Friday 31 January 2020

Music and Dance In Nicaragua

The marimba is Nicaragua’s national instrument. A percussion instrument, it is made of wooden or metal keys or tubes of different lengths, and played with one, two, or four mallets. Guitars and other percussion instruments usually accompany it, but the marimba is the most popular instrument in the central and western departments of the country.

In the Caribbean Coast , the music has a strong afro-Caribbean influence and its rhythms are intense, sensual, and frenzied. The best occasion to experience this culture music is during the Palo de Mayo (May Pole) festival in the city Bluefields.

There is also a strong theatrical heritage in the country, and enchanting music is often combined with stage plays to carry the audience back to another era. The majority of these shows are performed during town festivals, and on occasion at the Ruben Dario National Theater. Among the most important portrayals are the “Nicaraguan Native” and the epic drama of “El Gigante” (The Giant), which deals with the natives’ conflict with the conquering Spaniards. “El Gueguense” (The Wise Man), on the other hand, is a mocking depiction of the Spaniards.

El Güegüense

“El Güegüense” is a satirical drama that combines Spanish and indigenous theater, dance, and music. It is considered one of the most important works of the colonial era in Latin America. In 2005, UNESCO declared this play an important representation of Nicaraguan folklore, calling it a “masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.”

The play begins with a conversation in which the Spanish Governor Tastuanes orders the Sheriff to forbid singing, dancing, and entertainment of any kind within the Royal Municipality, because the people are suffering through a period of serious poverty. At the same time, he orders that no one enter the province without his permission.

The Sheriff blames the poverty on a so-called “Gueguense” (wise man) that lives in the area, and orders that the Gueguense be brought to him immediately. The Sheriff introduces himself to the Gueguense as a servant of the Governor. The Gueguense has already heard of the Governor’s orders, but pretends to understand that the Sheriff is looking for a calf or a colt.

When the Sheriff speaks to him, the Gueguense treats him as a servant. The Sheriff corrects him and tells him he must “fly” to meet with the Governor. “Running and Flying?” says the Gueguense. “How does he want a poor old man, suffering from continuous pain and calamities to run and fly? My friend, Sheriff, what does the goldfinch do that sits at the entrance of Governor Tastuanes door?” The Sheriff answers “Sing and entertain the big lords”.

Then the Sheriff offers to show him how to greet the Governor. The Gueguense agrees to take the lesson, but he makes fun of the Sheriff’s request of payment for the lessons with a series of jokes and puns. Finally, he agrees to pay the Sheriff once he has received the promised instructions.

The Sheriff recites the words of greeting, which the Gueguense pretends not to understand, but rather repeats similar phrases that would be considered impolite to the Governor. The Sheriff gets impatient and begins repeating what he has to say, but the Gueguense continues making fun of what the Sheriff is trying to teach him and continues to change its meanings.


The best examples of Nicaraguan folklore can be found in the music and dance performed during towns’ patron-saint festivities. These folkloric celebrations of patron saints combine the Spanish colonial influence with indigenous celebratory elements.

Among the best-known folklore dances are:

• Gigante
• Bailes de Negra
• Toro Huaco
• Bailes de Húngaras
• Guegüense
• Bailes del Mestizaje
• Toro Venado
• El viejo y la vieja
• El Tinco
• El Atabal
• Chinegro
• Promesantes
• Palo de Mayo
• Los Zompopos

•culled from

What Is the Capital of Delaware?

The Delaware State Capitol Building, Dover.
The capital city of Delaware is Dover.

The capital of Delaware is the city of Dover. Delaware is categorized as the 2nd smallest state amongst the fifty states of USA. Despite its small size, the state has a high population density coming 6th in the list for densely populated states in the USA.


The capital of Delaware was initially in New Castle but was transferred to Dover in the year 1777. The main motive for this was to locate the capital of Delaware in a more secure place where raiders would not access it easily. The central position hence made Dover the ideal location for the capital. Back in the early days, Dover central square was home to numerous rallies of all types from political to religion to social gathering as well as other types of events.


Dover falls under the category of state capitals not served by the interstate highways. However, it has developed several transportation routes and linkages for road transport. Air transport is also available in the capital with the capital having an air force base of its own. Rail transport is also present in Dover as it is located along the former Pennsylvania railway line. The municipality heads led by the capital mayor have put their best forward to provide necessary amenities to the businesspersons and residents in the capital. The capital is graced with a mega healthcare facility, the Bay-health Medical Center, that provides both inpatient and out-patient services to the residents. Dover is also home to a number of colleges and universities.

By Chelangat Faith

•culled from

Wednesday 29 January 2020

What Is The Religious Composition Of The Population Of Delaware?

Christianity is the dominant religion in the
state of Delaware. © Shutterstock
Protestant Christianity the most popular religion in Delaware.

Delaware is a state in the US that has a population of 971,180 inhabitants according to a study carried out in 2018. The state of Delaware allows her citizens the individual’s right to practice the religion of their choice. Due to this religion has become an integral part of Delaware’s identity and culture. 42.5% of Delaware’s population is religious. However, some areas are far more likely to attend religious services than others. The following are religions found in Delaware: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, and the Baha’i faith. Scandinavian and Dutch Reformed first settled Delaware.

Religious Composition Of Delaware


Christianity is by far the largest religion in Delaware. These Christians identify themselves as either Protestant, Catholics or Mormons. More than half the Christians are Protestants, 23% are Catholic, and 2% are Mormon. Among the first churches were Holy Trinity Church, Barratt’s Chapel, Church of England, and the First Baptist Church among others. The Chester-bethel church which was established in 1780 has the oldest Methodist congregation which continuously gathers in Delaware up to this day. Holy Trinity Church was built in 1698 becoming the first church in Delaware.


In Delaware, Islam is an established religion however the exact number is not known. It has a sizable Muslim population and at least five mosques. There is an Islamic society in Newark that has the largest Muslim community following in Delaware. They hold communal prayers to provide an opportunity to learn Islam meet other Muslims and pray in congregation. They have also established Muslim schools such as Tarbiyah Islamic School of Delaware which gives the students a focus on Islam and practical activities.


Hindus are the second largest non-Christian group in Delaware. Population growth of Hinduism can be associated with the increased immigrants from India. They are drawn to Delaware by jobs in technology and medicine. Hinduism increased 116% between 2000 and 2010. American Hindus are considered to have the highest rates of household income as compared to other religions.


Buddhists represent the largest non-Christian religious bloc in Delaware. Buddhism originated from Asia. 1% of the population of Delaware identify themselves as Buddhists.


Judaism was introduced in Delaware by the Jewish fur traders. They formed the first Jewish organization called the Moses Montefiore Society which served as a religious, educational, and charitable organization. The first synagogue, the Reconstructionist Synagogue, was founded in 1954. They have contributed to the state in arts, science, business, medicine, and law. The Jewish population was estimated to be approximately 15,100 in 2017.

Baha’i Faith

Baha’i faith is not as widespread in Delaware as it is in South Carolina where there are more practitioners of the faith. The regional Baha’i council of the Atlantic states coordinates the regional efforts to expand Baha’i, analyzes approaches to carry out growth plans, and promotes neighborhood among other activities.

Role of Religion in Delaware

Presence of many religions in Delaware makes the dominance of one faith impossible. The various faiths largely tolerate one another because they face common problems.

By Nigel Amaya

•culled from

The Largest Cities In Delaware

Wilmington, the largest city in Delaware.
Wilmington is the largest city in Delaware.

The U.S. state of Delaware is located in the Mid Atlantic region of the country. With a population of around 952,065 (2016 estimate), Delaware is the 6th least populous American state. It has an area of 5,046.7 square km which makes it the 2nd smallest state by land area. Delaware has 3 counties (New Castle, Kent, and Sussex) and 57 incorporated places including cities, towns, and villages. While Wilmington is the largest municipality in the state, the smallest one is Hartly. The latter has only 71 residents living in an area of just 0.16 square km.

The Biggest Cities In Delaware

1. Wilmington

With a population of 70,851 individuals, Wilmington is Delaware’s most populous city but the 5th least populated city in the US. It is located in New Castle County at the confluence of two rivers, the Brandywine River and the Christina River. Wilmington was established at the site of North America’s first Swedish settlements called Fort Christina. The city is a major financial center in the US and has a thriving credit card industry. Other important industries active in the city include retail banking, insurance, and legal services.

2. Dover

Dover, the second most populous city in Delaware, is also the capital of the state. Dover hosts a population of only around 36,047 individuals. It is located in the Kent County and also serves as the county seat of its county. Dover is located on the banks of the St. Jones River in the coastal plain formed of the Delaware River. The state and county governments are the largest employers in the city. Apart from the governments, the Dover Air Force Base also provides significant employment to the city’s residents. The manufacturing facilities of Procter & Gamble and Kraft Foods are also located in the city.

3. Newark

Located in the New Castle County of Delaware, Newark is the third biggest city in the state. As of 2010, the city had a population of 31,454 individuals. Newark was founded in 1694 by the Welsh and Scots-Irish settlers. It was chartered as a town in 1758 by King George II of Great Britain. The University of Delaware is located in the city and is one of the largest employer’s of Newark.

4. Middletown

With a population of 18,871 individuals (2010 census), Middletown is the fourth most populous municipality in Delaware. The town is located in the New Castle County at an elevation of 66 feet. Middletown is the fastest growing area in the state. It experienced a population boom between 2000 and 2010 when its population grew by 206.3%. It hosts several affluent housing developments, national food chain and retail stores, an Amazon fulfillment center, and more.

5. Smyrna

With a population of 10,023, Smyrna is Delaware’s fifth most populated urban area. It was named in 1806 after the ancient seaport in Greece called Smyrna. The territory of the town spans across the Kent and New Castle counties. Smyrna developed as a hub of shipping along the Duck Creek but is currently an important agricultural center in the state.

By Oishimaya Sen Nag

•culled from

Tuesday 28 January 2020

What Is The Ethnic Composition Of Delaware?

People on the beach boardwalk in Delaware.
White Americans account for over 60% of the population of Delaware.

Delaware is the 6th least populous state occupying a land area spanning 5046.7 square kilometers. Delaware is home to 971,180 inhabitants in 2018. Delaware is comprised of many ethnic groups. Before the European colonists settled in Delaware, the area was occupied by Algonquian native peoples. Today, the major ethnic groups of Delaware are white (Hispanic or non-Hispanic), black, Chinese, Filipino, Native American, mixed, and others. Delaware has seen an increase in its population since 2000. The population of people of Asian background and Hispanic background doubled in size while the population of black Americans increased by 36%. The white population increased more gradually by 11%.

The Ethnic Composition Of The Population Of Delaware

White Americans comprise the majority of the population in Delaware at 74.6%. The population is 584,773 people. White people in Delaware considered either Hispanic or non-Hispanic.
The population of African Americans in Delaware is 150,666, or 19.2% of the whole population. Delaware is one of the top 10 US states with the highest number of black Americans.

Asian-Americans in Delaware number 16,259 comprising 2.1% of the Delaware population. People of Asian heritage have become one of Delaware’s fastest-growing minority communities.

There are about 7,000 people who identify as Chinese in Delaware. There are 4,100 Native Americans in Delaware.

There are around 3,300 people of Filipino heritage living in Delaware. People who identify with one or more race account for 1.8% of the whole population which is about 9,533 people.

Future Population Predictions

Forecasters predict that by 2060, Delaware will rank as the 14th most diverse state in the country. The population of Delaware is expected to reach 1 million by 2020.

By Nigel Amaya

•culled from

Monday 27 January 2020

Discovering the Caribbean: Montserrat’s Masquerade Dance

Caribbean history and culture is woven together with influences from countries across the globe but the region is often seen as detached from the rest of the world. How much do we really know about the cluster of islands we call the Caribbean?

The Discovering the Caribbean series hopes to enlighten, surprise and inspire you with interesting stories and facts from across the Caribbean, so you too can appreciate and understand this unique part of the world.

We begin our journey of discovering the Caribbean with a gem of an island: the Caribbean’s ‘Emerald Isle’, Montserrat. A shared name is not the only connection between this volcanic Caribbean country and Ireland: the many Irish refugees that settled here in the early 17th century have heavily influenced Montserrat’s culture. This remains evident today with Irish names for many people and places throughout Montserrat, yet one of the most significant manifestations of this cultural connection is the beautifully mysterious masquerade dance.

Masquerade in and of itself is not unique to Montserrat, drawing parallels to similar customs across the Caribbean, such as the jonkonnu festival held in various countries. However, the way in which the dance is performed in Montserrat is distinctive to this particular island.

A fusion of African and European cultural influences, the dancers dress in bright and colourful garments adorned with assorted accessories including mirrors, whips, ribbons and the most crucial aspect of the attire, the mask itself. The mask is a tall headdress resembling a face with a ‘hat’ similar to a bishops mitre, like the one worn by Saint Patrick in some depictions.

The purpose of the masquerade dance is to pay respect to Montserrat’s ancestors, some of whom were slaves of Irish plantation owners. The dance is an expression of protest against the oppression of the slave-owners, which included the outlawing of slaves’ African customs of drumming, dance rituals, and folk traditions of worship and healing. Despite the efforts of the slave owners, these aspects of their identity were never truly lost: they survived throughout the years despite being banned from public practice.

As the slaves observed their masters at parties and celebrations, either through the windows or while serving food at such events, they began to emulate the European folk dances they saw, in the way colonial subjects have often been reported to imitate the practices of those in power. Dancing was a form of entertainment for these slaves, mocking their owners with parodies and imitations, but it was also an important means of cultural communication. For example, the dances would often refer to malevolent ‘jumbie’ spirits, ghostly beings that control those who do evil and remind others to do good, though jumbie dances were also performed to help cure diseases, exorcise curses or discover guilt. Throughout these dances, the slaves wore masks to disguise their true identity and escape punishment at the hands of their masters.

Today the Masqueraders incorporate many symbolic elements in their performances. They wear their masks of course, but every other aspect of their attire also has a vital role in paying homage to their ancestors. Though the precise meaning behind many of these features is not entirely clear, the whip represents how the masters used to control the slaves, with the dancer holding the whip controlling the other dance movements, while the ribbons are said to symbolise freedom, flying openly through the air.

Even the music reveals a distinct cultural fusion: the fiddle and fife are of European origin while the drums, maracas and other percussion instruments are of African and Latin American origin.

Furthermore, the performers’ dance itself is a mix of these various traditions. Western movements are incorporated, namely the Irish ‘jig’, the heel and toe polka, and the quadrilles, similar to square dancing, but these European folk steps are blended with African traditional dancing and festive dress to create new art forms for a variety of celebrations, including the Christmas break from plantation work.

There is no better time to see this display than the week of Saint Patrick’s Day, when the people of Montserrat celebrate not only the life of St. Patrick but also commemorate an historic slave revolt that took place on the St. Patrick’s Day of 1768. The slaves had hatched the plan for an island-wide assault while the slave-owners were celebrating the holiday period. House slaves were to seize all weapons from Government House, and field slaves storm the building with rocks, farm tools and homemade swords. Despite the three to one numerical advantage of the slaves, the plot had been leaked and the local authorities were prepared for the attack. Though the rebellion failed and nine slaves were hanged in punishment, Montserratians today rightly see fit to commemorate their bravery in the face of injustice.

The masquerade dance remains a vivid reminder of the complex history of Montserrat, as different cultures converged and clashed, but in the process created new and profound expressions that are treasured as part of the unique Montserratian heritage.

Author: Jerome Harewood.

•culled from

Sunday 26 January 2020

Major Religions in Connecticut

A church in Litchfield, Connecticut.
Christianity is the religion of the majority in Connecticut.

Connecticut is an American state located in the nation’s New England region, and it spans an area of about 5,567 square miles. According to the US Census Bureau, it was estimated that in 2017 the state was home to about 3,588,184 people. Despite being one of the smallest states in the US, Connecticut has one of the highest median household incomes in the country. Religion played a significant role in Connecticut’s history as the Puritans, a Christian denomination, were among the first communities to establish a colony in the region. Religion still plays an important role in the state as a significant portion of the population, more than 70%, claimed to belong to a particular faith.


According to a survey carried out in 2014 by Pew Forum, 33% of the residents of Connecticut identified as Roman Catholics. According to historical records, the first Catholic mass in Connecticut was conducted in the town of Lebanon. In 1881 a celebration was held in the town of Hartford in St. Peter's Parish to mark a hundred years since the first Catholic mass was held in the state. The Catholic Church in Connecticut has constructed many elementary schools and high schools such as the St. Paul Catholic High School and the Notre Dame High School which contribute to improving the education standards in the state. Despite the rich Catholic history in the state, according to Pew Forum, a high number of Catholics in the state are leaving the faith due to some reasons primarily the moral conduct of the priests.


Protestants form a significant majority of Connecticut’s population as in 2014; they comprised roughly 35% of the total residents. One of the first groups to settle in the state’s borders belonged to a Protestant sect referred to as Puritans who were fleeing the religious persecution prevalent in England at the time. Religion formed an integral part of the lives of early Puritan communities in the state as it dominated both their social and political lives. The main Protestant groups in Connecticut are Mainline Protestant and Evangelical Protestants with Mainline Protestants occupying the largest portion at approximately 17%. Evangelical Protestants make up about 13.5% of the state’s Christian community. Evangelicals who follow the Baptist tradition make up about 5% with other notable evangelical groups being the Pentecostal and Restorationist families. The most widespread Mainland Protestant group in Connecticut is the Congregationalist families. One of the Protestant churches in Connecticut, The First Cathedral situated in the town of Bloomfield, has the distinction of being the largest church building in the New England area.

Other Religion in Connecticut

Due to the influx of migrants from other regions, some religions have taken root in Connecticut. About 3% of the people in Connecticut identify as Jews with large populations living in areas such as West Hartford and Greater New Haven. Other religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism also have adherents in the state.

Religious Intolerance in Connecticut

During Connecticut’s history, residents did not believe in religious tolerance as only people who belonged to the Puritan faith were welcome in the colony. However, the US Constitution ensures that the religious freedom of every citizen is respected ensuring that residents from different faiths can live in the state.

By Benjamin Elisha Sawe

•culled from

The Largest Cities In Connecticut

Hartford, Connecticut.
Bridgeport is Connecticut's largest city.

The Northeastern US state of Connecticut is home to a population of 3,574,097 individuals (as of 2010). It is located in the New England region of the country. The fundamental administrative level in Connecticut is the New England town. 169 towns are present in the state. Of these, 19 have been chartered as cities. Connecticut has the highest HDI and per-capita income in the county. Here is a list of the largest cities in Connecticut.

The Most Populous Cities In Connecticut


A historic seaport city, Bridgeport is the largest city in Connecticut. It is located in Fairfield County where the Pequonnock River drains into the Long Island Sound. The population of the city is around 144,229 individuals. It is New England region’s 5th most populous city. Previously a thriving industrial center, Bridgeport’s economy is currently primarily service-based. Two hospitals present in Bridgeport, the St. Vincent's Medical Center and the Bridgeport Hospital, are the largest employers in the city.

New Haven

With a population of 129,779 people, New Haven is Connecticut’s second biggest city and the country's first planned city. It is located in the New Haven County on New Haven Harbor along the shore of Long Island Sound. New Haven was founded in 1638 by English Puritans. It now hosts the prestigious Yale University. It is the largest employer and taxpayer in the city. Other important economic sectors of New Haven are biotechnology companies, professional services, financial services, retail trade, etc. New Haven is often regarded as the Cultural Capital of Connecticut since its houses many museums, music and theater venues, etc.


The capital city of Connecticut is Hartford, its third largest city. Located in the Hartford County, the city hosts a population of 124,775 individuals. Due to a large number of insurance companies headquartered in Hartford, the city is often nicknamed as the "Insurance Capital of the World”. The city, founded in 1635, is one of the oldest cities in the country. The country’s oldest publicly funded park, Bushnell Park, is located in this city. The oldest public art museum, the Wadsworth Atheneum, is also in Hartford. Mark Twain, the renowned author, also lived here and completed some of his most famous works in the city.


The fourth largest city in Connecticut, Stamford, hosts a population of around 122,643 people. It is located in the Fairfield County of the state. The city has a thriving economy. It has the second largest financial district in the New York metropolitan region after New York City itself.


The fifth largest city in Connecticut, Waterbury, is located on the Naugatuck River’s banks. It is located in the New Haven County and has a population of around 110,366 individuals. It is New England’s 9th largest city and the 10th biggest city in the New York Metropolitan Area.

The Largest Cities In Connecticut

Rank City County Population

1 Bridgeport Fairfield 1,44,229
2 New Haven New Haven 1,29,779
3 Hartford Hartford 1,24,775
4 Stamford Fairfield 1,22,643
5 Waterbury New Haven 1,10,366
6 Norwalk Fairfield 85,603
7 Danbury Fairfield 80,893
8 New Britain Hartford 71,254
9 Bristol Hartford 61,353
10 Meriden New Haven 59,653

By Oishimaya Sen Nag

•culled from

The Ethnic Composition Of The Population Of Connecticut

The state of Connecticut has a diverse population.
The state of Connecticut is slowly becoming more ethnically diverse.

Connecticut is a US state which is on the southern parts of the New England region. It is surrounded by Long Island Sound, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York. According to the 2010 census, the state had the top median household income, HDI (Human Development Index), and per-capita income in the country. The most highly populated city in Connecticut is Bridgeport, and its capital is Hartford. It is the fourth most densely populated state in the United States and the twenty-ninth most populous state in the country. The state is slowly becoming more ethnically diverse. From 1990 to 2010, the percentage of the population identifying as White dropped from 87% to 77.6%.

History of Connecticut

The first settlers in this region were Dutchmen who developed a small settlement known as Fort Hoop. Over 50% of the state was previously part of the Dutch colony, and during the 1630s the English developed the first main settlement in the territory. Thomas Hooker led a group of settlers from Massachusetts to this place and helped create the colony of Connecticut. Other settlers from Massachusetts established the New Haven and Saybrook colonies. These colonies were merged in 1662 to create a crown colony known as Connecticut.

Demographics of Connecticut

The estimated population of the state by July 1, 2015, was 3,590,886, which was a 0.47% increase since 2010. Connecticut had a growth of approximately 16,789 people from 2010 to 2015 which included a natural growth of about 67,427 people (154,795 deaths and 222,222 births). It also included an increase due to the net-migration of 41,718 individuals. Immigration from other countries resulted in a growth of about 75,991 residents while relocation within the United States created a net loss of approximately 34,273 individuals.

The population is fairly evenly divided between the sexes with males representing 48.4% and females representing 51.6%. When looking at age, 13.8% of the residents are over 65 years old, 24.7% are below 18 years of age, and 6.6% are under five years. In 1790, 97% of the population was classified as rural. The 2010 census classified only 12.3% of the residents as rural.

Ethnic Composition of Connecticut

As of 2010, over 77.6% of the people living in Connecticut identified as White, and this included White Hispanics (6.4%) and non-Hispanic Whites (71.2%). The largest non-White population is the Latinos or Hispanics representing 13.4% of the state's population followed by African Americans of Blacks at10.1%. The state also has smaller populations of Asians (3.8%) and Alaska Natives or American Indians (0.3%). The percentage of Whites in Connecticut decreased from 87% in 1990 to 77.6% in 2010 while that of Blacks increased from 8.3% to 10.1% during the same time period.
Over 11.4% of the residents were foreign-born in 2004. English is the dominant mother-tongue with 81.69% of the residents aged five and above speaking English in 2010. Other languages include Polish (1.2%), French (1.31%), Italian (1.59%), and Spanish (8.42%). The biggest ancestry groups in the state are Italians (19.3%), Irish (17.9%), English (10.7%), German (10.4%), and Polish (8.6%).

Religion of Connecticut

A pew survey of the state in 2014, confirmed that Catholics adherents in the state had dropped from 43% in 2000 to 33% in 2014 while the number of Protestants had increased from 27% to 35%. The number of Jews had decreased from 3.2% in 2000 to 3% in 2014. The number of non-religious individuals grew to 28%. Other smaller denominations in Connecticut include Muslims, Hindu, Buddhist, Mormons, and Eastern Orthodox among others.

By Geoffrey Migiro

•culled from

Saturday 25 January 2020

Son, Ranchera and Mariachi Musical Styles in Mexico

Blend Images - Jeremy Woodhouse/Brand X/Getty Images
Mexico has a musical history that is full of many different musical styles and influences, such as music from the Aztecan indigenous culture, music from Spain and Africa, songs from ranching life or festive mariachi bands.

Mexico's Rich Musical History

Dating back more than a thousand years before any contact was made with Europeans in the 16th century, the area was dominated by the Aztec culture, a culture that maintained an important and complex musical tradition.

After Cortes’ invasion and conquest, Mexico became a Spanish colony and remained under Spanish dominion for the next two hundred years. The music of Mexico incorporated their Pre-Columbian, Aztecan roots together with Spanish culture. Then, add a third dimension to the mix, the music of the Spanish-imported African slaves to the land. Mexican folk music draws from all three of these cultural influences.

Mexican Son

Son Mexicano means "sound" in Spanish. The music style first appeared in the 17th century and is a fusion of music from indigenous, Spanish and African traditions, much like the Cuban son.

In Mexico, the music exhibits lots of variation from region to region, both in rhythm and instrumentation. Some of these regional differences include son jarocho from the area around Vera Cruz, son jaliscenses from Jalisco, and others, such as son huasteco, son calentano, and son michoacano.


Ranchera is an outgrowth of son jaliscenses. Ranchera is a type of song that was literally sung on a Mexican ranch. Ranchera originated in the mid-19th century just before the Mexican revolution. The music was centered on traditional themes of love, patriotism, and nature. Ranchera songs are not just one rhythm; the style can be like a waltz, polka or bolero. Ranchera music is formulaic, it has an instrumental introduction and conclusion as well as a verse and refrain in the middle.

Mariachi Origins

We tend to think of mariachi as a style of music, but it's actually a group of musicians. There is some disagreement about where the name mariachi comes from. Some music historians believe that it is derived from the French word mariage, meaning "wedding," and indeed, mariachi groups still form an essential part of weddings in Mexico.

An alternate theory posits that the word comes from a Coca Indian word that originally referred to the platform on which the orchestra performed.

A mariachi orchestra is composed of at least two violins, two trumpets, a Spanish guitar, and two other types of guitars, the vihuela, and guitarron. The charro suits, or ornate horseman suits, worn by the band members are attributed to General Portofino Diaz who, in 1907, ordered the poor peasant musicians to don these outfits in order to look good for a visit by the U.S. Secretary of State. The tradition has lived on ever since.

Mariachi Evolution

Mariachis play many different types of music, although the style is closely tied to ranchera music. Originally mariachi and ranchera music was mostly about romantic themes, but as the Mexican economy worsened, the haciendas could no longer afford to have their own mariachi band on the premises and they let the musicians go. As a result of unemployment and harder times, the mariachi began to change themes singing about revolutionary heroes or current events.

By the early 20th century, mariachi previously known only through their various regional styles began to coalesce into a uniform musical genre, one that became recognizable throughout all of Mexico. That was due, in large part, to musicians Silvestre Vargas and Ruben Fuentes of the mariachi group "Vargas de Tecalitlan" who made sure that the popular music was written down and standardized.

In the 1950s, trumpets and a harp were introduced to the orchestra, and that instrumentation is what we can currently find in mariachi bands of today.

By Tijana Ilich

•culled from

Friday 24 January 2020

Rara Started With The Talking Drummers

In those days, when there was nothing like the modern stage which we have today. I mean, modern stage with light effects, props and costumes to enhance theatrical performance, the talking drummers were always having their ways at shows putting up shows that were always attracting their audience from everywhere. No modern buildings called theatres today that time. Their shows were always put up on the roads and streets.

They were unique in both drumming and singing at the same time which is lacking in our today's young talking drummers. The talking drummers then had access to oral tradition which they made use of quite a lot during their performance. As a matter of fact, they were very deep rooted in oral tradition hence they would be chanting, singing and drumming at the same time using the three qualities to woo and enhance their performance.

What is known as Rara today started with the talking drummers. What is Rara? It is a Yoruba term used to the describe the 'call and respond style' used most often during their musical shows. The drummer beats something on his drum and he uses his mouth to interpret it. This style is very common in music today and it has become a universal acceptance in music.
Rara was the style used in those days by versatile talking drummers to make their performance magical and thrilling whenever they needed to do it.

Their instruments are namely Gudugudu, Omele Ako, Omele Abo and Iya Ilu. The ensemble perform for kings, chiefs, marriages, namings e.t.c. Sometimes, a man playing the big maracas  with the drummers is made to interpret what the talking drummers are saying. He chants, sings and dances to uniquely statue the all attentive audience watching and enjoying their performance with keen interest. But all in all, it still falls within what is known as Rara today.

In one of my musical works, I made use of the 'call and respond style' from the beginning of the song to the end. Rara is depicted in our rendition of the song. This is to show the beauty of Rara in song writing, composing and singing. This video explains it better.

Conclusively, Rara is a musical style which musicians are consciously or unconsciously using today. And homage should be paid to the travelling drummers who started it a long time ago. We pay homage to the first talking drummer! Agalu a gbe wa o!! Ase!!!

By Olalekan Oduntan

Thursday 23 January 2020

What Is The Religious Composition Of The Adult Population Of Colorado?

Saint Catherine of Siena Chapel, better
known as Chapel on the Rock.
64% of the adult population of Colorado are followers of Christianity.

The US state of Colorado is located in the west-central region of the country. It is home to a population of around 5.54 million individuals. The racial and ethnic makeup of this state is as follows: White (81.3%), Hispanic (20.7%), African American (4%), Asian American (2.8%), and Native American (1.1%). At least 7.2% identify as a different race and 0.1% identifies as Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander. In addition to the racial and ethnic diversity of this population, the residents of Colorado are also diverse in terms of religious identification. This article takes a closer look at the religious composition of the adult population of this state, according to the Pew Research Center.


The majority of the adult population of Colorado (64%) identifies as a follower of Christianity. The Christians in Colorado are predominantly white (71%) and between the ages of 18 and 49 (55%). The educational demographics as reported by these individuals is as follows: high school or less (34%), some university (33%), university (20%), and post-graduate education (13%). The majority are married (61%) and most (66%) are not parents.

Of the adult Christians in Colorado, over one-quarter (26%) report following the Evangelical Protestant sect. The Evangelical movement is considered multi-denominational and its doctrine relies heavily on the idea of spiritual rebirth. Its origin dates back to the late 18th century. In Colorado, Evangelical Protestants are predominantly white (77%) and between the ages of 18 and 49 (58%). Their educational level tends to be below a college degree, 37% report having a high school education or less and another 36% report having received an incomplete college education.

The second largest Christian group (16%) identifies as Catholic. One of the central ideas of this church is the Apostolic succession of its bishops, a name used to refer to one of its religious leaders. Catholicism is recognized for its long-lasting influence over the development of the majority of the world. This percentage of individuals identifying as Catholic represents a decrease from the 2010 results, when the number of Catholic followers was larger. This decrease could partially be explained by the relatively small sample size of the most recent survey.

Other Christian sects in Colorado include (as a percentage of the total Christian population): Mainline Protestant (15%), Black Protestant (2%), Mormon (2%), Orthodox (1%), Other (1%), and Jehovah’s Witness (less than 1%). Mainline Protestant refers to a variety of Protestant denominations that may include: Methodist, Baptist, Lutheran, and Quaker to name a few. The term Black Protestant refers to a Protestant church that has traditionally been attended primarily by African American worshippers.


The second largest religious identity in Colorado are those who identify as non-religious or unaffiliated with a particular religion. Approximately 29% of the adult population of this state report this religious identity. The non-religious category is divided into 3 parts: those with no particular belief system (20%), agnostic (5%), and atheist (4%). Agnostics believe that humans lack sufficient scientific evidence to determine if a supernatural deity actually exists or not. Atheists, in contrast, do not believe that the existence of a supernatural deity is possible.
The non-religious adults in Colorado are predominantly white (75%) and between the ages of 18 and 49 (64%). The level of educational attainment as reported by these individuals is: high school or less (32%), some university (35%), university (21%), and post-graduate education (12%). Only 45% of these individuals report being married and another 35% report having never been married. Just over one-quarter of non-religious individuals in Colorado (26%) are parents.

Minority Religions

Of the adult individuals polled by the Pew Research Center, 5% identified as belonging to a minority religion. These minority religions include Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and others. Of these denominations, the Jewish and Buddhist faiths have the largest following, each with 1% of respondents under this category. Islam and Hinduism each have less than 1% of the adults in this category. Approximately 2% of respondents identified as belonging to some other world religion. The majority of the adherents to these minority religions can be found living in the Denver metropolitan area, which is the capital of Colorado. Of these groups, the Jewish population has most likely been in this state for longer than the others, with records of their arrival dating back to the Gold Rush era of the late 19th century.

Religious Behavior In Colorado

The 504 respondents in this poll were asked questions about both their religious identity and their religious behaviors. For example, adults were asked about how certain they are of the existence of a god. To this, 55% of respondents claimed to be absolutely certain of their belief in a god. This was followed by: fairly certain (23%), not too certain (7%), don’t know (1%), do not believe at all (10%), and not sure (3%). Additionally, 47% of the adults polled responded that religion plays a very important role in their lives. Around 28% answered that religion is only somewhat important to them, 12% said it is not too important, and 13% said it is not important at all.

Of those individuals who identified with some type of religion, only 30% reported attending a religious event or service once a week. An additional 31% reported attending once a month or a few times every year, while 38% said they never attended religious services. The act of praying, however, seems to be more commonly practiced with 50% of respondents claiming to participate in prayer at least once a day. Around 28% of the group reported never or rarely ever praying. The vast majority of adults who identify as religious in Colorado also responded that they rarely ever get together in religious study or prayer groups. Only 18% of respondents said they attend these groups at least once a week.
In terms of the spiritual beliefs, thoughts, and attitudes held by Colorado adults (whether religious or not), 55% of individuals polled claimed to feel a sense of spiritual well-being most of the time. Additionally, 47% of respondents reported feeling in awe of the universe on a weekly basis. Around 43% of Colorado adults rely on their innate sense of right from wrong to guide them through their daily lives, rather than on spiritual or religious scripture.

By Amber Pariona

•culled from

The Population Of Colorado

Cyclists in downtown Denver, Colorado
The population of Colorado was 5,456,574 on July 1st, 2015, as per estimates made by the United States Census Bureau.

The Population Of Colorado

Colorado is a western state in the US. The name Colorado is a Spanish word meaning ‘colored red.' The state is also referred to as ‘The Centennial State’ because it was established on the 100th Anniversary of American Independence. The state is famous for its mining industry and Agriculture. The people of Colorado are referred to as Coloradans.

Current Population Of Colorado

According to the Census Bureau of the US, the population of Colorado was 5,456,574 as of July 1, 2015. Out of the total population, 23% of the residents are below 18 years while 13% of the residents are over 65 years. Men outnumber women by a small margin. The population of men constitutes 50.3% of the population while women make up 49.7%. Whites are the dominant race and represent 87.5% of the population. African Americans are the leading minority race at 4.5% of the population. Asians make up 3.2% while Natives make up 1.6% of the total population.

Origin And Growth Of Colorado's Population

The earliest occupants of Colorado were hunters who lived 20,000 years ago. In around 100BC, Basket makers moved to South Western Colorado where they grew corn and squash. By 800AD, Pueblo Indian had settled in Colorado and practiced advanced farming and pottery-making. Pueblo Indians built apartment-like structures in the Colorado canyons. Spanish explorers moved to the southeastern region of Colorado in the 17th century. In 1858, multitudes of Americans moved into Colorado following reports of a gold strike in Cherry Creek. Subsequently, mining towns such as Blackhawk, Central City, Gold Hill, Boulder, and Colorado City emerged. The 1860s witnessed conflicts between Indian and white settlers. Colorado was established as a state in 1876. Establishment of rail lines, refineries, and coalfields attracted immigrants from as far as Germany and Russia. Another boom in the oil and mining industry in the 1980s attracted more immigrants from other states.

Religion Of The People Of Colorado

Lutherans, Methodists, and Episcopalians were among the earliest settlers in Colorado. Later, Spanish settlers in the 18th century brought Roman Catholic religion to Colorado. Currently, Protestants make up the largest religious group at 44% of the population. Roman Catholics comprise 19%, Mormons 3%, Jews 2%, Muslims 1%, while Buddhists and Hindus make up 1%. 25% of the population is not affiliated with any religious group.

Ethnicity Of The Population of Colorado

Colorado is a state of multiple ethnic groups. In 2010, the whites including white Hispanics were 81.3% of the population of Colorado. The blacks comprised 4.0%, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander were 0.1%, other races 7.2%, and two or more races (Multiracial Americans) were 3.4% of the total population of Colorado. Most of the Whites have German ancestry. Whites of Swiss ancestry and Austrian origin also make up the Non-Hispanic Whites.

Sources Of Livelihood Of The People

In the 19th century, Colorado was famous for its booming mining and oil industry. Mining and oil are still huge contributors to the Colorado economy. Advanced agriculture is another important sector particularly in the adaptation of farming technology. Tourism and real estate are major income earners for the state. Denver, Colorado's capital city, is a financial hub. Furthermore, several famous brands have their factories and headquarters in Colorado. Colorado is known for raising cattle, dairy goods; sheep are some of the commercially important activities. The crops common in Colorado include corn, wheat, hay, and Sugar beets. From the 1950s, manufacturing has played a significant role as a source of income in the state. Other major industries of Colorado include food processing, manufacturing of computer equipment, transportation equipment, aerospace products, printing and publishing, electrical equipment, and chemicals among others.

The Population Of Colorado

Rank Racial composition 2010

1 White (includes White Hispanics) 81.3%
2 Black 4.0%
3 Asian 2.8%
4 Native 1.1%
5 Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander 0.1%
6 Other race 7.2%
7 Two or more races (Multiracial Americans) 3.4%

By Benjamin Elisha Sawe

•culled from

Wednesday 22 January 2020

What Is The Ethnic Composition Of Colorado?

The city of Denver, Colorado.
The largest demographic groups in Colorado are white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and more.

The US state of Colorado is located in the southern side of the Rocky Mountains. In terms of population, the state had an estimated 2016 population of about 5,540,545 people, which makes it the 21 st most populous state in the US. Compared to the census of 2010, the population had increased by around 10.17%. Denver, which is also the capital, is the most populated city of the state.

Data from 2016 shows that 3,796,733 people in Colorado are white, which translates to about 68% of the entire population. The second largest ethnic group is Hispanic at 1,181,218 people (about 21%). The black population of Colorado is 220,728, or around 4% of the state's population.
Some of the biggest ancestry groups in Colorado include Germans, Austrian, Swiss, Mexican, Irish, English, Chinese, Vietnamese, and more.

Languages in Colorado

While English is the most spoken language in Colorado, Spanish comes in second place. There is only one Native American language that is spoken in Colorado, called Colorado River Numic.

Religion in Colorado

The majority of the population of Colorado is protestant Christian, representing around 44% of the population. Other sizeable religions include Roman Catholic, Mormon, Eastern Orthodox, Jewish, Muslim, and Buddhist. A growing number of people living in Colorado do not affiliate with any religion. They represent nearly one-third of the entire population.

By Ferdinand Bada

•culled from

Tuesday 21 January 2020

Music & Dance In Jamaica

Mento and Folk. © Google
find Reggae Roots and Culture in your holiday rhythm.

Come and discover the island through our endless amounts of great music. From rocksteady to reggae and island “riddims,” hear for yourselves why we’re the peaceful and world-changing paradise we are today.

Music is at Jamaica’s heart. Every pulsing beat pushes forth the creativity and soul of a bold, strong and resilient people.

There is no beat that is too difficult to complement with the art of movement; no tune that doesn’t make us groove. No condition that we cannot master through the rhythm and word combination. We feel the vibrations, we live the lyrics and we redefine our space and place with music.

Jamaican music is world famous, not only for making you want to sing along and shake your hips, but also for being a powerful tool for ‘change.’ Although Reggae is commonly used to define Jamaica’s music, the island’s traditional or folk music is rich – heavy with the substance of African rhythms and collective experiences – and has continued to evolve into an extraordinary legacy. Drawing from several different influences, our music reflects the tides of the time with the sounds and rhythms, each possessing its own distinctive beat.

Folk is the earliest music form in Jamaica and remains one of the most influential aspects of our heritage. Its beat shakes social barriers and unifies our nation with its intensity and ingenuity. Its power to heal, inspire and incite makes it an essential part of the Jamaican identity. The music is characterized by three main groups – tunes for work and entertainment, religious melodies, and dance music. Each group has its own harmony, but all share a commonality in the types of accompaniments used, primarily the drum and small wind and string instruments.

Towards the turn of the 20th century we soaked up calypso, tango and samba, fusing to create a vibrant Jamaican music form called Mento. Its medley of banjos, hand drums, guitars and rhumba boxes created a fascinating beat with light-hearted and often times comical lyrics.

Ska. © Google
Awaiting our Independence during the 1960's, we became saturated with optimism. Filled with high hopes and huge dreams, Ska’s buoyant jazz rhythms, though influenced by American Rhythm and Blues, became Jamaican naturalized. Everywhere you went it was ska, ska, ska! When the sound hit abroad, it spread like wild fire through London’s underground scene, scoring ‘big time’ with Millie Small’s ‘My Boy Lollipop’.

The ‘giddy-up’ bug took a hiatus, the music beat slowed and a heavy bass emerged in the 1970’s. Social messages were turned into song. Dance moves became languid and ‘rude boys’ found kinship with the new sound that epitomized the times. This was Rock Steady but this epoch was transitory, for it had to make way for the inevitable scorching, rebel music – Reggae!

Reggae. © Google
Reggae is Jamaica’s most internationally recognized music and the heartbeat of our people. The music form has undergone a series of phases including Roots, Ragga, Dub, and Dancehall. Nevertheless it remains a primary platform used by Jamaican artistes to express their thoughts on social and political conditions. Still, Reggae in its purest form continues to dominate. Bob Marley’s posthumous greatest hits compilation, ‘Legend’, has sold over 15 million copies and he was awarded the Grammy Life Time Achievement Award for 2001. TIME Magazine named Marley’s ‘EXODUS’ the best album of the 20th century, and his song ‘One Love’ was adopted by the British Broadcasting Corporation as its Millennium Anthem.

As a genre, reggae music reverberated with the dispossessed.  Jamaican legends Burning Spear, Bunny Wailer, Bob Marley, Dennis Brown and Peter Tosh helped to shape the music form. The sounds dominated the recording studios, filled record shops, bellowed from sound systems and reigned supreme at street dances. Jamaicans from all walks of life descended on downtown lawns and halls and various night clubs to ‘level the vibes’.

Reggae music is synonymous with both hardship and a good time, both the endurance of and the celebration of overcoming a struggle. The feel-good experience of reggae music blaring from sound system speakers is had both at the local corner store and a major reggae festival. Closely linked with the Rastafarian religion, reggae invokes a sense of upliftment and an appreciation of life in all its forms. It's music for the people.

Reggae remains popular on the international scene from roots rock to dancehall. It has gained success abroad and has been credited for the birth of the popular American genre, ‘Hip-Hop’. Modern artistes continue to fuse the reggae rhythms with other music forms to create new sounds, infusing their messages and spreading cool island vibes. Without doubt, Jamaica has left an indelible imprint on the musical landscape. Our music continues to uplift and inspire, possessing that natural groove that keeps you feeling good.

Dancehall. © Google
Dancehall is one of the most prominent forms of reggae that has found much favour with the younger generation. It emerged in the late 80s and early 90's as an outgrowth of reggae.  The high energy and hardcore ‘riddims’ capture the vibrant popular culture from the slangs to fashion and dance moves. The experience of local street dances and 'dance halls' equipped with sound systems and stereo boxes stacked high is unlike any other entertainment event in the world. Hardcore lyrics toasted over computerized ‘riddims’, deejay clash (face offs), sound systems and new dance styles and fashion statements are standard trademarks. Deejays’ reputations are built on their prowess for versatile rhymes, catchy new phrases and their ability to ‘ride’ a riddim. Popular deejay acts ‘King’ Yellowman, Shabba Ranks, Shaggy, Beenie Man, Buju Banton, Lady Saw, Capleton, and Bounty Killa attained celebrity status and became the keepers of young Jamaica’s hype.

Dancehall is credited as the predecessor of Hip Hop music and is a popular choice as the undercurrent of today's top billboard hits. Though easily experienced anywhere on island, the city of Kingston has drawn visitors from far and wide, eager to learn the latest dance moves at a weekly street dance. If reggae is music for your soul, dancehall is music for your feet.

Come Experience It

The National Dance Theatre Company showcases Jamaica’s colourful history and contemporary ideas, while groups like the Jamaica Folk Singers and University Singers perform traditional song and dance that honour the country’s past. Kingston's lively theatre scene offers a rich variety of locally themed and topical plays. A hallmark of Jamaican theatre is the Ward Theatre’s LTM Pantomime- an annual Jamaican folk musical with original song and dance and dramatic costumes. The season opens each year of December 26th and runs for several months.

Join us at any of these annual music festivals and events.

Accompong Maroon Festival. © Google
The Accompong Maroon Festival is a cultural celebration that commemorates over 200 years since the signing of the peace treaty between the Maroons and the British. The festival marks the victory of the First Maroon War against the British in which they fought for their freedom, led by their late...

Emancipation Jubilee. © Google
Jamaica’s rich culture and heritage will be celebrated during the 21st staging of the Emancipation Jubilee at the Seville Heritage Park in St. Ann. The annual event, will be held from July 31 into Emancipation Day on August 1. Emancipation Jubilee honours the contribution of our ancestors through...

Jamaica Music Conference. © Google
Gearing up for its 7th staging, JMC brings an industry invested in and/or enamored with the sounds and culture of Jamaica to its shores for authentic cross-pollination experiences. The 4-day intensive conference encompasses community service opportunities, authentic nightlife, fun in the sun across...

Reggae Sumfest. © Google
The year 2020 marks the 28th anniversary of Jamaica's biggest summer reggae festival, Reggae Sumfest. The event has 6 nights of activities which will include an All White Blitz party, A Sound system Explosion, Beach Party along with the main concert nights. Reggae Sumfest is known for electrifying...

•culled from

Monday 20 January 2020

Religious Beliefs In California

Saint Ignatius church in California.
California has the highest number of Roman Catholics in the US.

California is the most populated state in the United States, with an estimated 39 million people living within its borders. With a population of this magnitude, diversity is displayed, particularly when it comes to religion. Being home to representatives of virtually every race on the planet, the state of California has Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims, Mormons, and Atheists.

Protestants - 32%

Protestants make up the largest religious group in California with about 32% of the population subscribing to the faith. There are more than 200 mega churches in the state with some dating back to the late 19th century. Some of the most famous Protestant churches in California include Hillsong LA, Tapestry Church LA, and the Renew Church.

Catholics - 28%

Until 2000, Catholics formed the most significant part of the population in the state of California, but now the Protestants have the largest following, however, California still has the largest number of Catholics in the whole of the United States making up 28% of the population. The Catholic faith has been part of California for 250 years and has been growing stronger over the years. Some of the most majestic and historical edifices in California are Catholic churches with the most notable one being the Serra Chapel located in San Juan Capistrano that was established in 1776. Others include the National Shrine of St. Francis of Assisi and the St. Timothy Church.

Non-Religious - 27%

The third largest group in California is incidentally made up of people who are not affiliated with any known religion. This group makes up about 27% of the total population of Californians. A survey conducted by the Pew Research Center revealed that California has one of the highest numbers of atheist, non-affiliated theists, and agnostics.

Jews - 3.2%

California is home to more than 1 million Jews which makes it the second state with the largest population of Jews after the state of New York. Jews make up 3.2% of the population. Some of the iconic synagogues include the Beth Jacob Congregation located in Beverley Hills and Temple Israel in Stockton.

Muslims - 1%

Muslims make up 1% of California’s population which, despite their low numbers in comparison to the other religions is still the highest number of Muslims by any state. Most of them live in the San Diego area. Besides being home to the most number of Muslims, the state of California has the highest number of mosques among all the states.


Other religions prevalent in California include Buddhism, Shinto, Sikhism, Hinduism, and Taoism that became part of California thanks to the Asian emigrants who constitute a sizeable percentage of the population. California is also home to the 2nd largest number of Mormons after the state of Utah. Mormons trace their origin back to the 1800s which is the time they came from Brooklyn to make San Francisco their new home. About 780,000 Mormons live in California.

By Benjamin Elisha Sawe

•culled from

The Richest Cities in California

Santa Clara, California is home to Silicon Valley.
Santa Clara has the highest household median income out of all cities in California.

California is the largest state in the US with a population of about 40 million and its economy is dominated by trade, farming, science and technology, and media. The majority of economic activities is concentrated in the coastal cities of the state while the inner regions of the state are largely focused on farming. The strongest economic areas are located around Los Angeles where tourism, media, and trade play a significant role. Other regions include San Francisco where the major economic drivers include trade, technology, and tourism. The state of California is located as a coastal state where it plays a significant role of trade movement in and out of the United States. By 2018, the economic output of the state of California was only surpassed by the US, Japan, China, and Germany. Its economy is now larger than the economy of UK, and if it were a country, it would be ranked as the 5th largest in the world. Some of the richest cities in the state of California based median household income include the following.
California's Richest Cities

Santa Clara

Santa Clara city is found in the county of Santa Clara in California. The city had a population of 116,468 people in 2010. Now it has a population of 1,841,569, and a population density of 1,427.3 per square mile ranking as the 6th most populous city in the whole of San Francisco bay area. The city is about 45 miles to the south-east of San Francisco and was founded in 1777. Santa Clara was incorporated as a city in 1852 and is located in the center of the Silicon Valley, and several high tech companies have headquarters in the city which include giants such as Intel. The city is among the richest in California and has a median household income of $93,854 and per capita income of $42,666.


The city of Marin is a Census-Designated Place (CDP) and unincorporated community located in Marin County, California in the US. It is approximately 1.5 miles to the northwest of downtown Sausalito and almost five miles north of the city of San Francisco from the Golden gate bridge. It started as a housing community in 1942 where houses were built to accommodate the shipyard workers and other migrants in the state of California. Among the migrants were the African Americans who moved from the south during the great migration which went on until the 1970s. In 2010, the population of Marin city was about 2,666, but now the population is about 56,802 with a population density of 493.4 per square mile. The city is regarded as one of the richest in the state of California based median household income with income standing at $91,529. By 2010, the racial composition of the city of Marin was made up of 38.9% whites and 38.1% African Americans and approximately 14% Hispanic community.

San Mateo

San Mateo in the County of Mateo in California is situated in the high-tech region of the Silicon Valley found in the San Francisco Bay area. San Mateo is a Spanish name for Saint Mathew, and in 2016 the city of San Mateo had a population of 103,959, and presently the population stands at 739,837 translating to a population density of 1,649.7 per square mile. The city was incorporated in 1894, and it is now one of the largest 300 cities in the US. It is the third richest city in California based on median household income which stands at $91,421. The economy of San Mateo is highly diversified with most jobs being found in healthcare, technology, government, financial services, and retail trade. Some of the companies found in the city include Fisher Investment, Franklin Templeton Investments, GoPro, Roblox, SolarCity, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Solstice Netsuite, and Marketo, which are also the biggest employers in the city.

San Francisco

San Francisco is a Spanish name which means Saint Francis. The city of San Francisco is located in the county of San Francisco, and it is a financial, commercial, and cultural center in northern California which occupies an area of approximately 46.89 square miles. It is the 4th most populous city in California and the 13th most populous in the whole country. The city is also ranked as the 5th most densely populated urban area in the US after the five New York City boroughs as of 2016. The city of San Francisco was the 7th with the highest income in the country of $110,418 per capita personal income. The city was founded 1776 and is one of the richest cities in California based on median household income which is $78,378. The population of San Francisco is 829,072 people with a land population density of 1,768.01 people per square mile. During the gold rush of 1849 in California, there was a rapid growth of population in the city making it one of the largest on the west coast at the time. It became a consolidated city-county in 1856, and in 1906 about three-quarters of the city was destroyed as a result of the earthquake which led to a fire breakout. However, the city of San Francisco was rebuilt almost immediately to host an international exposition some few years after the earthquake.


The city of Ventura also serves as the county seat of Ventura County in California, and the region was inhabited for several thousands of years, and the earliest Europeans explorers encountered the Chumash or the Shisholop villages in the Pacific coast, who had exceptional navigation skills. Ventura is part of Los Angeles metropolitan area, and it is considered one of the richest cities in California based on household median income which stands at $77,335.

Population of Cities in California

The state of California has three cities with populations exceeding 1 million people, and 72 cities with populations varying from 100,000 to 1 million people. There are 300 cities with populations ranging from 10,000 and 100,000. The largest city in the state is Los Angeles with a population of slightly less than 4 million people. It is also the most populated city in California and the second most populous in the whole country.

The Richest Cities in California

Rank City Median Household Income

1 Santa Clara $93,854
2 Marin $91,529
3 San Mateo $91,421
4 Contra Costa $79,799
5 San Francisco $78,378
6 Ventura $77,335
7 Orange $75,998
8 Alameda $73,775
9 Placer $73,747
10 Napa $70,925

By Benjamin Elisha Sawe

•culled from

What Is the Population of California?

Pedestrians on Pier 39 in San Francisco, California.

There are an estimated 39 million people living in California.


The United States Of America

California is the third-largest American state by land area and the most populated . The population of California is estimated to be 39 million people. The exact population estimate is 39,557,045. This is a higher population than countries like Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Poland, and Morocco.

The state’s $2 trillion economy is bigger than that of Florida, and Texas combined and larger than the economy of any American state. California would have the world’s fifth-biggest economy if it were a country.

Population Growth

The population of California grew by 6.18% from 2010 (37,253,956 people) to 2018 (39,557,045 people). California’s population is projected to exceed 40 million by 2020. The number of residents in California increased by 3,090,016 people (5,058,440 births minus 2,179,958 people) from 2000 to 2009. A research conducted by the Manhattan-Institute for Policy-Research confirmed that over 3.4 million Californians have migrated to other American states since 1990. A huge percentage of Californians migrated to Arizona, Nevada, and Texas.
The second-most highly populated sub-national region in the western Hemisphere is California. It is the third-most highly populated sub-national entity outside Asia. The county of Los Angeles is more-populous than 42 American states. Four out of the top 15 highly populated American cities are from California.

Ethnicity Of California's Population

California is a multicultural and a multiethnic place. The largest ethnic group in California is white (including Hispanic white), accounting for 72.7%. The next largest ethnic group is Asian (15%) followed by Black (6.2%).

Languages Spoken In California

The de facto and de jure official language of California is English. About 57.02% of Californians over the age of 5 years used only English at home while 42.98% used another language by 2010. Other than English, there are more than 16 languages being used in California as the primary languages by over 100,000 Californians. The second most spoken language in the state is Spanish. California has the highest Chinese and Vietnamese speaking populations in the U.S. and third-highest Tagalog-speakers. Historically, California has been the most linguistically diverse place of the planet with over 70 Inidigenous languages.

What is the Population of California?

Rank Place Population

1 California 39,557,045

By Geoffrey Migiro

•culled from

Saturday 18 January 2020

California: Best Places to Live

Santa Barbara, California.
San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Los Angeles are among the top places to live in California.

The United States Of America

California is the most populated state in the US, and it's easy to see why. The state has great weather, gorgeous beaches, and friendly people. It also has the largest economy in the country. Silicon Valley, the technology capital of the world, is located there. These cities offer some of the best quality of life in the Golden State.

10. San Luis Obispo

San Luis Obispo is located halfway between Los Angeles and San Francisco. Founded in 1772 as a mission station, the city quickly grew and became a popular stop on Route 101 and opened the first motel in the world in 1925. SLO enjoys 300 days of sunshine in a year and has stunning natural beauty, making it an obvious choice for a place to live. The city is also home to some of the top-ranked schools such as the California Polytechnic State University. SLO has an excellent culture and entertainment scenes with incredibly big theaters. The unique lifestyle makes it one of the best places to live in California.

9. Santa Barbara

The coastal city of Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County. It is located between the Pacific Ocean and the steeply rising Santa Ynez Mountains. Santa Barbara one of the most popular destinations for tourist in the state. Its economy consists of a large service sector, healthcare, technology, education, manufacturing, agriculture, and finance. The cost of living is generally high in with rental homes costing an average of $1,400 per month. The city is served by Santa Barbara Airport and several train services.

8. Los Angeles

Southern California’s sprawling metropolis has a lot to offer for both its visitors and residents. From the Hollywood Walk of Fame to a number of iconic Hollywood production studios, the city is the capital of the country’s booming film industry. Los Angeles also ranks highly for its numerous modern amenities and a stable housing market. The city is also perfect for outdoor activities. With a population of about 4 million people, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California. Owning a home there costs an average of $825,000.

7. Irvine

Irvine is a small city in California, located in Orange County. It is one of the safest and wealthiest cities in the US, boasting of a booming job market, safe environment, and amazing weather. Irvine has constantly featured among the “Best Places to Live,” with the AreaVibe claiming that it is “exceptionally livable.” Irvine has numerous amenities and companies including over 200 Fortune 500 companies. The quality of education is top-notch with notable universities such as the University of California and the Irvine Valley College. Irvine also happens to be the 3rd happiest places to live in the US according to WalletHub.

6. San Francisco

From the iconic cable cars to the Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco is among the most beloved cities in America. The city is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Northern California. With a population of approximately 883,300 residents, San Francisco is California’s 4th most populous and the US’ 13th most populous city. The city is known for its bustling urban environment, thriving job market, and high-class restaurants. It was named the 4th happiest place to live and 34th best city for job seekers in the US. San Francisco has a stable housing market, cool weather, high income per capita, and numerous high-class amenities.

5. San Diego

San Diego is the state’s second-largest city with a population of approximately 1.4 million residents. San Diego is considered one of the best places to live in the world because of several factors including the warm climate, magnificent beaches, and outstanding amenities. This global tourist center has an amazing nightlife, especially in the Gaslamp Quarter. The city offers a wide range of outdoor activities, healthy job market, and high-quality life.

4. San Jose

San Jose has a population of approximately 1 million residents. According to the latest study by WalletHub, the city is the US’ second happiest place to live in. San Jose has a strong job market with endless opportunities for its population. The sunny weather makes it even more attractive, especially for tourists. The city boasts of a stable housing market with a median listing price for a home being $788,000.

3. Santa Rosa

With a population of 175,000 residents, Santa Rosa is the largest city in the Redwood Empire and the 5th most populous in the San Francisco Bay Area. Located north of San Francisco, the city boasts of sunny weather, fabulous shopping centers, and amazing restaurants. It also has high-end amenities such as schools, healthcare, and entertainment joints. Santa Rosa is ranked the 9th happiest place to live in the US because of the physical and healthy emotional well-being of its residents.

2. Los Altos

Los Altos is a city in northern Silicon Valley with a population of approximately 29,000 people. It was originally an agricultural city with a number of summer cottages and apricot orchards. However, Los Altos is now an affluent town with commercial zones, office park, and shopping area. The median household income in the city was $208,300 (2013-2017). In 2018, it was ranked the 5th wealthiest city in the US by the American Community Survey. Los Altos has a strong job market with top employers including the Los Altos School District and Whole Foods Market.

1. Piedmont

Piedmont, located in Alameda County, has a population of approximately 12,000 residents and is considered one of the best places to live in California. The city offers its residents an urban feel and most of the residents own their homes. Piedmont has plenty of bars, coffee shops, restaurants, and parks. Public schools and health care centers are highly rated and offer world-class services. The residents tend to be liberal and are always ready to assist strangers. The median cost of owning a home is $1.7 million while the median rent is $2,930.

By John Misachi

•culled from
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