in entering Osogbo from the south, and anyone who could not tell this was likely to be an enemy.

Stampede engulfed the Ilorin camp as the Ibadan army set it on fire. The Ilorins could not offer the slightest resistance; they were smoked with the gunpowder of the Ibadan guns.

This attack was a success for the Ibadan. Some Ilorin war-chiefs were captured in the attack. Prominent ones were:

1. Jimba the head slave of the Emir;

2. One of the sons of Ali the commander in chief;

3. Chief Lateju;

4. Ajikobo the Yoruba Balogun of Ilorin.

The first two were released while the latter two, being Yoruba by birth, were regarded as traitors and were executed. This was a huge victory for the whole of Yoruba land.

After the Osogbo victory,

Ibokun, an Ijesa town not far from Osogbo was taken by the Ibadans for being an ally of Ilorin.

After this war, Ìbàdàn later became a force building a formidable war machinery than later prosecuted many other wars with resounding victory.

Notable among the wars was the KIRIJI WAR where the Ibadan warlords formed a historic alliance with the Igbajos. Even though Igbajo became the war front for many years that the war lasted, it was never captured by the raging Ekiti parapò warriors. Rather it was a place where many of them met their Waterloo.

Notable among the warriors were Fabunmi Okeemesi, Ogedengbe Agbogun gboro of the Ijesas, Apasikoto pasigegele of Igbajo and Latoosa of Ibadan to mention a few. There were many more great warriors of the time. 

It's worthy to note that the KIRIJI WAR was the last war in Yoruba land. It's also recorded as the longest native war between in Africa. 

Since then the Yoruba people have continued to build strong bonds among themselves and they have sustained the peace. 

We must continue to tell our children the history of the Yoruba people and the bond which our father had built so that we can continue to see ourselves as one. If the Ibadan people can sacrifice their lives for the people of Osogbo in other to safe other towns and villages in Yoruba land and in essence the carnage of innocent people were prevented, then, we the modern Yorubas have no reason to divide ourselves for political reasons or any reason at all.

Cc: African ancient history

Before MC Oluomo, there was Lawani Asani Oluwo alias Omo Pupa ni Mushin, a die-hard Awoist

HIGH CHIEF LAWANI ASANI OLUWO (OMOPUPA NI MUSHIN) 1890-1977. THE GREAT ACTION GROUP (AG-EGBE OLOPE) LEADER OF MUSHIN. Mushin, Idi-oro, Isolo, Oshodi, Agege, Shomolu, Bariga, Oworoshoki, Georgey, Obanikoro, Pedro, Ikotun, Igando, Igbesa, Atan-otta, Sango. He firmly held the Party together in these areas of Lagos that were formerly part of the WESTERN REGION. Loyal to AWOLOWO.

Incarcerated under severe inhumane conditions by AKINTOLA at AGODI GOVERNMENT HOUSE IBADAN for over one year, just to denounce Awolowo and join his camp. Enticed with juicy positions, and material gifts. Brand new Chevrolet and Vauxhall cars. Houses, Lands at GRA IBADAN and IKEJA. But the Great Warrior of the "wild west" refused.

He lived in Mushin. APALARA was murdered in Ebute Elefun by Makoko-Panti, Ebute Metta. He housed many traders/goods from Yoruba hinterlands who weekly came to trade in the popular MUSHIN market. His house was a sanctuary of sort, during the tumultous political reign of the 60s. If you were good, you meet and enjoy his favours. Your bad side will surely be met by his deviance and severe reprimand. His long, walking stick was always handy when judging disputes.

He was in BURMA FOR WW11. AN HONOURED MEMBER OF THE BRITISH WEST AFRICAN FRONTIER FORCE. Also a Peacekeeper in BEIRUT/CONGO. Ironically in 1969, while Sergeant Jelili Oluwo, his third son, was battling on the Federal side against the Biafrans. He was engrossed in a street battle along Oshodi-Agege Motor Road, with the same Federal Soldiers from Oshodi Army resettlement Camp, who regrettably invaded his house. Once a soldier always a soldier. TAUGHT the military from Oshodi Resettlement Camp, how not to relate with the civilian community. Three of his houses were burnt by the Soldiers.

A COMMUNITY BANK, (AGBONMAGBE BANK) in one of these houses, was vandalized, looted, and burnt. His Petrol/Gas Station (ESSO/SHELL. In front of the house, was handy/embering the inferno. Attempts to kill or capture him alive became herculean for the baby soldiers. It was a battle of "SPIRIT vs lilliputians". "Broda" Waidi Olayiwola, one of his children, a staff of the Bank, miraculously escaped being captured by the rampaging soldiers. It took the intervention of Gen. YAKUBU GOWON, then Head of State, through Brig. MOBOLAJI JOHNSON, then Lagos State Governor, to bring the situation under control. After long hours of guerilla like battle with the unruly, inexperienced khaki boys. He was a one man riot against the soldiers that memorable day.

After SERVICES IN THE ARMY, he went to TRANSPORT business. He along with his famous friend, Baba "OSHA LA GEGE" and ALHAJI RUFUS AJAGBE (went to Hadj/Mecca Jan/Feb 1952, formed the first motor union (Now NURTW) at "EBUTE ERO" in Lagos Colony. Then he was living at a rented apartment on "OKE-POPO" LAGOS ISLAND. Maternally, he descended from the Royal house of Ado Ekiti. A warrior grandson of the Great Balogun of Ijebu Ode. The progenitor and founder of APARAKI TOWN (interesting story there). A suburb of Ijebu Ode.Uncle to the ABDULS and High Chief SUBOMI BALOGUN of IJEBU ODE. Who sojourned to and fro our house in search of the golden fleece to London. And Justice TAJUDEEN ODUNOWO a retired Federal Judge. A gentleman. Sustenance of "okun ebi" Asani, Oni Imushin ajina, oni Imushin ana doru. Omo Imodi-Mosan. Onita itebo, nijebu ode.

Baba Kola. His first son, a fine, handsome, gentle officer of the Nigerian Airforce. I will never forget the aura and scenery, whenever Gen. Yakubu Gowon passes through Agege Motor Road, enroute Lagos, Ikeja International Airport. Routinely, he would stop the entourage. Stepped down and accorded my grandpa his dues as a veteran soldier. In return my grandpa, will give him a ground shaking, marching salute. Respecting his status as the HEAD OF STATE. Retrospectively, he was a good, loving father. Husband to ten WIVES. Dandy of numerous concubines.

Protector of the poor and less privilege of the society. To borrow his words, his "agidity" was born out of his age long stand against injustice. WE CALLED HIM BAALOKE. Sun re o. OMO PUPA NI MUSHIN.

My take : Note that Awo attended his funeral.

Gossip House

Wednesday 19 October 2022

List of Top 20 Traditional Rulers Dethroned in Nigerian History:

1. Ooni of Ife – Ogboru:

Ogboru is 19th century Ooni of Ife dethroned mischievously by Ife Palace Chiefs who got tired of his 70yrs long reign. He was deceived by trick to come out of his place to come and see something at the Atiba square of the ancient Ile-Ife town and wasn’t allowed to return to the palace again. He angrily left for another aboard where he founded a little town called Ife-Odan and he settled there. Successive Ooni of Ife like 6 installed after him died in succession under 6months like a sort of throne bewitchment and Ife Chiefs had to search for him at Ife Odan to return back, but he resisted the attempt and gave them his daughter Moropo to make some sacrifices at the palace after which his son Giessi became the next Ooni after him. 

2. Emir of Bauchi – Umar Mohammed:

Mohammed was deposed on 16th of February, 1902 by Lord luggard’s second in command – William Wallace for an allegation of slave dealings and insubordination against the British government and misrule of his people. His son was installed as the new Emir.

3. Emir of Kano Aliyu Ibn Abdullahi Maje Karofi:

He became the Emir of Kano in 1894 following the death of Emir Muhammad Bello, and a rebellion war of “Bassa” called the 3rd Kano Civil War was kickstarted by him, along with his elder brother, Yusuf when the Sultan of Sokoko announced another prince called Tukur as the new Emir of Kano. The war lasted for a year when Aliyu popularly called the Sango of zaki (the gun runner) or Ali Balads, for his heavy use of explosives in most wars conquered Kano and became the Emir in 1894. He was dethroned in 1903 following an homage visit to the Sultan in Sokoto when the British -French forces attacked Kano and brought an end to his reign. He first exiled to Yola and later Lokoja, the seat of new Northern Nigerian government where he died in 1926.

4. Emir of Ningi – Dan yaya:

Dan yaya was deposed by British Temple months after Umar Emir of Bauchi was sent away in July 1902, for terrorizing his people leading to the killing of a mallam, and taking sides with Emir of Bauchi. A new Sarkin Ningi was enthroned who was the heir, by the name Mammadu. Dan yaya escaped to bura town where he was eventually killed by the Bura people for his continued terrorizing acts in 1905. See the article the British in Bauchi, to read more.

5. Olu of Warri – Erejuwa I:

Erejuwa was the traditional ruler of Itsekiri at two different times between 1951-1964 and 1966 – 1989. A Senior Officer with UAC before becoming a king, was unfortunately removed and deposed by NCNC eastern party in 1964, because of his support for Awolowo’s Action group, which is the party of many Prominent Itsekiris. The result of the political rivalry lead to the creation of Midwestern States then. Erejuwa was exiled to a town called Ogbesse, after he was returned by a military government of David Ejoor in 1966 and he reigned till 1989.

6. Alaafin of Oyo – Oba Adediran Adeyemi II:

84yrs old Oba Adediran Adeyemi II (the father of the late Alaafin of Oyo, Oba Lamidi Adeyemi) was dethroned for political rivalry with Chief Awolowo lead Western government of Nigeria when he gave his political will and support for an opposition party called NCNC lead by Chief Nnamdi Azikwe which was heightened by a disagreement and conflict with the then Awolowo Action group leader, Bode Thomas. Oba Adediran was sent away from Oyo town in July 1955 and was exiled in Lagos where he was housed by Alhaji N.B Soule a wealthy NCNC member , after which Gbadegesin Ladigbolu was enthroned as the new Alaafin of Oyo till 1970.

7. Timi of Ede – Abibu Lagunju:

Timi Abibu Languju was acclaimed to be the first muslim Yoruba king in history who reigned between 1855 to 1892 and was deposed and exiled by the British government to Ibadan where he lived with Sunmonu Apampa, the Asipa of Ibadan at that time and he died in 1900. One of his children Raji Lagunju, birthed by an Ile-Ife wife was taken back to her home town, to become the second Chief Imam of Ile-Ife. Read more about the accounts of Timi Lagunju here.

8. Awujale of Ijebu-Ode Oba Adenuga 1892 -1925:

Awujale Adenuga Folagbade was made an Awujale of Ijebu Ode on November, 1925. He was 33yrs and was living with his mother in Igbeba, a small village near Ijebu Ode. He was the choice of the “Odi”, (Ijebu kingmakers) for the Tunwase ruling house but his choice didn’t go down well with some local chiefs who felt he was too young and prematurely for the exalted stool. He was eventually deposed in 1929 and exiled to Ilorin, for corruption around forestry fees and influencing the choice of the selection of Oba Onipe of IBU. Oba Ogunnaike succeeded him who also died in 1933.

9. Akarigbo of Remo – Oyebajo:

Oba Oyebajo was the traditional head of Ijebu remo, in his mid twenties and reigned between 1811 to 1915. He was deposed by the British for being a de-facto ruler who refused to regard his principal chiefs (Bademowo – The Lisa of Remo & Awofala, the Losi of and denied them their shared parts of the duly entitled stipends to them, as part of 1914 amalgamation rule that local rulers should be part of native courts. Akarigbo Chief levied many allegations of corruption against him and the British Officer in charge of the Administrative district, H.F Ducoumbe not only deposed him but also sentenced him and two others in prison with hard labour at Ijebu Ode and was released 6months later, after which he later settled in Sagamu.

Alase of Remo, High Chief Awolesi was made the new Akarigbo in a flamboyant coronation ceremony attended by the British Officer, Ducoumbe. Awolesi died shortly on 25th of February 1916 and the British made Oba Oyebayo’s clerk and an educated public writer the new Akarigbo of Remo. With increased disturbances of Oyebajo factions for his reinstatement, he was arrested with another supporter called Ali and banished to Calabar in 1918 where he lived for only just 3months. Ali died in 1922 after his plea of clemency was rejected the Governor. See accounts of Tunde Oduwobi: The careers of Akarigbo Oyebajo and Awujale Adenuga under the British government & read more.

10. Osemawe of Ondo – Oba Adekolurejo Jimosun II (Otutubiosun):

The Oba whose reign was from 1918 to 1925 was removed and banished to Ile-Ife in 1925, where he lived and died. It was during the reign of Oba Jimosun that Ondo town had its first secondary school, called Ondo boys high school.

11. Osemawe of Ondo – Oba Adenuga Fidipote II:

Oba Adenuga was reported to be a wealthy king of Ondo town and was on record to be the one who built the first modern Palace for ondo town. He reigned for 7yrs after which his deposed and chased him away from the town to Ibadan in 1942. Read more about Ondo Obas here.

12. Oba of Lagos – Ibikunle Akintoye & Kosoko:

Akintoye reigned twice as Oba of Lagos, first between 841 to 1845, when he was deposed to Badagry town for his Anti-Slave trade advocacy. He was succeeded by Oba Kosoko who was equally deposed for having a rift with the British government when he resisted submitting Lagos colony to the British and ordered, the British government to meet the Oba of Benin. In retaliation for his gut, the British government brought back Ibikunle Akintoye who had been on exile in Egba and Badagry in 1851. He reigned for the second time till September, 1853 when he died and Oba Dosumu took over. The deposed was later recalled back to Lagos, where he was made an high chief Oloja of Eleko, a salaried title in Oshodi tapa Epetedo. Where he lived and died in 1872.

13. Emir of Gwandu – Mustapha Jokolo:

The Ex -Emir was deposed in 2005, by the Kebbi State government following different allegations levied against him by his Chiefs and was exiled to Kaduna. He was immediately replaced by June 2005 by one Muhammadu Illyasu Bashar, a retired major, who served as a military governor in the old Gongola State between 1976 & 1978. 15yrs, deposed Jokolo is still challenging his dethronement in Court.

14. Emir of Kano – SIR Mohammodu Sanusi I:

Reported to be a powerful Emir of Influence in the colonial days of Northern Nigeria, Sanusi I was the Emir of Kano between 1954 to April 1963, when he was deposed by Alhaji Ahmadu Bello, a distant cousin, after an allegation of financial misappropriation in the emirate. He was deposed to Azare in 1964 and died in Wudil in years after. Sanusi I is the grandfather of Sanusi Lamido Sanusi, the recently deposed by Emir of Kano who reigned from 2014 to 2020, in a similar instance as his grandfather.

15. Olofa of Offa – Oba Wuraola Isioye:

Oba Isioye was enthroned on the 5th January 1957, and reigned as Offa District head for 2yrs, when he was deposed by Northern Regional Government following, a successful move for Offa Local Court to be recognised and the long used Ilorin’s Alkali Court was abolished. This promoted the Late Saurduna to instigate him being deposed and exiled to Ogbomoso- Kogi Area, where he lived till he returned in 1964. He was reinstated as Olofa till he died in 1969, even though his district title wasn’t returned.

16. Sultan of Sokoto – Ibrahim Dasuki:

The dethronement of Late Sultan Dasuki is probably the most widely reported case of removal of a king in Nigeria by the military government of Abacha in 1996, as almost everyone in late 20’s in Nigeria are aware of the development. There were even songs recorded by musicians to that effect on the continued change of traditions, that the usually saying that a new king can not be crowned while another is alive “T’oba kan o Ku, Oba kan o je”, as waxed by Yoruba Fuji Singer Abbass Obesere. Ibrahim Dasuki removal was rumoured to be related to issues between him and Abacha, on mismanagement of the late Abacha’s relative’s properties. There were also speculation that it was due to reports of his modernist style of rulership and many preferred Sultan Maccido, who later succeeded him.

17. Olowo of Owo – Oba Olateru Olagbegi II:

Unarguably the richest and most influential Olowo of Owo town in Ondo state, Oba Olateru became Olowo in 1941 and reigned till 1966 when he took side with Chief S.L Akintola against Chief Awolowo who was his ally. Of a fact, Awolowo Action Group party was founded right inside Olowo palace and Owo for years experienced political and kingship battle, which came to a climax in 1966 following a cold blooded coup with many properties and lives lost in the course. The people of Owo revolted their King and sent him away on exile where he lived for another 27yrs, and his stool was taken over by Oba Ogunoye. At the demise of Ogunoye, Olateru was reappointed as the new Olowo of Owo in 1993 and spent another 5yrs on the throne till he died in 1998. His eldest son, took over from him in 1999 and reigned for 20yrs.

18. Deji of Akure – Oba Oluwadamilare Adesina Osupa III:

The inglorious exit of Oba Oluwadamilare as Paramount king of Akure is another reminder of the importance of carriage and conduct in kingship, as they are seen as leaders and role models. The king was deposed on 10th of June, 2010 following the beating of his estranged wife at her home in Akure, in what the Ondo state government referred to as, a dishonorable, condemnable and disgraceful conduct unexpected of a king which invoked a section of the state chieftaincy law of 1984 as amended. With an immediate action, a new Deji of Akure Adebiyi Adeshida Afunbiowo II was announced on 13th of August 2010.

Other Kings dethroned are;

19. Oba Awujale Sikiru Adetona was deposed in 1981 after suspension by a panel of inquiry set up by the then Ogun state governor, Olabisi Onabanjo after which he was found guilty of the charge. He was luckily reinstated by Col. Diya, following a military coup. Read more on Onigegewura’s blog.

Onojie of Uromi – Anslem Aidenojie was suspended and later dethroned in 2016 by Former Gov. Adams Oshiomole for abusing a woman and total disregard for constituted authority, for failure to apologize within 2weeks he was given. Gov Obaseki however reinstated the former king in 2018.

20. Olupoti of Ipoti Ekiti – Oba Oladele Ayeni:

The king Oba Isiah Oladele who was alleged to have been wrongly selected in 1987, was thrown out in 2012 after 25yrs of reign.

Eleruwa of Eruwa, Oba Samuel Adebayo Adegbola, sacked by the Supreme court in November 2019 after 21yrs of Reign. He was first dethroned in 2011, after which he filed an appeal but lost the throne 8yrs later.


Ile-Ife Kingdom is the Oldest Kingdom in Nigeria and 2nd oldest Kingdom after Sahelian kingdom of Ghana in West Africa which was recorded from 11th century.

Some historical evidence prove that Ile-Ife was 4th Century while others said Ile-Ife has been in existence in the history of mankind, and the proof shouldn't be known to anyone or recorded.

Greek Historian, Herodotus, the father of History who lived from 4824 BC until 424 BC said about Ife: " According to history there were five ancient cities in Africa between 3000 and 1000 BC of which one was Ife".

According to BBC UK, The kingdom of Ife developed in the rainforest in the 600s. Its art and religion influenced the culture of Benin, which began in the 900s and reached the height of its power between the 1400s and the 1600s.

Between 700 and 1600, there were three great empires in the centre of West Africa: Ancient Ghana, Mali and Songhai.They all grew immensely rich by trading in gold. One of the last great kingdoms was Asante. It was founded around 1700. The Asante people were famous for their work in gold.

The Bini Kingdom that was later destroyed by the British was formed in 1170CE. Bini Kingdom was a neighbouring Kingdom to Ile-Ife Kingdom, and this is why in the history of bini today, the Ruler that established Obaship in bini was from Ile-Ife (Olumense 1971) etc.

The largest ethnic in West Africa sources from Ile-Ife ranging from Nigeria, Benin Republic, Ghana, Gambia etc. The root of some of these ancient tribes in West African countries were traced to Ile-Ife.

Father of history Herodotus, put in his record that the Europeans only attacked Bini kingdom due to disagreement, it is not that there are no other neighbouring kingdoms. If there were no neighbouring kingdom, then the prince of Ile-Ife wont be invited by bini people to rule over their land.

Ile-Ife remains where it is today in a place now called Western Nigeria, but we can see majority of tribes even outside Nigeria tracing their roots to ile-ife. History reveals that Ile-Ife has been existing before historian started putting it in record. Ile-Ife wasn't created by any ruler or king. It was a forest before it was established by the inhabitant and records were taken.

By Prof. Omodion Imafidon

Nigeria, West Africa.

Monday 17 October 2022

The Great Mother Oshun

“ I again salute the Great Mother, Oshun

The spirit of ADENLE

I again salute the Great Mother, Oshun

The spirit of ADUNNI

I again salute to the Great Mother, Oshun

It is homage that I will use today to pay respect to my predecessors

I pay homage for my songs

ADETAYUN, my mother

The nursing mother who suffers for the sake of her child

My mother is the woman who wiggles inside 0LOBO TUJE

A gazelle inside goodness

I will certainly adorn myself to go on an outing with the one who has children

My Mother!

Please deliver me!

In beautiful adornment I go on an outing with the one who has children!


My very radiant Mother

Who slaughters IWO people’s chickens for food

EGBERONGE who is shy of white powder


The one with business acumen who knows that people are greater than wealth!

My Mother definitely knows that people are greater than money!

ADETA, the living child is greater than the ABIKU child!

There are children inside the aged

One who is greater than me

Oshun 0SOGBO O!

The secret Child is created!…”

By Diedre Badejo

Photo: eumaravillaaraujo 

Aláwàdà Baba Sala

Baba Sala was one of the very few giants that laid the foundation for the present day Nollywood - literally with their own blood, sweat and tears. Yes he was! Sadly, few folks remember this because we are conveniently forgetful. It happens. We forget. And then we wait for something else to happen. I remember Chief Hubert Ogunde, Oyin Adejobi, Kola Ogunmola, Dúró Ladipo, Ade Love, Akin Ogungbe, Ayoxx Arisekola, Lérè Paimo, Ishola Ogunsola, and a few others.

And if Ogunde was the Nigerian Bela Lugosi, Moses Adejumo Olaiya alias Baba Sala certainly was the Nigerian Benny Hill. Not only was he the hardest working man in Nigerian showbiz at that time. He had a musical band, a theater group, a string of other businesses and he still toured all year round.

Baba Sala for a long time was the standard bearer for Yoruba comedy in his appearance, props and in those rough, family-friendly sketches. The ubiquitous tobacco pipe that was never lit, the stained teeth to create the illusion of a missing tooth, the powdered hair to make him look the part of an older man, the outlandish bowties, the self-deprecating jokes and the full garb of buffoonery - all made him Nigeria's first indigenous, professional clown. His supporting cast of Adisa, Kariile, Arikuyeri, Emily, Okondo, Baba Lẹgba added some unexplainable pizzazz to his productions. 

Every other comedian that followed Baba Sala copied his routine even to the peculiar styling of his stage name. There was Dogo Baba Kafi, Ojo Ladipo Baba Mero, Jinadu Ewele baba Sakaworo and even now as a non-comedian Odolaye Aremu baba Waki. And there was Jagua that got it all down pat too!

He was one of the first millionaire actors with his well established Alawada conglomerates. Hotels, Cinemas, movies, recordings, TV, Radio shows and restaurants. A tireless performer. He even had his own distinct theme music when the 'Awada Half hour' was on in the early 70s. I vividly remember the opening montage- Baba Sala sitting on a heap of sand just behind a 6-wheeler or what we called a Tipper back then. The truck suddenly dumped its load quite unaware of a stowaway in the rear. Baba Sala came down violently with the load of sand. The tipper moved and Baba Sala in a slapstick routine dusted himself and ran after the speeding lorry.

Baba Sala was awesome at the height of his career making movies and shows for TV. It was only the ruinous 'Nigerian factor' that eventually did him in. However his ingenuity, and pioneering spirit can never be taken from him. Therefore it is of utmost importance for every comedian in Nigeria today making a livelihood out of humor to give due props to Chief Moses Adejumo Olaiya. For his vision, entertainment and business template, inarguably are partly what's Nollywood today!

Baba Sala is definitely a first ballot lock for the Ìjẹ̀sà Descendants Hall Of Fame behind Ogedengbe Agbógungbórò, Fabunmi Okemẹsi, Ọtọlorin, Lawrence Omole, IK Dairo, Àjànàkú, Haastrup, Aróhunràlọ́jàọba just to name a few. Moses Adejumo Olaiya unfortunately is no more. He has since passed on to eternal greatness, such that a venerable fool suffering dementia can never attempt to forget him!

Folorunsho Adisa:

As a child who does not remember Baba Sala🤣

Nollywood belongs to Nigeria, so has proven itself unable to even do basic Yoruba language films. Its plot lines are a testament to the colonial mentality of its producers, editors etc.

There's a huge market for well made Yoruba films. Movies that showcase Yoruba culture, language and worldview in its authentic form. The makers of Anikulapo and the other recent Yoruba films should build on them and make more. As Netflix and YouTube has shown there's a hunger for your product. 

By Odolaye Bàá Waki

Source: ProudlyYoruba


Edward James Roye is Liberia's fifth president.

He is noted in Nigeria as the first recorded lawyer of Igbo descent in history. In Liberia, however, Edward James Roye is well-known as the country’s fifth president whose administration was short-lived and who died under rather mysterious circumstances.

Celebrated as the first pure black person to become president of Liberia, Roye was a “pure descendant of the Igbo tribe from Nigeria”. His father, John Roye, was an Igbo slave in Ohio, America who later gained his freedom and became an illustrious merchant with considerable wealth and land in many cities.

Born on February 3, 1815, in Newark, Ohio, Roye would benefit from the financial standing of his family and attend one of the best schools – Ohio University in neighbouring Athens, Ohio.

Following the death of his father in 1836, Roye relocated to Terre Haute where he became famous for establishing the largest barber shop in the community, boasting a 79-foot (24 m) high barber pole, “the tallest in western Indiana” .

In the midst of his fame and success was the American Colonisation Society that was then encouraging free African-Americans to move to the colony of Liberia in West Africa to live in a “prejudice-free nation”.

Not having any ties to the United States after the death of his mother in 1840, Roye decided to make that journey. On May 2, 1846, at the age of 31, he left New York with the rest of his family and arrived in Monrovia, Liberia’s capital, June 7.

There, he improved and within two years, he was already Liberia’s top shipping merchant. He also became active in Liberian politics and by 1849, he was the Speaker of the Liberian House of Representatives as well as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Liberia from 1865 until 1868.

Was one who once said that Liberia was

“decreed to champion the black race and should be governed only by ‘pure Africans,’” Roye was in 1870 elected president of Liberia. This made him the first member of Liberia’s True Whig Party (oldest political party in Liberia founded by Americo-Liberians) to serve as President.

“I do not expect immunity from the criticisms of our opponents, nor do I ask for it,” Roye said in his inaugural address.

The Ohio Historical Society refers to Edward James Roye as the "ninth and forgotten president from Ohio." While in a land far away from the "land of Legend" he is known by some as the "Lincoln of Liberia."

Edward James Roye portrait is on Liberia 5 dollar bill.

Thursday 13 October 2022

Mama Comfort Tanimowo Ogunlesi nee Okusanya, the Unforgettable Nigerian Activist From Ibadan

Chief Mrs Tanimowo Ogunlesi was a Nigerian women's rights activist & leader of Nigerian Women's Improvement League, better known as WIS. It was an organization for the betterment of women. She established it in 1947 and fought gallantly for women. 

In fact, Mrs Amy Ashwood Garvey, first wife of Marcus Garvey & a fervent pan-Africanist activist, was also present at their first meeting. An amazon of Ibadan, she attended Kudeti Girls' School. Mama Ogunlesi was also an educationist, she was the proprietress of Children's Home School & established Christ High School, both in Ibadan. 

She was one of the leading women activists of her era & co-founded the National Council of Women Societies, the country's leading women's rights organization. She became the council's first president in 1959. She dealt largely on the rights of women to vote & access to educational facilities but like most women nationalists, she never really questioned the male dominance of the Nigerian household. She eventually gained major fame by tying herself to a bull, which then raged through a small village. She was part of a movement to increase domestic science training in Nigeria. Mama Ogunlesi died in 2003. 

Her contemporaries were other great women like Chief Mrs Margaret Ekpo, Chief Mrs Wuraola Esan, Alhaja Humuani Alaga, Mrs Adekogbe, Professor Mrs Ogunsheye (first female professor in Nigeria) and others. Although they belonged to different faiths and tribes, they all worked together & were impressively united. One of the advisers of the leaders of the Action Group, she was one of those who shaped the formation of Nigeria. In these photos I have attached, she was on a visit to London with Awolowo and others in 1957 to discuss the freedom of Nigeria from colonial forces & how the constitution was going to be like. She was the only woman delegate from the southwest.

Oh, let me explain how she & Awolowo met & became very good friends. Awolowo was very passionate about education. In 1947 when Mama Ogunlesi established the school, there was no private boarding house educational institution in Ibadan, especially for girls. She founded the school with four goals. It was this school that got Awolowo impressed & they bonded over education, later she became a politician too. Awolowo told her nothing would be achieved for the children of the southwest without political power, she agreed. They worked together. They became closer when Awo realized she was a Remo woman who grew up in Sagamu, near his own hometown of Ikenne. By the way, one of the people who attended the school she established in Ibadan is Bola Tinubu. This is a very short piece on her but now you know who she is. 

Thanks for reading 🙂

The Legendary Hubert Ogunde

Hubert Ogunde, (born 1916, Ososa, near Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria—died April 4, 1990, London, Eng.), Nigerian playwright, actor, theatre manager, and musician, who was a pioneer in the field of Nigerian folk opera (drama in which music and dancing play a significant role). He was the founder of the Ogunde Concert Party (1945), the first professional theatrical company in Nigeria. Often regarded as the father of Nigerian theatre, Ogunde sought to reawaken interest in his country’s indigenous culture.

Ogunde’s first folk opera, The Garden of Eden and the Throne of God, was performed with success in 1944 while he was still a member of the Nigerian Police Force. It was produced under the patronage of an African Protestant sect, and it mixed biblical themes with the traditions of Yoruba dance-drama. His popularity was established throughout Nigeria by his timely play Strike and Hunger (performed 1946), which dramatized the general strike of 1945. In 1946 the name of Ogunde’s group was changed to the African Music Research Party, and in 1947 it became the Ogunde Theatre Company. Many of Ogunde’s early plays were attacks on colonialism, while those of his later works with political themes deplored interparty strife and government corruption within Nigeria. Yoruba theatre became secularized through his careful blending of astute political or social satire with elements of music hall routines and slapstick.

Ogunde’s most famous play, Yoruba Ronu (performed 1964; “Yorubas, Think!”), was such a biting attack on the premier of Nigeria’s Western region that his company was banned from the region—the first instance in post-independence Nigeria of literary censorship. The ban was lifted in 1966 by Nigeria’s new military government, and in that same year the Ogunde Dance Company was formed. Otito Koro (performed 1965; “Truth is Bitter”) also satirizes political events in western Nigeria in 1963. An earlier play produced in 1946, The Tiger’s Empire, also marked the first instance in Yoruban theatre that women were billed to appear in a play as professional artists in their own right.

Ogunde’s technique was to sketch out the basic situation and plot, and then write down and rehearse only the songs of his plays. The dialogue was improvised, thus allowing the actors to adjust to their audience. The plays produced by his company usually reflected the prevailing political climate and interpreted for audiences the major issues and the aspirations of those in power.

His company performed with equal ease in remote villages and in metropolitan centres of Nigeria (as well as throughout West Africa). Many of Ogunde’s later folk operas were basically popular musicals featuring jazzy rhythms, fashionable dance routines, and contemporary satire. Through this format, he set an example for a successful commercial theatre and prepared audiences all over Nigeria for his followers. During the 1960s and ’70s his plays became an important part of the urban pop culture of West Africa.

Tuesday 11 October 2022

Lugbara People of Dr. Congo, Uganda and South Sudan

Lugbara People can be found in Dr. Congo, Uganda and South Sudan. They are part of the Nilo Saharan language family a central sudanic languages spoken in Central African Republic, Chad, Uganda, Dr. Congo and Cameroon. Lugbara has a small population in the Northern part of South Sudan. Lugbara grow crops such as millet, sorghum, cassava and their symbol is a leopard. In the early days, Lugbara were a community mainly based on chiefdom, they did not have Kingdoms and Kings presiding over them like others in Present day Uganda also they formed friendly alliances with neighboring chiefdoms.  

Traditionally, Lugbara are agriculturalist and they raised livestock. Ope which is a guinea fowl is kept,  maize is grown for brewing traditional beer. It is said Lugbara men have great hunters very powerful, they used bows, long arrow that have fish lie tips, Ayivu, Maracha, Terego, Aringa, Vurra are related to the Lugbara and in the Lugbara concept God is known as Adora which is the Creator or Supreme being. It is believed Adora appeared in both good and evil aspects and Adora came on earth as a human, he is described as very tall with children known as Adroanzi.  

According to Lugbara Oral history, In the 19th Century they had mainly chiefs who were leaders. Lugbara settled in Present day Uganda in the late 16th Century. It is believed there were human being which is Gboro the male and Meme the female both were described to be part of the super human. Some oral traditions claimed Adroa filled the womb of Meme with living things in the world, others claimed the first human being were twins called Arube which is a boy and Oduu which is a girl and their parents were believed to be Meme and Gboro. In some myths, it is believed that Meme died after the birth of the twins,  the twins grew up and formed clans.   

Lugbara mystery hill known as Mount Wati is the highest hill. It is said a superman came as Oli Banyale which is their ancestor. His grave is a natural crater that the locals named Mbindri the waters flow but never dry. It has its for ages atop of the mountain,  grinding stone, four poles of granary clay pot shaped like a calabash, Saku, were placed on Oli Banyale’s grave. These items symbolize the most common things that Oli used in his lifetime.  

According to Lugbara elder called Oaja Aludi from Odoa village the visitors placed coins on the grave to seek the blessings from Adora and the Ancestors tracing the roots of Elder Oaja his great grandfather called Tèrè settled in Present day Uganda and intermarried with his great grandmother who belong to the Acholi ethnic group and gave birth to two sons known as Gboro and Tifoli. Gboro was a hunter who hunted hippopotamus, crocodiles, elephants while hunting in what is now Western part of Uganda on a reed raft the river to the west a strong tornado blew across the river. Gboro did not return back to his father’s hometown but settled in Imvenga in the  Northern part of Uganda and married a Madi woman and they had four children called Oli, Kibra, Olu, Obaru. Oli was powerful just like a Spiritualist and he had privileges of Kingship. An elephant came to destroy millet in Oli’s garden he took his younger brother spear and tried to kill the elephant, but the elephant ran into the wilderness with the spear stuck in its side. When his younger brother Kibira heard this he wanted to have his spear back but Oli had prepared Akarafi and decided to trace the elephant on his way he met an Older woman she offered him water to drink, she asked his mission and his quest for his brother’s spear. Alungaru went ahead to hunt the elephant but was killed by the elephant he had no spears with him but the Older woman was able to show him many spears and asked him to identified which one belong to his brother.

Lugbara Origins , migrations and settlements.

According to Anthropologist and a Writer Lugbara originated from Present day Rajaf in South Sudan some claimed they migrated from Present day  Rajaf in South Sudan and settled in Present day Serengeti in Northern Tanzania migrated Southward  before they migrated to Murambi in what is now Rwanda then split into three groups the first group settled in Present day Uganda later the second group settled in Present day Dr. Congo finally the last group which was the third group settled in Present day Northern part of Sudan due to wars in the 16th Century,  Lugbara were originally known as Madi and the term ” Lugbara” was a term being used after the Intrusion of the Khartoum Arab Slaves in the 19th Century,  In their tradition when a child was born there is a ritual cleansing petformed if the baby was a boy after giving birth the mother would stay in confinement for three to four days depending on the sex of a child besides that She must abstained from eating certain food and she could received few visitors because they believed some visitors might have bad thoughts to harm the health of the child after cleansing period they celebrate festivities and naming ceremony for the child,  Lugbara believed name given portrayed memorable experience of his or her Ancestors when even a child is not born.They undergo Intiation girls and boys used marks such as tribal marks to Indentification face tattoo and extraction of 6 frontal teeth from the lower jaw this Intiation done during adulthood before planning on finding a partner to get married to,  In their tradition Avuti clan is a clan of one’s mother including mother’s relative but a mother’s relative is referred as ezaapilmy simply my daughter the symbol of the Avuti is a bull and women produced various type of baskets and pots the most common one is Iva the food cover or sauce pot, aijiko the sauce fir preparing millet flour and any one who specialized in Iron smelting is known as Okebu.  They celebrate a festival known as Okuza the festival of gathering this festival bring the people together, sharing folklore,  sharing of local food, having fun,  they perform traditional dances such as Gaze it reflect the transition of the movement,  Agwara dance involved playing trumpets and drums celebrating their  rich culture and heritage.

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