Thursday 30 June 2022

Meet The Indigenous Igbo people of Kogi state

Kogi state shares boundaries with Anambra and Enugu states. That explains why the indigenous Igbo people in Kogi are found majorly in the Eastern part of the state, they have close proximity with the Igala people.

Some Igbo-speaking communities in Kogi state are:

1. Akpanya community in Igalamela/Odolu Local Government area all speak Igbo. Everyone born and bred in the town speak Igbo fluently.

2. Eke Avurugo in Ibaji Local government.

They speak Igbo as their first indigenous language and Igala as their second language.

3. Ugwuebonyi, Ebokwe, Ozara, Amaeke, Amankpo, Amauwani camp, Amaokwu, Amadiefioha, Amaufulu, etc. all in Igalamela/Odolu Local Government Area of Kogi State are Igbo-speaking communities.

4. Nwajala, Umuoye, Ubulie-Umueze in Ibaji Local government area of Kogi state.

5. The Odolu community in Igalamela/Odolu local government area of Kogi state is said to speak Igala as first language and the Nsukka Igbo dialect as second language.

6. Onicha-Igo is a small town in Ofu Local Government Area of Kogi state with indigenous Igbo people.

Wednesday 29 June 2022

Ile-Ife is the Oldest Kingdom in Nigeria, Not Bini

Ile-Ife Kingdom is the Oldest Kingdom in Nigeria and 2nd oldest Kingdom after Sahelian kingdom of Ghana in West Africa which was recorded from 11th century.

Some historical evidence prove that Ile-Ife was 4th Century while others said Ile-Ife has been in existence in the history of mankind, and the proof shouldn't be known to anyone or recorded.

Greek Historian, Herodotus, the father of History who lived from 4824 BC until 424 BC said about Ife: " According to history there were five ancient cities in Africa between 3000 and 1000 BC of which one was Ife".

According to BBC UK, The kingdom of Ife developed in the rainforest in the 600s. Its art and religion influenced the culture of Benin, which began in the 900s and reached the height of its power between the 1400s and the 1600s.

Between 700 and 1600, there were three great empires in the centre of West Africa: Ancient Ghana, Mali and Songhai.They all grew immensely rich by trading in gold. One of the last great kingdoms was Asante. It was founded around 1700. The Asante people were famous for their work in gold.

The Bini Kingdom that was later destroyed by the British was formed in 1170CE. Bini Kingdom was a neighbouring Kingdom to Ile-Ife Kingdom, and this is why in the history of bini today, the Ruler that established Obaship in bini was from Ile-Ife (Olumense 1971) etc.

The largest ethnic in West Africa sources from Ile-Ife ranging from Nigeria, Benin Republic, Ghana, Gambia etc. The root of some of these ancient tribes in West African countries were traced to Ile-Ife.

Father of history Herodotus, put in his record that the Europeans only attacked Bini kingdom due to disagreement, it is not that there are no other neighbouring kingdoms. If there were no neighbouring kingdom, then the prince of Ile-Ife wont be invited by bini people to rule over their land.

Ile-Ife remains where it is today in a place now called Western  Nigeria, but we can see majority of tribes even outside Nigeria tracing their roots to ile-ife. History reveals that Ile-Ife has been existing before historian started putting it in record. Ile-Ife wasn't created by any ruler or king. It was a forest before it was established by the inhabitant and records were taken.

By Prof. Omodion Imafidon

Nigeria, West Africa.

Tuesday 28 June 2022

History of Egbado People of Ogun State

The Egbado appear to have migrated - possibly from the Ketu, Ile-Ife, or Oyo - to their current area early in the 18th century.

Egbado towns, most importantly Ilaro, Ayetoro, Afon, Imeko, Ipokia and Igbogila, were established in the 18th century to take advantage of the slave trade routes from the inland Oyo empire to the coast at Porto-Novo.

Other towns were Ilobi and Ijanna, which were strategic in protecting the flanks of the slaving routes. The Egbados' were subject to the rule of the Oyo kingdom, which managed them via governor Onisare of Ijanna.

The Oyo were unable to deploy their cavalry force to protect the routes, due to tsetse fly and lack of horse-fodder and thus had to rely on the Egbado people to manage the routes.

The historians Akinjogbin, Morton-Williams and Smith all agree that by the early 18th century this route to the coast was heavily engaged in slave trading, and that slaves were the mainstay of the Oyo economy.

The Egbado later achieved a fragile independence after the fall of the Oyo kingdom, but were subject to frequent attacks from other groups such as the slave-raiding Dahomey (who seized, among others, Princess Sara Forbes Bonetta), and various tribes who wished to force open their own slave-trading routes to the sea.

Ilaro and Ijanna towns had been destroyed by the 1830s. By the 1840s the Egbado had come under the control of the adjacent Egba group, who used the Egbado territory to forge routes to Badagry and the port of Lagos.

By the 1860s the Egba abandoned the route because the British were actively using their formidable navy to try to abolish the slave trade. Consequently, the Egba expelled British missionaries and traders from the area in 1867.

After 1890 the Egbado asked for a British protectorate and got a small armed garrison, thus becoming independent of the Egba. The area became part of the British Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria in 1914, as Egbado Division in Abeokuta Province.

The administrative headquarters were later transferred away, after the creation of the new Ogun State subsumed the old Abeokuta Province.

The modern Egbado/Yewa:

In 1995 the Egbado chose to rename themselves the "Yewa", after the name of the Yewa River that passes through the area they inhabit. They are primarily agriculturalists, but there is some artisan and textile processings.

They are located mainly in the areas of: Ado-Odo/Ota, Ipokia, Yewa South, Yewa North, Imeko Afon, and part of Abeokuta North.

There were complaints that the system of patronage and nepotism in Nigerian politics has caused the area to be neglected in terms of investment[citation needed].

The area developed a popular style of music, called Bolojo, in the 1970s. The population level is uncertain, but may be around 400,000.

Tribute To The Yoruba

People often assume the Yoruba are so successful as an ethnic nationality due to their thirst for education, and how it has penetrated down even amongst their remotest rural communities. But study them. Their culture of respect opens doors for them that even education cannot open. Diplomacy gives them supremacy.

And their culture is often mistaken for what it is not by others who do not understand them as a people. What some people ignorantly call cowardice, or sycophancy, is stooping to conquer. It is both a military and diplomatic strategy.

This is what Scripture meant in 2 Corinthians 10:4 “The weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty”. Wisdom, courtesy, diplomacy, and praise are all weapons. A weapon is anything you can use to achieve your strategic objective. It does not always have to be a physically offensive weapon.

But are the Yorubas even cowards, as some people accuse them to be? Well, let us let the facts speak for themselves.

In the history of Nigeria, only two men have returned to Nigeria to face almost certain death even when they had the option of a very comfortable political asylum abroad. Both of them are Yoruba. In 1985, General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida toppled the Buhari regime while Major General Tunde Idiagbon (mixed Yoruba/Fulani) was at Mecca yet Idiagbon returned.

In 1995, Olusegun Obasanjo (pure Owu Yoruba) was accused of planning a coup by the blood thirsty tyrant, Abacha (if you do not like that truthful description of Abacha or if you believe that 'Abacha did not loot', you can go and join him where he is) while he was away in Copenhagen.

He was informed by the then US Ambassador, Walter Carrington, that Abacha meant to arrest, try and execute him, and was offered political asylum in the United States.

He returned to face almost certain death.

What more example of bravery can there be than these two shining ones.

Furthermore, there is the apocryphal example of Colonel Francis Adekunle Fajuyi who chose to die with the then Head of State, Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, rather than abandon his guest, which he was at liberty to do.

In addition to the above, in my opinion, they are the least likely to maintain and retain their cultural values, when it clashes with other cultures.

I love how they retain their full culture when they travel abroad. It is a rarity amongst Africans. When you visit London, you may be confused if you think Yoruba is the only African language in existence.

A Yoruba man can enter a quiet bus and receive a phone call and speak in Yoruba, and won’t feel embarrassed. And I am not referring to a Johnny Just Come. I am referring to second generation Yorubas who were born and brought up in England,

I have been traveling the world from childhood, yet I have not encountered people doing that with much wider spoken African languages, such as Swahili and Hausa.

They may speak it privately in their homes abroad. but not publicly, and even if they do, it is not to the extent of the Yoruba.

It has gotten to the extent that the Metropolitan Police now recruit Yoruba speaking Constables, and Harrods now employ Yoruba speaking cashiers. Oh please do not just take my words at face value. Fact check me.

Go to Houston on a Sunday, you will see Yoruba people everywhere in their native wears, adire, plus abeti aja and eleti aja.

Here in California, other Africans now draw crowd to their parties by saying ‘the Nigerians will be there.’ 

This will annoy other tribes, including mine, however, when foreigners talk about how cool Nigerians are, they are usually referring to Yorubas.

Take it or leave it, but the Yoruba are the most progressive Black people on the face of planet Earth.

They produced the first Black African Nobel laureate for an academic category (Wole Soyinka), and the first Black African military ruler to have voluntarily handed over to a civilian President (Olusegun Obasanjo), and the first Nigerian to win a Grammy Award (Sade Adu) as well as the first person born and bred in Africa to have won a Pulitzer Prize (Dele Olojede).

The reason why Yorubas are the biggest music stars of Nigerian origin is because they are unabashedly Yoruba. They do not try to sing or act like Westerners. They are very in-your-face with their Yoruba-ness. And when people like themselves to such a high degree, others tend to join them in liking them.

There are an estimated 15 Black billionaires on Planet Earth. Three of them are Yoruba. More than any ethnic nationality in Africa.

US President, Joe Biden, named a Yoruba man, Adewale Adeyemo, as deputy Treasury Secretary. This is the highest position to which a Black African has been appointed (not elected) in US history. Another Yoruba man, Dr. Oluyinka Olutoye, became the first person on Earth to successfully perform a surgery by taking out an unborn fetus from its mother’s womb and putting it back after the surgery.

77% of all Black doctors in America, and a very large percentage of these are Yoruba.

I commend the Edekiri people (the real name of the Yoruba). You guys are oni te si iwaju.

#TableShaker #RenosNuggets

By Reno Omokri


Military conflict in Nigeria and Cameroon (1804–1808). The Fulani War of 1804–1808, also known as the Fulani Jihad or Jihad of Usman dan Fodio, was a military conflict in present-day Nigeria and Cameroon. The war began when Usman Dan Fodiyo, a prominent Islamic scholar and teacher, was exiled from Gobir by King Yunfa, one of his former students.

Usman Dan Fodiyo assembled an Islamic army to lead a jihad against the Hausa Kingdoms of north Nigeria. The forces of Usman Danfodiyo slowly took over more and more of the Hausa kingdoms, capturing Gobir in 1808 and executing Yunfa. The war resulted in the creation of the Sokoto Caliphate, headed by Usman Danfodiyo, which became one of the largest states in Africa in the 19th century. His success inspired similar jihads in Western Africa.


The Kanem-Bornu Empire had been powerful in the area from the mid-18th century. The result was the decline of a number of independent Hausa kingdoms throughout the region. Which been defeated by Sheikh Al'amin El-kanemi Two prominent Hausa kingdoms were Gobir and Zamfara. Also Kanem-Bornu empire largely defeated and captured Usman Dan fodio and prison him However, warfare between the Hausa states and with other states were constant for the latter 18th century, resulting in a harsh system of conscription and taxation. And he was later released by Sheikh Al'amin Elkanemi  The Fulani, a largely pastoral people, were often the victims of Hausa taxation, land control, and other feudal practices.

Lead up to war

Usman dan Fodio, born in 1754, joined a growing number of traveling Islamic scholars through the Hausa kingdoms in the 1770s and became quite popular in the 1790s. Originally, dan Fodio's preaching received the support of the leadership of Gobir; however, as his influence increased and as he began to advocate for self-defense arming by his followers, his favor with the leadership decreased. Sarkin Gobir Nafata, the king of Gobir, placed a series of restrictions on dan Fodio's preaching. In 1801, Sarkin Gobir Yunfa, a former pupil of dan Fodio, replaced Nafata as king of Gobir. However, Yunfa increased the restrictions on dan Fodio and exiled him from Gobir to the village of Degel. A crisis developed later in 1803 when Yunfa attacked and captured many of the followers of a group associated with dan Fodio. Yunfa then marched the prisoners through Degel, enraging many of dan Fodio's followers, who attacked the army and freed the prisoners. Yunfa gave dan Fodio the option of exile before destroying Degel, which led to the large-scale hijra of dan Fodio's community to Gudu. So many people went with dan Fodio throughout the state that on February 21, 1804, Yunfa declared war on dan Fodio and threatened punishment to anyone joining him. Followers of dan Fodio declared him to be the Amir al-Mu'minin, commander of the faithful, and denounced their allegiance to Gobir.


Several minor skirmishes preceded the forces meeting at the Battle of Tsuntua. Although Yunfa was victorious and dan Fodio lost a number of men, the battle did not diminish his force. He retaliated by capturing the village of Matankari, which resulted in the battle of Tafkin Kwattoa, a major action between Yunfa and dan Fodio's forces. Although outnumbered, dan Fodio's troops were able to prevent Yunfa from advancing on Gunu and thus convince larger numbers of people to join his forces.

In 1805, the forces of dan Fodio, the jihadists, captured the Hausa kingdom of Kebbi. In 1807 the jihadists had taken over Katsina whose ruler, Magajin Halidu, committed suicide following the defeat. They then captured the Sultanate of Kano whose king (Muhammad Alwali II) was forced to flee to Zazzau, then the village of Burum-Burum where he was soon killed in battle. In 1808, the jihadists assaulted Gobir, killing Yunfa in the battle of Alkalawa, and destroying large parts of the city. Furthermore Abdullahi dan Fodio also took over the Kebbi Emirate the same year.

With the capture of Gobir, the jihadists saw that they were part of a wider regional struggle. They continued with battles against a number of Hausa kingdoms, and the Sokoto Caliphate expanded over the next two years. The last major expansion of the jihadists was the toppling of the Sayfawa dynasty in 1846.

Monday 27 June 2022


Whosoever has this Odu has to be careful with the witchcraft from the people who want to destroy him, throwing him out of the door and windows of his house.

Ifa warns that if such a person has possession of so much wealth, he/she should not despise the poor so that his/her luck will not go away. Which means the witches told Olodumare that his children mustn't display his or her wealth in public.

Ifa warns that such person has to be careful when navigating the rivers, because he or she can lose his or her life in it. You will have to sacrifice so that nothing happens to you because you have phobia for the river and be careful so that you won't go back to Orun (die) through the river.

Ifa warns the person to be very careful with his or her health.

Ifa warns the person against bad or shameful deeds. He or she has to be careful of an embarrassment that can cost him or her his or her life.

Be careful not to get hit in the face or in the eyes with badly placed sticks in the house.

It is commanded not to fight with your spouse so as not to lose luck.

All promises made must be granted. And never ever make the promises you will never fulfill.

Odu Iwori Otura

(1) This Odu advises the client that he or she should seek advice in everything that is to be undertaken, so as not to have losses.

(2) Ifa says the elders should be respected and heard. Always listen to the advice of your parents most especially your mother in order to avoid being destroy.

(3) Ifa sees health and economic situation i.e health or economy challenges.

(4) Ifa says go and feed OLOKUN to achieve happiness and prosperity.

(5) Ifa talks about meeting a woman who has experienced with many adversities in her life, and that you will be her happiness.

(6) Perform ebo (sacrifice) to avoid accidents at home and on the street and most especially not to suffer from injury in the left leg.

(7) Ifa warns against being violent because you can lose your mind and destroy your home (happiness). 

(8) Ifa says that you should know that you belong to Sango, never get married to a fellow devotee of Sango or Egungun. You should wear kele (Sango necklace always). Don't  marry more than one wife, you can only have a single commitment, because more than one harms your destiny.

Sunday 26 June 2022


The Yoruba are an ethnic group of southwestern Nigeria and southern Benin Republic in West Africa who share a rich history and culture.

Here are eight interesting facts about the traditional Yoruba culture:

1. According to Yoruba mythology, all Yoruba people are descendants from the hero Odua or Oduduwa.

2. The language of the Yorubas, known as Yoruba, belongs to the Congo-Kordofanian language family. The language has many dialects, but most of its speakers are able to understand each other.

3. The Yoruba homeland is located in west Africa, with most Yoruba living in Nigeria. There are also some scattered groups in small neighbouring countries, Togo and Benin.

4. The Yoruba are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.

5. The Yoruba are a very sociable and expressive people who commemorate major events with colorful festivals and celebrations. Weddings, naming ceremonies, funerals and even housewarming parties are celebrated in a lavish and ceremonial nature.

6. As many as 20 percent of the Yoruba still practice the traditional religion of their ancestors. A large number of modern Yoruba also combine traditional Yoruba beliefs with modern day religions such as Islam and Christianity.

7. About 75 percent of the Yoruba men are farmers, producing food crops for their domestic needs. Women help plant yams and harvest corn, beans, and cotton.

8. The Yoruba present the highest rate of twin births in the world. This may be because of high consumption of a specific type of yam containing a natural phytoestrogen which may stimulate the ovaries to release an egg from each side. Twins are very important for the Yoruba; they are given special names and inspire wooden sculptures.

By: Oluwafemi Omodara


What should we honestly expect from Ifá and the orisa? What should we expect from ourselves?

Be the answer to your prayers. Be the solution to your challenges:

/!!!\ The importance of having a realistic outlook and expectation in regard to our Ifá-orisa faith and practice. /!!!\ 

Aboru Aboye. Ogbo ato asure iworiwofun. Àse.

As proud members, believers and practitioners of Ifá-orisa esin ibile [the noble way and path of Ifá and the orisa] we are fully convinced of the efficacy and power of ebo. There is no doubt that ebo and other spiritual activities bring countless temporal and spiritual blessings and benefits to our lives. But there is an unfortunate trend today in the lives of many believers and practitioners that I wish to address. That unfortunate trend is the attempt of many misguided believers to replace or substitute their own necessary responsible actions, duties and practical efforts with ebo and other spiritual practices.

Let me give you some examples of what I mean:

[1] In this world we all need money for everything. Of this there is no doubt. We need money for food, for medicine, for clothing, to secure shelter and basically to live. This is clear to everyone. What many people are not clear about, is that if you want to have money then you have to study, you have to prepare yourself with a useful skill and then you have to patiently apply it. You have to work for and earn your money with a real, dependable and honest profession or job. Money is not coming to us magically from Ifá or the Orisa! Show me the line where Ifá and the Orisa are handing out money to one and all so that perhaps I can get in line!

Money is the fruit of our study, preparation, dedication, effort, strong determination, honest industry and usefulesss towards others. Can we agree on this? I am sure we can.  But there are some devotees who think that if they just offer Ebo or offer some presentation offering to Ifá and the Orisa, that that is all that needs to be done and somehow or other, money, prosperity and riches will somehow find their way to their homes, lives and pockets! These misguided devotees just simply don’t want to work! These unfortunate and misguided ones suffer from severe allergic reactions with only hearing the words: work, industry, study, disciplined living and consistent effort! These unrealistic and lazy devotees want to benefit from the money that other people have, and that other people have had to honesty work hard for and earn! They want money, peace and prosperity effortlessly via ‘magic’. I feel sorry for these kinds of people because there are many of them. Ebo does work. But ebo and other spiritual processes are just a part of the remedy and solution to our material (temporal) and spiritual needs.

[2] There are also some devotees suffering from ill health and they want to recover their health as if by ‘magic’, by offering ebo, by initiating into Ifá or Orisa, by making offerings, by the use of the power of Ifá incantation science etc., but they don’t want to change their eating habits, they don’t want to exercise, they don’t want to change their lifestyle, they don’t want to abandon their nasty attitudes, they don’t want to stop smoking, they don’t want to give up their alcoholic abuses and other things, but they want to deceive themselves into thinking that by offering ebo alone or initiating alone or by applying some spiritual remedy alone, that this will bring health and well-being to them without them having to personally participate and involve themselves in additional complementary practical steps.

These are just two examples but I am sure we can see how many people apply this type of erroneous, delusional and lazy thinking to various problems and difficulties in their life. Such unrealistic delusional devotees with fantastical views, expect and want to enjoy financial prosperity, health and success but without doing anything significant or worthwhile to earn it. I am sad to report that there are many people in the world who are willing to take advantage of people who have this ‘magical’ and ‘effort free’ mindset, to dupe them of what little resources they had to begin with. And I am even more sad and embarrassed to report that there are even some ‘priests’ who encourage and promote this kind of thinking so that they can take advantage of these gullible and delusional people.

The things that I personally have to enjoy in life whether it be finances, home, family, career, property and good-relationships etc., I did not receive these things by virtue of luck or destiny. Neither did Ifá-Olódùmarè bestow them magically upon my life. Ifá has giving me more than I have words to express. But Ifá has given me nothing independently of my personal commitment, effort, participation, industry and disciplined living. This is a fact.

Ifá-Olódùmarè gifted me with a good measure of health, intelligence, time and countless potential opportunities, but then I had to employ and use these things with diligence, intelligence and dedication. I had to go to school, study hard and prepare myself. I had to consistently make wise and responsible decisions. I had to pay my dues so to speak, and save my ‘pennies’ for many years, and little-by-little, step-by-step and through much sweat, patience and effort I developed myself so that I would be qualified to have and enjoy the things that I have worked for and earned, through the use of the means, intelligence, time, health, opportunities etc., that Olodumare has made available to me.

I did not not just offer iwure [petitionary prayer] and ebo to Ifá and the irunmole-orisa and then sit down on my laurels to wait and see. And this is exactly what many are doing or are being convinced to do.

How unfortunate and how foolish. Ifá and the irunmole-orisa do not promise to give riches, home, good relationships and a happy life etc., to anyone as if by magic. Ifá gives you health, intelligence, inspiration, enthusiasm, asé, ideas and providential opportunities so that then you can get up and do something with the asé, the guidance, opportunities and encouragement that Ifá and the Irunmole-Orisa have manifested for you. Ifá creates occasions and opportunities for us to succeed, persevere and prevail, but we have to be dynamic active participants in our spiritual, material and financial unfoldment. Can anyone please show me the line where holy Òrúnmìlà and the other divine Irunmole are just handing out money, success, spiritual powers, homes, cars and prosperity to people? There is no line. This is not what Ifá is for, this is not what Ifá does, and Ifá has not promised to bestow special blessings and benefits upon our lives independently of our own determined commitment, preparation, diligence, responsible living and dedication. Don’t get me wrong. The workings of Ifá are extraordinary and inconceivable. In many ways the activity of Ifá is without a doubt wonderful and for lack of a better word magical. And in some instances Ifá does manifest extraordinary and immediate materializations of certain blessings under certain circumstances and special conditions, but we are not promised or guaranteed these special manifestations of Ifá for every and all things that we want or think we should have.

The Ifá program and way of success, harmony, peace, fulfillment and happiness is for us to work and live in harmony with Ifá. After we do this consistently, determinately and continuously, then Ifá will take responsibility for what we are not able to actually do and secure through our efforts and persistent industry. When we work and live in harmony with Ifá, and we live responsibly, Ifá will take up the slack for what is truly beyond our diligent ability.

I deeply care about our faith and the way people are perceiving and understanding it. I care about the true success, wellbeing and happiness of all sincere devotees. We have to be realistic and practical in our approach to Ifá, the irunmole-orisa and what we should be expecting. We should not expect Ifá and the irunmole-orisa to do for us what we can and should be willing to do for ourselves. We cannot promote a culture of laziness in the name of waiting upon Ifá and the Irunmole. We cannot promote a lazy lifestyle in the name of ‘what I am doing is what Ifá and the irunmole-orisa want me to do’.

If living a lazy, indulgent and non-productive life is what you personally think Ifá and Irunmole-Orisa want from you, and you have decided to conveniently accept this lifestyle that allegedly Ifá and the Irunmole-Orisa recommended to you, then you should not be complaining that you don’t have money to develop and fully enjoy and realize your life. You should not complain that your spiritual life, your relationships and overall quality of life is not what it should be. How else should it be, when you have decided to live an indulgent, unproductive, inconsistent and lazy lifestyle? You are eating what you have sowed and planted! If you sow and plant little or nothing what kind of return are you expecting? Why get upset about not having or enjoying what you have not earned and therefore do not have a right to, by virtue of your own decision to live an indulgent, unproductive, indecisive and lazy lifestyle? Should other hard working and responsible people be sponsoring and encouraging lazy people who live an indulgent, unproductive and irresponsible way of life by handing their hard earned income to them?

So please. Let’s not use Ifá and the Irunmole-Orisa as an excuse to live lazy, indecisive, leech like and unproductive lives. There are no lazy or unproductive Irunmole-Orisa! Let us not just sit down on our laurels and do nothing with ourselves and our lives, and then wait for the big blessing to come in ‘magically’ from somewhere just because we offered ebo or just because we made a presentation offering to Ifá and the Irunmole-Orisa, while we are refusing to take charge of our lives, and we refuse to study, educate ourselves and apply ourselves to a useful trade, skill and profession.

People today have become so lazy and bold that even without competently doing or studying anything temporal or spiritual, and without having any actual expertise in any single discipline temporal or spiritual, they dare to promote themselves as spiritual doctors! Ask them where they studied? Ask them who accredited them? Asked them who they studied under? Ask them what they really know? Ask them when and where did they graduate and who certified them? Ask them for how long they studied and what was their course of study? You will only hear the sound of silence and maybe some crickets!

So please, let us be diligent. From diligent and consistent temporal efforts we will reap great temporal rewards and blessings. From diligent and consistent spiritual efforts we will reap great spiritual rewards and blessings. Let us eschew lives of make believe, laziness and fantasy. Let us WORK continuously in harmony with our iwure, ebo and other spiritual works.

Nowhere in Ifá does Òrúnmìlà or any other irunmole-orisa recommend laziness, irresponsibility and dependence on instantaneous magical blessings and trickery to get ahead in life, to secure money, to enjoy health and to build a home and family.

Ifá teaches us to be self-reliant, energetic, wise, studious, practical and industrious. Faith and effort are an indivisible reality in our precious and wonderful Ifá faith and practice. If many understood these realities many unfortunate things, happenings and disappointments would be entirely avoided. If many embraced and promoted these clear sighted truths then all kinds of abuses, deception, manipulation and trickery would cease to be.

Let us take charge of our own lives and get to work with the blessings, backing and encouragement of Ifá and the Irunmole-orisa. Let’s put this unreal, distorted, unhealthy and exaggerated magical thinking to the side because it promotes laziness, deception and a leech like existence. Let us not deceive ourselves or others.

Aboru Aboye. Ogbo ato asure iworiwofun. Àse.

~  Awo Òrúnmìlà Mark Casillas /!!!\ A.O.M.C. /!!!\

/!!!\ Spiritual Evolution Requires Effort /!!!\

Be fearless! Advance towards spiritual perfection.

Aboru Aboye. Ogbo ato asure iworiwofun. Àse.

The authentic devotee of Ifá is easily identified by his or her moral-spiritual transformation. Ifá comes into our lives to bestow divine grace, peace, resolve, meaning, intelligence, inner-strength, purity and love.

These divine blessings and powerful endowments are given to us to enable and embolden us in our effort to pursue and gain Ifáyelele [divine awakening, harmony, fulfillment, empowerment and moral, spiritual and emotional-intellectual maturity]. The [true] follower of Ifá can be discerned by the efforts he or she makes to uproot unwholesome tendencies and habits and replace them with divine and wholesome habits.

The enlightened Ifá devotee is never content or satisfied with his or her present moral-spiritual level but is always laboring, pressing forward and exerting himself or herself to acquire new moral-spiritual terrain (continual inner-growth, virtue, understanding and purer love). An Ifá devotee delights to strive to attain ever increasing and higher levels of divine grace, sanctity, purity, character, wisdom and power.

To remain stagnant or stationary in ones moral-spiritual unfoldment is to retrogress and lose spiritual ground. A river that somehow or other becomes stationary or stagnant soon becomes the breeding ground of disease, weakness, illness, stench and death, but a dynamic and ever flowing river maintains tenacity, health, sweetness, life and vitality.  Continual advancement and unceasing joyous effort is the clarion call of Ifá to its initiates.

Until we reach the state or condition of non-retrogression [firm, solid, stable, unwavering, abiding and consistent moral-spiritual maturity] there will always be the risk, chance or possibility of losing what level of moral-spiritual advancement we have made due to negligence, complacency, lack of perseverence and lack of strong determination. Only when we run the race legitimately and cross the finish line can we be considered true (spiritual) athletes, winners, champions, warriors and masters [masters of our own self, not other people].

The mature and illuminated devotee understands that to continually grow morally and spiritually is the root, foundation and aim of all Ifá studies and practices. This spiritual process of growth and development cannot be had by proxy. Inner growth and development are obtained by personal determined effort, continual engagement, honest self-analysis and consistent exercise.

No one can give you their well and hard earned intellectual-spiritual divine capacities, intelligence, character, gracefulness and inner spiritual powers. These things cannot be bought, sold or simply given. They must be earned and acquired through personal consistent study, continual reflection and patient practice. One must qualify to obtain them. Each one must do his or her own work.

Moral-Spiritual progress is the continual fruit of diligence, persistent-work, patient-perseverance,  self-determination and personal conviction. Divine Grace empowers us and Divine Wisdom informs us but we must do the work. There are no short cuts and no possibility of skipping steps or side stepping divinely arranged lessons.

Ifá shows us the path to follow and walk upon. Ifá gives us the just measure of instruction and provides us with provisions (diverse kinds of asé) for the journey, but we ourselves must perseveringly, patiently and determinedly walk the path from its beginning to its ends by the strength and power of continual self-initiative. Ifá will walk with you but Ifá will not carry you on his shoulders and do your necessary work for you.

Ifá has one part and you have the other. You work together. Your personal effort, consecration, sustained enthusiasm, self-renewing initiative, thoughtfulness and participation are essential. This is why there is no need and no point to be made in comparing oneself to others. You do not know and cannot know the inner life, spiritual history and trajectory of anyone. You can only truly know and discern your own. We are all on our own unique and individual path. You alone are responsible for your moral-spiritual progress. You alone are responsible for your lack of moral-spiritual progress. You alone carry the responsibility to promote your own spiritual wellbeing, health and happiness.

Other qualified, empowered and mature people can help and assist you but the responsibility rests upon you. It is your choice whether you will progress or not. It is your practiced determination which will advance you forward. It is your choice and action that determines  what kind of person you are and will become. Yours alone.

Imitating others on their personal spiritual path will not help you. You have to find, discover  and discern your own authentic, original and correct personal spiritual path and you must follow it wholeheartedly irrespective of whether others approve of it or not, and irrespective of whether you will be accompanied by others or not.  No person can limit you except yourself.

The greater your personal aspiration, inspiration, ideal and insight, the more you can and will attain, if you so choose to actively pursue YOUR DIVINE IDEAL. One of the greatest secrets or greatest spiritual discoveries that all sincere aspirants eventually make is:

‘That all times, situations and/or circumstances are ideal, just right and perfect to make genuine progress and to acquire purity (singularity of purpose), understanding, virtue, divine power and deep wisdom. It is not our environment or circumstances that determines who we are and what we can and will become. It is our attitude, disposition, personal chosen outlook, determination and quality of personal self-confidence that determines our inner and outer achievements and success.’

Olodumare created us with the power of will and the ability to think and choose the path we will follow. Our will, choices and actions determine whether we are living our lives with a progressive mentality or a retarding (retrograde) mentality.

Olodumare has given us the power of self-dominance if we choose to exert it or we can relegate ourselves to the self imposed status of victims of circumstance. Do not victimize yourself and subject yourself to self-pity which is nothing more than a subtle manifestation of selfishness and laxity. Be strong. Be resilient. Know and honor your true divine pedigree and identity! We are not strong or weak by artifice. We are strong or weak by our own will and choice. By our own will we decide if we are going to be determined, successful, persevering and enthusiastic or not.

Through self-dominance we have grace, wisdom, freedom and power to master the negative and destructive emotions that arise within us. These negative, destructive potentialities and defilements that arise within us are represented by Oyeku.

We must know that we are able to receive the light, love, power and life of Olodumare within us as represented by Ogbe.

This principle of moral agency, choice and self-determination is seen in Holy Odu-Ifá Ogunda-Meji:

‘The Core Of The Tree Does Not Call For Water (was the name of the awo) who consulted Ifá for, When All Men Will Give Account In Heaven (before Olodumare).’

‘If it is good you do then continue to do good. If you engage in evil deeds immediately desist from them because the hand will speak (reveal your actions) and the leg will give account (will reveal your activities).’

‘You will account (before Olodumare) for ALL YOUR DEEDS which you practiced on earth.’

Holy Odu-Ifá Otua-Aira:

‘It is what Ifá expects of us that we should say. Let us speak (and practice) the truth.’

‘It is he that speaks (and practices) the truth that Olodumare will uphold. Let us speak (and do) the truth.’

‘It is he that speaks (and practices) the truth that Irunmole will uphold.’

‘It is he that speaks (practices) the truth that the Earth will uphold.’

Holy Odu-Ifá Ogunda-Bede:

‘Falsehood will cause the death of a liar.’

‘Treachery will cause the death of the deceitful one.’

‘Whatever we choose to do, even if it is beneath the earth’s surface (hidden from people) the (limitless) eyes of Olodumare will see them all.’

‘These were Ifá’s declaration to he who stole at midnight and said the kings of the earth would not see him.’

‘Even if earthly kings (human authorities and agencies) do not see you, the eyes of Olodumare are surely watching you.’

Holy Odu-Ifá Oyeku-Ofun:

‘Honest people are rare. Good people are rarer still. Ifá sees the intentions of the heart. Those who practice what is good, Olodumare knows who they are.’

We have been endowed by Olodumare to a remarkable degree with the ability to choose our course in this world and the quality and kind of person we will be. The essential and fundamental  nature of human beings is Ogbe (light, clarity, increase, progress, fluidity and life). But in His wisdom Olodumare has provisionally introduced the training element of Oyeku (darkness, unclarity, decrease, decline, resistance and death) as a sort of spiritual weight or sparring (training) partner so that we can exercise, develop and strengthen our moral-spiritual muscles and our intellectual-intuitive faculties.

Through the interaction and interplay of Ogbe and Oyeku; moral agency, choice, satisfying selection, achievement and intelligent effort are made possible. Through the interaction and interplay of the Ogbe and Oyeku principles the arena is set for the will to be able to exercise, develop and realize itself.

So, who are you? You are what you pursue, practice and associate with inwardly and outwardly. You are your cultivated and nurtured affinities. Our fundamental nature or essence by creation is Ogbe. This means that the root, core and foundation of our being is of the essence of actual fundamental and potential goodness. While our inner essence is goodness itself this goodness means nothing if it is not challenged, cultivated, tested or proved and intentionally appreciated and desired.

You have to want to be and actually be, by your own decisions, thoughts, choices and actions, demonstrably good. It is a fact that from apple seeds new apple trees are born and from the trees new apple fruits are obtained. But if this seed is not cared for, protected, watered and nourished it will not even become a young creeper much less a fruit bearing tree. 

Not only the seed but the soil upon which it grows must be prepared. Weeds, stones, fungus and harmful insects must be continuously removed. Even when the tree grows and matures it has to be pruned so as to ensure future productivity. The apples you eat do not reach you by chance or accident. Someone intentionally took care of the soil, of the seed, of the tree, nurtured and cultivated it.

In like manner you have to intentionally and responsibly nurture and cultivate your innate fundamental Ogbe nature. It needs to be said that Oyeku is not our enemy but a veiled friend. Oyeku can seem like a harsh and hard taskmaster but this is not the case. The heart of Oyeku is pure compassion. Oyeku holds out noble prospects for us but these must be worked for and earned. Oyeku comes along aside us and within us to challenge us and to offer us countless opportunities and occasions for moral-spiritual growth.

When we at times feel the sting of Oyeku is only because we are looking and drifting away from Ogbe. Oyeku is the strict and unwavering disciplinarian who trains us up and leads us to true freedom, the freedom of being mature, enlightened, disciplined and responsible people. Without enlisting the support of Oyeku, Ogbe cannot fulfil its task in regard to our moral-spiritual and emotional-intellectual training, development and education.

The manifestations of Oyeku like adversity, challenges, stressful situations and difficulties are for our ultimate good. It is not the fact of adversity, challenges, stressful situations and difficulties which injures us but it is our attitude, outlook and response to these that determines whether we gain benefit and advancement or experience loss and decline in our moral-spiritual development. These moments of challenge, difficulty and endurance reveal to us who we presently are and where we are in our spiritual unfoldment. They don’t make us who we are. We choose who and how we are by our attitudes and responses towards life challenges as well as by our developing perception of our own selves.

Moral-spiritual unfoldment is not glamorous or flashy. In fact one will experience many dry seasons and seemingly unfruitful seasons in ones spiritual career of divine ascent. To achieve deep inner transformation, divine gracefulness and god-like character is a work in progress which requires steady commitment, patience and perseverance especially during the dry and seemingly uneventful seasons. Steer away from superficiality and superficial (morally-spiritually uncultivated) people. Steer away from attitudes of laxity, complacency and laziness. Don’t try to jump steps or side step necessary lessons. Don’t fall into the contemporary practice of being a jack of all trades but a master of none.

Honor your life and calling. Resist the urge to be impulsive and the habit of being a people pleaser. Stop jumping around here and there and develop strong, firm and deep spiritual roots. You lament and wish there were more real and genuine spiritual devotees. Well become one. Be one.

Achieve this for your own advancement and for the benefit of those who are seeking for the truth and its genuine representatives. Do not complain, bicker or lament, instead take steps to elevate your life condition above that which is mediocre, superficial (fake), insubstantial and unsatisfactory.

No one can give you or bestow upon you a superior, empowered and sublime status and inner condition. You have to develop it, work it in and cultivate it in the laboratory of your own life over many days, weeks and years. You will experience and have many highs and lows, ups and downs, and many moments of ecstasy and tears in relation to your moral-spiritual progress and development.

This is a normal occurrence but you have to be persevering and look to the finality of your struggles and challenges. You have to recall what it is that you are working towards. A divine quality of life has to be cultivated, divinely appropriated and earned otherwise it would hold no true meaning or value. You have to earn it, work for it, to have a right to it.

Do not look at others, instead look at yourself and take notice of what you are or are not doing with your life, privileges and opportunities. Don’t spend your time and energy assessing and criticizing others, instead fairly assess yourself and honestly criticize yourself constructively. Ifá puts before you two choices. You can choose the way of the genuine, honest and diligent aspirant (awo) or you can choose the path of the hypocrite (double minded), zig-zagging (unstable) and willfully uninformed (ogberi). The choice is yours alone to make.

Do not blame others or find fault with others for your own choices and decisions. Allow no one to take advantage of you but also ensure that you do not take advantage of anyone. Do not ask or expect from others what you do not ask or expect from yourself. Do not make demands on others to practice and do what you yourself neglect to practice and do.

You can only give what you have. You can only suggest and ask others to do and practice the principles of truth and noble character only if you have been firmly established in them yourself for some considerable and observable time. Your words will lack moral-spiritual power, authority, healing gracefulness and uplifting potency if you are not a well cultivated embodiment of those moral-spiritual principles you espouse.

Minimize the need for excessive verbosity, instead convince and win others over by the power of your actions, behavior, attitude and conduct. How can you teach others if you have not taught yourself? How can you offer others a hope and standard that you do not have for yourself? This is the teaching and standard of Ifá.

Aboru Aboye. Ogbo ato asure iworiwofun. Àse.

~ Awo Òrúnmìlà Mark Casillas /!!!\ A.O.M.C. /!!!\

Saturday 25 June 2022


Baba Ayalu is Dead!!

Death has occurred in Ibadan of the 100year Old leader of the Agbekoya movement in Yorubaland.

Baba Ayalu as he is fondly called is one of the last heroes of the famous Agbekoya Riots of the 60's.

Baba Ayalu in his lifetime was a patriot of Yorubaland  rising on several occasion to lend support for the protection and actualisation of Yorubaland .

He was the founding President of Yoruba koya movement before it metamorphosed into Yoruba koya leadership and Training foundation where he served as a patron.

Ayalu lived a life  full of struggle and spartan discipline. He will be greatly missed as we continue our sojourn for a land of Peace and Plenty for Yorubaland .

He will be buried according to Muslim rites later today ..

May his soul Rest in Peace

Fondly Remembered 

Otunba Deji Osibogun

On behalf of YKltf


Moremi statue in Ile-ife, South West Nigeria. 

Moremi made significant contributions to African freedom but her life has received little scholarly attention. She was a queen of the Yoruba nation, which is one of the most famous and influential black tribes in history. Moremi’s exploits helped preserve the commercial life of her people and freed them from oppressors. Today, there are over 41 million ethnic Yorubas who live predominantly in sixteen countries in West Africa, although, because of the transatlantic slave trade, large Yoruba communities have taken root in countries like Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and other parts of the Americas. There are also Yoruba communities in many European countries—most having migrated in the immediate decades after the end of colonialism in the 1970s and 1980s while fleeing economic and political instability in their home countries. But the Yorubas would have never survived to become a prominent black ethnic group in the 21st century if it were not for the bravery of some of its early heroes, among which is the remarkable Queen Moremi.

Unfortunately, there are hardly any original written documents to validate most of the things we know about Moremi. We must rely on folkloric accounts passed down over generations by the Yoruba themselves—which is a common limitation when studying ancient and medieval African history. Although accounts of Moremi’s exploits are now sparsely documented in popular culture, the Yorubas have always considered folklore (called ‘Aroba’ in the Yoruba language) the strongest medium for teaching and preserving history, rather than written documents or wall‐​carvings. This medium of preserving history is a feature common to many Sub‐​Saharan Africa tribes. We also do not know for certain exactly what year Moremi was born or when she died owing to the absence of written evidence. But we do know that she was a princess from the town of Offa  and was later married to the Ooni (king) of Ile‐​Ife. Her husband was either Ooni Obalufon Alayemoye II  or Ooni Oranmiyan—both direct descendants of Ooni Oduduwa, the legendary founder of the Yoruba tribe and the first Ooni of Ile‐​Ife. There are also claims that she was married to both Oonis at different times.  To figure out when Moremi most likely lived, we can consider the dates of some related entities. For instance, the Copper Mask of Obalufon II—first introduced to the world in 1937 by Ooni Adesoji Aderemi in Ile-Ife—is believed by archaeologists to have been created around 1300 CE while Obalufon II was still alive. We can peg Moremi’s lifetime to around this period since she was likely married to Obalufon II. Even if she was actually married to Oranmiyan, who succeeded Obalufon II, the timeframe of her life would not be much further from circa 1300. This is because Moremi’s hometown of Offa was founded in 1359 by a crown prince (Olalomi Olofa‐​gangan) from one of the older kingdoms (Kingdom of Oyo) founded by Oranmiyan.

Since Offa is an offshoot town of the Kingdom of Ife, Ife is the spiritual home of Moremi just as it is for any contemporary of Yoruba origin. Spirituality has a huge influence on the story of Moremi. The original religion of the Yoruba people, which is practiced in Ile‐​Ife and throughout the old Yorubaland, was the Ifa Religion—a divination system that considers the world controlled by Olodumare (the Supreme Being) through spiritual energies.  Ifa practitioners—including Moremi and the early Yoruba people—communicate with Olodumare through the Orishas (gods) and the Irunmoles (deities). 8 Moremi’s quest for freedom was informed by this spiritualism. But the popularity of Moremi started while she was still a young princess in Offa. She was well‐​known throughout the town and its neighboring territories as a beautiful woman and is still revered today as one of the most beautiful Yoruba women that ever lived.


There is a gap in history between Moremi’s youth and when shshe moved to Ile‐​Ife where she married the Ooni. We do not know what influenced her thought process while growing up or what might have influenced her zeal for freedom. But we know that while she was a queen in Ife, the kingdom was greatly troubled by raiders who occasionally looted the market in Ife and abducted citizens of the kingdom into slavery. These raiders also often stole properties, staple foods, and domestic animals. They are believed to be from a neighboring community called Ugbo.  Although the people of Ile‐​Ife were furious about these raids, they did not have the means to defend themselves. This is because the Ugbo invaders are seen as spirits by the people of Ife. Yoruba masquerades are always dressed in cotton robes but the Ugbo raiders—who appeared as masquerades—were completely covered in raffia leaves. Out of all the atrocities of the raiders, Moremi could not stand two in particular: the disruption of the Ife market and the enslavement of captured Ife citizens. The market in Ife was the mother of all markets in Yorubaland due to its location within the sacred Kingdom of Ife and its commercial vibrancy. Furthermore, citizens of Ife were direct descendants of Oduduwa and the Orishas. Having them in enemy captivity could have led to divine retribution on Ife. Moremi believed that despite the mystique surrounding the identity of the Ugbo raiders, there must be a way to stop them. To find answers, she consulted an Orisha at the Esimirin river. The consultation of an Orisha while contemplating major decisions is cardinal to the Ifa religion. In early Yorubaland, the Orishas were the conductor of the forces of nature and an individual will hardly take a definitive course of action in life without consulting an orisha either personally or through a Babalawo (Ifa priest).

Esimirin offered to help Moremi deliver her people from oppression but demanded an offering as a payment after Moremi’s request was met. Moremi agreed and went home to work on a classic spy plan. She would pose as a trader on the next market day and allow herself to be captured by the raiders. Once in captivity, she planned to infiltrate the Ugbo leadership with her beauty and magic in the hope of finding a weakness that the people of Ife could exploit.

As planned, during the next raid Moremi allowed herself to be captured and she was taken to Ugbo along with other captives. When the captives were put on parade before the leader of Ugbo, Moremi’s beauty captured his attention and he ordered she be brought to his court as a wife. Moremi spent some time in Ugbo studying the people’s way of life with a specific interest in the raffia‐​dressed masquerades. Eventually, she lured the leader of Ugbo into revealing the nature of the masquerades and their weakness. The leader told Moremi that the raffia masqueraders were not spirits but that they were humans disguised as such to intimidate the people of Ile‐​Ife into submission during raids. He also revealed that since the masquerades were dressed in dried raffia leaves, they would not survive the slightest touch of fire. Moremi kept this revelation to herself and soon made her way back to Ile‐​Ife.

When in Ile‐​Ife, she tipped the Ooni about her discovery and advised that on the next market raid, some people should be on the standby with Igita (short hard tree branch) and Oguso (a ball of the middle layer of a palm kennel font). She explained that the Oguso should be lit when the marauders were in the market and that the burning Igita be used to torch the masquerades. They did exactly as she advised. On the next market day, the torch‐​bearing people of Ife—many of who were market women—cast their burning torches at the Ugbo raiders. The prospect of being burned alive by the torches terrified the raffia‐​dressed Ugbo masquerades. The raids ended and Ife was victorious. The Yoruba people were successfully liberated by both the torch and the Moremi’s heroic plan.

Source: African history group.

Did You Know?

Did you know that the Bini word “Ọghẹnẹ” was actually borrowed from the Yoruba title “Ọɣọ̀nẹ” (modern spelling:“Ọọ̀ni”)?

Historians and Linguists are aware of this fact. The Dictionary of Bini Language also exposes this fact.

Check out the 2nd screenshot below from Hans Melzian’s “Dictionary of Bini Language of Southern Nigeria”. The relevant line says:

“ɔɣɛnɛ [ọghẹnẹ] … cf. Yor. ɔɔni [Ọọni]”.

In everyday English, this line simply says that:

“The Bini word ‘Ọghẹnẹ’ was originally borrowed from the Yoruba title ‘Ọọni’ [of Ifẹ]”.

For clarity, see the 1st screenshot for the abbreviations “cf.” and “Yor.”

Thanks for reading.


This word has long spread into the larger Edoid lexicon via Bini from the Yoruba.

In the Bini lexicon particularly, it has later acquired two other additional layers of meanings, viz. “Osa” himself and a piece from a 5-pieces kola.

Source: Odionwere Gift Imafidon

Friday 24 June 2022



Benin Was first Igodomigodo and Greater than Ife(Oduduwa) Igodomigodo kingdom Was the greatest Ogiso and first King in West Africa Region to receive foreign traders.The Last Ogiso Son who was to succeed his Father was banished from Edo and arrived Yoruba kingdom and was crowned as the king  of Ile Ife. Izoduwa in Edo Language which is corrupted to  Oduduwa in Yoruba understanding. The Powerful Kingdom in Nigeria and first Empire recognized by foreign traders was (Ubini) Edo Kingdom. Edo King capture many towns such as Eko which is now Lagos and also capture Ijebu and Edo Kingdom were stretch from Ijebu and Lagos to Republic of Darhomey which is now change to Republic of Benin. Respect for the priestly functions of the oni of Ife was a crucial factor in the evolution of Yoruba ethnicity. The Ife model of government was adept and derived its military strength from its cavalry forces, which established hegemony over the adjacent Nupe and the Borgu kingdoms and thereby developed trade routes farther to the north.

Edoland established a community in the Yoruba-speaking area east of Ubini before becoming a dependency of Benin Kingdom at the beginning of the 14th century. By the 15th century it became an independent trading power, blocking Ife's access to the coastal ports as Oyo had cut off the mother city from the savanna. Political and religious authority resided in the oba (king) who according to tradition was descended from the Ogiso dynasty in Benin Kingdom. Benin, which may have housed much inhabitants at its height, spread over large square km that were enclosed by concentric rings of earthworks. By the late 15th century Edo Kingdom was in contact with Portugal (see Atlantic slave trade). At its apogee in the 16th and 17th centuries, Edo encompassed parts of southeastern Yorubaland,and the western parts of the present Delta state.


The Nri Kingdom in the Awka area was founded in about 900 AD in North Central Igboland. The Nsukka-Awka-Orlu axis is said to be the oldest area of Igbo settlement and therefore, homeland of the Igbo people. This ancient kingdom is still considered the cradle of Igbo culture. The Nri people are children of the historical and mythical divine king Eri (founder of Aguleri of the Umueri clan on the Anambra river valley). It was a center of spirituality, learning, and commerce. They were agents of peace and harmony whose influence stretched beyond Igboland. The Nri people's influence in neighboring lands was especially in Southern Igalaland and Benin kingdom in the 12th to 15th centuries. As great travelers, they were also business people involved in the long distant Tran Saharan trade. The development and sophistication of this civilization is evident in the bronze castings found in Igbo Ukwu, an area of Nri influence. The Benin kingdom became a threat in the 15th century under Oba Ewuare. Since they were against slaves and slavery, their power took a downturn when the slave trade was at its peak in the 18nth century. The Benin and Igala slave raiding empires became the main influence in their relationship with Western and Northern Igbos their former main areas of influence and operation. Upper Northwest Cross River Igbo groups like the Aro Confederacy and Ohafia peoples, as well as the Awka and Umunoha people used oracular activities and other trading opportunities after Nri's decline in the 18th century to become the major influences in Igboland and all adjacent areas. This includes parts of Igalaland and places west of the Niger river indirectly affected by the Benin kingdom.


Historically the Yoruba have been the dominant group on the west bank of the Niger. Of mixed origin, they were the product of periodic waves of migrants. The Yoruba were organized in patrilineal groups that occupied village communities and subsisted on agriculture. From about the 8th century adjacent village compounds, called ile, coalesced into numerous territorial city-states in which clan loyalties became subordinate to dynastic chieftains. The earliest known of these city states formed at Ife and Ijebu. The latter city was fortified by a wall and ditch known today as Sungbo's Eredo around 800 AD. Urbanization was accompanied by high levels of artistic achievement, particularly in terracotta and ivory sculpture and in the sophisticated metal casting produced at Ife. The Yoruba placated a luxuriant pantheon headed by an impersonal deity, Olorun, and included lesser deities who performed various tasks. Oduduwa was regarded as the creator of the earth and the ancestor of the Yoruba kings. According to myth Oduduwa founded Ife and dispatched his sons to establish other cities, where they reigned as priest-kings. Ife was the center of as many as 400 religious cults whose traditions were manipulated to political advantage by the oni (king).


Trade was the key to the emergence of organized communities in the savanna portions of Nigeria. Prehistoric inhabitants adjusting to the encroaching desert were widely scattered by the third millennium BC, when the desiccation of the Sahara began. Trans-Saharan trade routes linked the western Sudan with the Mediterranean since the time of Carthage and with the Upper Nile from a much earlier date, establishing avenues of communication and cultural influence that remained open until the end of the 19th century. By these same routes, Islam made its way south into West Africa after the 9th century AD.

By then a string of dynastic states, including the earliest Hausa states, stretched across the western and central Sudan. The most powerful of these states were Ghana, Gao, and Kanem, which were not within the boundaries of modern Nigeria but indirectly influenced the history of the Nigerian savanna. Ghana declined in the 11th century but was succeeded by Mali Empire which consolidated much of the western Sudan in the 13th century. Following the breakup of Mali a local leader named Sonni Ali (1464-1492) founded the Songhai Empire in the region of middle Niger and the western Sudan and took control of the trans-Saharan trade. Sunni Ali seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His successor Askiya Mohammad Ture (1493-1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (died c. 1505), the founder of an important tradition of Sudanic African Muslim scholarship, to Gao. Although these western empires had little political influence on the Nigerian savanna before 1500, they had a strong cultural and economic impact that became more pronounced in the 16th century, especially because these states became associated with the spread of Islam and trade. Throughout the 16th century much of northern Nigeria paid homage to Songhai in the west or to Bornu, a rival empire in the east.


Bornu's history is closely associated with Kanem, which had achieved imperial status in the Lake Chad basin by the 13th century. Kanem expanded westward to include the area that became Bornu. The mai (king) of Kanem and his court accepted Islam in the 11th century, as the western empires also had done. Islam was used to reinforce the political and social structures of the state although many established customs were maintained. Women, for example, continued to exercise considerable political influence.

The mai employed his mounted bodyguard and an inchoate army of nobles to extend Kanem's authority into Bornu. By tradition the territory was conferred on the heir to the throne to govern during his apprenticeship. In the 14th century, however, dynastic conflict forced the then-ruling group and its followers to relocate in Bornu, where as a result the Kanuri emerged as an ethnic group in the late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The civil war that disrupted Kanem in the second half of the 14th century resulted in the independence of Bornu.

Bornu's prosperity depended on the trans-Sudanic slave trade and the desert trade in salt and livestock. The need to protect its commercial interests compelled Bornu to intervene in Kanem, which continued to be a theater of war throughout the fifteenth and into the sixteenth centuries. Despite its relative political weakness in this period, Bornu's court and mosques under the patronage of a line of scholarly kings earned fame as centers of Islamic culture and learning.


By the 11th century some Hausa states - such as Kano, Katsina, and Gobir - had developed into walled towns engaging in trade, servicing caravans, and the manufacture of various goods. Until the 15th century these small states were on the periphery of the major Sudanic empires of the era. They were constantly pressured by Songhai to the west and Kanem-Bornu to the east, to which they paid tribute. Armed conflict was usually motivated by economic concerns, as coalitions of Hausa states mounted wars against the Jukun and Nupe in the middle belt to collect slaves or against one another for control of trade.

Islam arrived to Hausaland along the caravan routes. The famous Kano Chronicle records the conversion of Kano's ruling dynasty by clerics from Mali, demonstrating that the imperial influence of Mali extended far to the east. Acceptance of Islam was gradual and was often nominal in the countryside where folk religion continued to exert a strong influence. Nonetheless, Kano and Katsina, with their famous mosques and schools, came to participate fully in the cultural and intellectual life of the Islamic world. The Fulani began to enter the Hausa country in the 13th century and by the 15th century they were tending cattle, sheep, and goats in Bornu as well. The Fulani came from the Senegal River valley, where their ancestors had developed a method of livestock management based on transhumanism. Gradually they moved eastward, first into the centers of the Mali and Songhai empires and eventually into Hausaland and Bornu. Some Fulbe converted to Islam as early as the 11th century and settled among the Hausa, from whom they became racially indistinguishable. There they constituted a devoutly religious, educated elite who made themselves indispensable to the Hausa kings as state advisers, Islamic tribunes, and teachers.


In 1946, Miss E A Adebonojo (from Ijebu-Ode, Yoruba Land, Western Nigeria) points to a map she has drawn on the blackboard showing Yoruba country in Nigeria, during a geography lesson at Marlborough Senior Girls School, Isleworth. According to the original caption, Miss Adebonojo has taken teacher training at the United Missionary College, Ibadan, and has taught at a girls' boarding school. She has won the Nigerian Teacher's Higher Elementary Certificate and is taking a year's general training course. Colonial Students in Great Britain - Students at University of London Institute of Education, London, England, UK. (Photo: UK Ministry of Information Photo Division Photographer/Nigeriaoutside)

Courtesy: Oldnaija


The popular History about the origin of Yoruba people is that their ancestor fell from sky. But the confusion is how they learnt Igala language or ancient Egyptian language. Below are some comparisons.

1. Snake in English. Edjo in Egypt. Ejo in Igala. Ejo in Yoruba

2. Die in English. Khu in ancient Egypt. Ku in Igala. Ku in Yoruba

3. Water in English. Omi in Egypt. Omi in Igala. Omi in Yoruba.

4. Black in English. Dudu in Egypt. Edudu in Igala. Dudu in Yoruba.

5. Hill in English. Ke in Egypt. Oke in Igala. Oke in Yoruba.

6. Sell in English. Ta in Egypt. Ta in Igala. Ta in Yoruba.

7. Boat/canoe in English. Ko(t) in Egypt. Oko in Igala. Oko in Yoruba.

8. Moon in English. Khonsu in Egypt. Ochu in Igala. Osu in Yoruba.

9. Foot in English. Ren in Egypt. Ere in Igala. Ere in Yoruba.

10. Evil in English. Hika/Ubi in Egypt. Ubi in Igala. Ubi in Yoruba.

11. Mother in English. Tiye in Egypt. Iye in Igala. Iya in Yoruba.

12. Fire in English. Unas in Egypt. Una in Igala. Ina in Yoruba.

13. Buy in English. Ra in Egypt. La in Igala. Ra in Yoruba.

And so on.

With this few ancient Egypt vocabularies which were brought from Egypt by Igala to the present day Nigeria and now used by Yoruba people, it is clear that Yoruba people have Igala or Egypt origin. And since migration is from North to South, it is clear that Yoruba people are formed by Igala and other related tribes from middle belt including Nupe people who are in Tapa Ibarapa Oyo State, and who's daughter was the mother of Alaafin Sango and Ajaka.

Noting that Yoruba normeclature was used for only Oyo people in 1850s, it is clear that all other tribes in West keyed in into the newly introduced tribe for economic purpose and to feel amongism, a situation in the east where all tribes including Igala/Olu/Benin had to adopt Igbo tribe, and in the North where many tribes now claim Hausa including fulani in order to fall under the 3 major tribes of Nigeria.

A Brief History Of Okun People – The Yorubas in Kogi State

The word “Okun” is a general term used to describe the Yoruba people in Kogi state, Nigeria.

Kogi is a multi-cultural and diverse state, and Okun people make up over 20% of the entire population of the area.

Okun people spread across six local government areas in Kogi State, which are; Ìjùmú Kabba-Bunu, Yagba-West, Yagba-East, Mopa-Muro, and Lokoja local government Areas. They can also be found in some states like Kwara, Ekiti, and Ondo.

They communicate in various Yoruba dialects such as Owé, Ìyàgbà, Ìjùmú, Bùnú and Oworo, but they are generally called Okun irrespective of the dialect spoken.

One amazing fact is that, if you are not an Okun person, you might not be able to figure out the slight differences in the various dialects because every speaker flaunts his/her dialect at will, with the confidence that the other Okun listener person will understand without stress. Which is true.

More so, every Okun person speaks the common Oyo-Yoruba dialect fluently even without ever stepping foot out of Kogi.

Okun dialects and way of life is largely influenced by various reasons. Such as Diversity, History, and Geography of the state.


As a result of abundant culture and ethnic diversity which makes Kogi state a unique cultural hub with a large number of ethnic groups such as Ebira, Igala, Hausa, Bassa, Igbo, and other minorities like Bassa, and a small fraction of Nupe people mainly in Lokoja and Bassa Local Government Area. Other tribes in Kogi state are the Ogugu sub-group of the Igala tribe, Kakanda, Gwari, Oworo people (A Yoruba Group), Ogori, Bassa komo, and Magongo.

Also including the Eggan and community under Lokoja Local Government Area.


The history of Okun People cannot be completed without mentioning the geographical factor, because it is an important factor that may have shaped the dialect and culture of Okun people. Considering the fact that Kogi state shares boundaries with ten other states which are; Ondo, Ekiti, Kwara, Benue, Niger, Nasarawa, Enugu, Anambra, Edo and the Federal capital territory.


Historical factors have played its part in influencing the Okun identity. The Nupe wars of the 19th century and interaction with the Hausas due to geographical zoning have left a remarkable mark on the Okun people and their way of life.

According to oral history, Okun people in Kogi migrated from the ancient town of Ile Ife, the cradle of the Yoruba race. The migration occurred as a quest by the Yorubas to spread and occupy more lands.

Before spreading out, there was an agreement that everyone would report to Ile-Ife for a yearly meeting.

The man who led a group of Yoruba people to a location (now called YAGBA) in Kogi state broke the rules and did not return for the yearly meeting after several years.

When he eventually returned, he explained that he faced challenges and had lost a larger part of his acquired land to some other migrants.

He was blamed for his incompetence which led to the loss, so he lamented in Yoruba language, ”ÌYÀ ÀGBÀ LÓ JEMÍ” which means the invasion of his acquired land by immigrants was due to lack of having elderly people with him.

Since then, everyone started mocking him at Ile-Ife. They nicknamed him Iya agba, associating this name with him whenever they want to send messages across to him while he’s at his occupied territory, now called Yagba.

For many years, the Okun people faced numerous challenges, ranging from geo-political zoning, disunity, marginalization and problem of identity.

The challenges started during the British colonial era when they were politically ceded to the Northern protectorate by Lord Fredrick Lugard, the then Governor-General of Nigeria.

Abolition of the provincial and regional administrative system in Nigeria in the year 1967 led to their merging with Ilorin to form old Kwara state.

Their neighbor, the Igalas were merged with old Benue State.

However, on the 27th of august 1991, Okun people were separated from Kwara and merged with Ebira, Igala from Benue state and some other tribes to form the present Kogi state.

Initially, Okun people agitated against merging them with completely different tribes but they were forced into the marriage.

Their persistent efforts to break away and form a new Okun State, which could make it easier for them to be closer to their Kitts and Kin in the South Western part of Nigeria have failed to materialize.

Okun people bear typical Yoruba names and many of their towns and villages are named in Yoruba language.

Some popupular Okun indegenes are:

Dino Melaye

Deji Adeyanju 

Eyitayo Lambo

Pastor Sam Adeyemi

Smart Adeyemi

James Faleke

Shola Amoebi

Tunde Ednut

John Obaro


Dino Melaye

Nike Davies Okundaye

Sam Alle

Bayo Ojo

Ty bello

Dare Art Alade

Suday Bada, etc

Some popular Okun towns and villages are:







Egbeda Ega

Oke-aba (Kabba)

Odo Ere

Odo Eri




Igbo Nla

Obajana and


Thursday 23 June 2022

Notes on the Tribes, Provinces, Emirates and States of the Northern Provinces of Nigeria by Temple, O.; Temple, Charles Lindsay (1919) Nupe

In the Gurara District of Nupe (Lapai Emirate), a curious custom exists, which, with minor modifications is practised as far east as Awtun (Ekiti), and from Yagba District to Ilorin. 

A wealthy woman trader would sometimes go through the form of marriage with one or more young women — reputed virgins. These ' wives ' she would send out to various neighbouring villages, ostensibly trading. When, in the expected course of events, these ' wives ' formed illicit attachments, a careful note was made of the resultant progeny.

When the children had reached five or six years, or more, they were claimed by the woman ' husband ' as her children, based on the legal fiction of all legal wives' children being the children of the legal ' father.' 

In almost every case, the real father compounded with the legal ' father,' in the customary value of the child. The profit to the woman capitalist was exceedingly great. This custom is not confined to the Pagan, nor to the female sex.

Many a reputed Mussulman (Bida-Pategi) will allow his wife to go on three and four years' trading expeditions, fully cognisant of the inevitable results. In due time he will apply for the custody of the children, which are legally his until his wife has sued for and obtained a legal divorce, which last is seldom done, owing (in Nupe and Ilorin generally) to the high ' dowry ' money claimed.

If the case is settled out of Court, the husband enjoys substantial profits. On the other hand, if the wife and children return to him , which is seldom nowadays, he can always obtain a respectable ' dower ' from the suitors to the girl children. As to the boys, he finds every use for them on his farm.


The Yagba are situated in the north-west of Kabba Province, where they have a population of some 17,872, and over the border in the Pateji Division of Ilorin Province. It is doubtful whether or not they are of Yoruba extraction, though they speak a dialect of Yoruba. They practise a similar custom to that of the Nupe (Gurara District) and of the Ekiti, which permits a woman to marry young girls, whom she subsequently lets out to some man or men — herself as legal husband retaining the right of possession to any children they may bear. They are a pagan people, and the priests have charms for scattering the rain-clouds. The women weave good cloth, but agriculture is the main occupation. They eat dogs.

1913 Northern Nigeria "women acting" ; Photographer  Arthur John Newman Tremearne - Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge UK LS.125507.TC1

Wednesday 22 June 2022

How Idi Amin Renamed Colonial Roads, Lakes & Mountains So As To Decolonise Uganda

On December 17, 1972, former president Idi Amin made a proclamation that led to the renaming of some of Uganda’s physical features such as national parks, lakes and roads.

The promulgation was made on national radio and television following a campaign he had started codenamed “Uganda’s economic war” in which he expelled Indians, Israelis and the British. Amin told the nation that he had decided to rename those physical features because their colonial names were insignificant to independent Ugandan.

“I have decided that Queen Elizabeth National Park shall henceforth be known as Rwenzori National Park and the Murchison Falls as well as the Murchison Falls National Park shall henceforth be known as Kabalega Falls and Kabalega National Park,” he announced.

“Kabalega is a name that is very important. The king of Bunyoro determinedly fought the British who were advancing into Uganda from Sudan and several battles routed them. It was only after the British had been on alliance with a neighbouring local king that Kabalega was finally subdued. Names like Kabalega have much more meaning for the people of Uganda than names like Murchison which are foreign and of whose origin and significance not many people in Uganda are aware of.”

Lake Albert was renamed Lake Idi Amin Dada while Lake Edward was renamed after his friend the president of Zaire, Mubutu Sese Seko. Lake Victoria was given back its Kiganda name, Nalubaale.

“In addition, we have decided to change the names of a number of roads in Kampala as follows,” Amin said.

“1. Prince Charles Drive becomes 25 January Avenue to signify the date of the birth of the second Republic of Uganda. You are aware that the battle for our nation was commanded from the command post which lies on the new 25 January Avenue and it is only fitting that a place that important in our country should be served by a road whose name has a real meaning in our national history.

2. Queen’s Road becomes Lumumba Avenue. As the people of Uganda and Africa know, Patrice Lumumba is one of the greatest Africans that have ever lived. He strongly fought against the imperialists and Zionists for the freedom of Africa. It was due to his courageous and uncompromising stand against these evils that he was assassinated. He was a strong national and international leader. It would be a good thing for all Africans to follow the teachings, practices and principles of Patrice Lumumba.

3. Salisbury Road becomes Nkrumah Road. Kwame Nkrumah as again you will be aware was another great African who tirelessly struggled against imperialism for the liberation of the whole of Africa. He was a firm advocate of African Unity and a great pan-Africanist. He greatly contributed to the founding of the Organisation of African Unity. We must honour his memory.

4. Rosebury Road becomes Nasser Road. Gamel Abdul Nasser fought the imperialists and Zionists until his death and that is why they always hated and feared him. We know that the fire of his teachings and beliefs still blaze strong in the whole of Africa, the Arab world, Asia and Latin America. We must remember his courageous stand for the freedom of Africa and the Arab world.

5. Hunter Road in Bugolobi becomes Luthuli Avenue. The late chief Albert Luthuli also courageously fought against the racists of South Africa and they kept him in jail for many years. He died an unnatural death and the circumstances of his death are still a mystery. He was awarded the Noble Prize in 1961.

6. Borup Avenue becomes Malcolm X Avenue. Malcolm X was a strong Afro-American political leader who bravely exposed and resisted the activities of the imperialists. He was assassinated because of his beliefs.

7. Kings Road in Nakasero will be Sukano Road. Dr Sukano was for many years president of Indonesia having guided that nation to independence. He was a strong anti-imperialist leader and he convened the first non-aligned conference which was held at Bandung.

8. Kings Avenue becomes Nehru Avenue. Pandit Nehru was the first prime minister of India which he led to independence in 1947.

He was imprisoned by the British rulers of Indian.

9. Harcourt Avenue becomes Kimathi Avenue. Dedan Kimathi was a very courageous nationalist and freedom fighter who as a Mau-Mau leader physically and for many years fought imperialism in Kenya until he was slain in battle.

10. Stanley Road becomes Akii-Bua Road: John Akii-Bua as you know was the first Ugandan to get a gold medal at the Olympic Games when he completed first in Munich in august this year. His performance was a world record. Which I know will stand for a long time.”

At the official renaming of Queen’s Road to Lumumba Avenue on January 18, 1973, Amin said: “It is time we took stock of ourselves with a view to restoring our cultural heritage, human dignity and respect which has hitherto been denied to us by forces of imperialism and their agents.”

“To fight against the forces of imperialism and Zionism; and to succeed in this fight, we must believe and practice true nationalism as our guiding principle.”

He also warned Africans never to forget that imperialists were in Africa for their own selfish interests and not for African interests.

“In addition, we have decided that subject to consultations with Kenya, Mt Elgon will be known as Mt Masaba. Although most of Lake Victoria is in Uganda, we shall make immediate consultations with our neighbours Kenya and Tanzania with a view to agreeing on a new name for Lake Victoria,” he said.

Because of that technicality, the name Lake Victoria remained unchanged. But later when the Kenyan government accepted Amin’s proposal, Mt Elgon was changed to Masaba Mountain.

“The changes in the names of roads, national parks and mountain I have announced tonight are only the beginning of what must be a concerted campaign to make similar changes in respect of all roads, institutions, etc. bearing colonial and imperial names in Uganda,” he said.

“I want to ask all urban and local authorities and institutions to make immediate arrangements to change meaningless foreign names of roads, streets etc. in their areas and to replace them with meaningful African or other names as indicated above. The proposal should be submitted to the Cabinet for approval before any road or institution is renamed.”

As a result of this decree, districts such as Rukungiri, Mbale and Arua have a road named Republic road or street after the Second Republic of Uganda.

It was also after this decree that roads in Uganda were named after Ugandans. In Rukungiri District, for instance, a road was named after Karegyesa, a former minister and Member of Parliament.

In Jinja District, many roads such as Nadiope, Luba (Lubas) and Gabula were named after local leaders and politicians.

Unfortunately, when Amin fell in 1979, most of the colonial names were reinstated.

Article by Faustin Mugabe, Daily Monitor Researcher/Historian.

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