Tuesday 31 May 2022

Yakoma People of Central African Republic and Dr. Congo

Yakoma People can be found in Central African Republic and Dr. Congo, they are part of the Bantu Speaking People and they are related to the Ngbandi People of Central African Republic and Dr. Congo.  

The Yakoma dagger is in a way outstanding in its blade structure, thick heavy it is sharpened all  around,  wood handle bound with steel and brass strips, and brass covered pommel and after colonization, It is believed people began to communicate in Sango which is a pidgin also spoken in Central African Republic and Suriname that emerged quickly out of contacts,  between the diverse Africans, French and Belgians proceeded them in 1887 to be used as a militia,  workers and the Inhabitants of the Upper Ubangi river,  by 1910,  the language Sango had became a stable lingua franca spread by the Soldiers and others who was believed to served Europeans.  Their Staple Include cassava,  millet and It is accompained by sauce made of vegetables,  fish or meat, beer is made with sorghum,  chicken, sheep,  goats is used as a gift during weddings and their other staples include mainoc, sorghum, corn and squalish which is supplement by mashrooms. They grow crops such as cassava, bananas, plantains, okro and other crops and It is believed an area in Present day Central African Republic was settled by successive waves,  both Europeans and Arabs exploited the area in the 17th Century- 19th Century and it is believed French explored and conquered the area, 1889, when an out post was established at Bangui the strongest and most sustained position to the french which it is believed it came from Sultan Senoussi who defeated them in 1931,  the strong war was known as Kongo- Warra which lasted from 1828 to 1993 and the territory of Ubangi Shari was established in 1934,  and its border it is believed it was fixed by treaties.  

The Asymmetric Prestige Blade this carved sword is a light, second- generation deluxe version of a much heavier and functional blade produced by Yakomas before 1920,  and the light, deluxe, prestiges blades were produced from 1920-1940, where as the heavy knives were used for wars and other functional purposes, It is said light knives reserved for display in women Intiation ceremonies and as a prestige symbol for Elders known as Ngoundi.  Yakomas are considered as ancient warriors and they used musical instrument such as a kind of harp,  In their tradition,  men hunt for animals such as bush meat, go for fishing, grow crops and harvesting.  

Yakoma Migrations:

It is claimed Yakomas migrated from the area around Lake Chad to the East and settled in Northern part of Sudan throughout their migrations they crossed and settled in Abyssania Present day Ethiopia before settling in Present day Central African Republic and Pressnt day Dr. Congo in the early 16th Century .  According to other accounts It is believed Yakoma and Ngbaka arrived on a gemena plateau of Present day Northern Congo in 1920 and migrated from the area around Lake Chad to the north with Gbaya, Manja and others part of the Ngbandi ethnic group, throughout their migrations they encountered numerous people influenced their directions, it is believed Ngbaka had contact with Mabo at lua- Dekere river with Mono at Bembe and Lubia rivers.  

Yakoma People live along the Oubangui river in the South and Andrè Dieudonnè Kolingba was the former President of Central African Republic who belong to Yakoma ethnic group he served from 1979- 1993 and Adrienne Yabouza was a writer who hail from Central African Republic and Yakoma by ethnicity,  She wrote several novels and books for children, a number of seven books, She spoke french,  a little english, sango,  yakoma and  lingala. She believed her work deals with difficulties facing women and many of the stories she told derived from family stories and her surroundings and She had 5 children also a widower whose husband died a single mother.  

It is believed Yakoma lived in their homeland since the 17th Century,  they traced to their patrilineal lineage, their artistic products include figures,  masks, pipes, necklaces, sticks, musical instruments,  large slit drums are common, the artistic style of their masks and sculptures. Yakoma have a system of Initiation that which gives strength, future Initiates had to undergo trials of physical endurance and would attain a first level of knowledge by means of song and corporeal techniques, particularly choreographic turns. In the rites of Passage, Ancestors played an Important role, circumcision and excision took place after several months spent outside the village.

Yakoma ethnic group prefer to live the way of their forefathers a lot of them place emphasis on clothing,  women wear lose tops and a length of cloth around the waist as a skirt while men clothing on the other hand may look fashionable, folklore is sung to the accompaniment of traditional instruments and Yakoma legends are respected and honoured also their music is made up of horn,  flutes whistle and voice ensemble make up their music.  In their culture when people meet one another,  the first thing to do is to shake hands, whether or not gesture is acceptable depending on their environment,  they will often snap their fingers as a sign of showing they are happy to see you but this kind of gesture is not acceptable in a formal environment, It is strongly believed among Yakoma that they way you dress shows who you are including your character so every one must dress appropriately or properly because if you do so it is believed that people show their respect to you and their natural resources include gold, diamonds, timber and uranium.

Nkoya People of Zambia

Nkoya People can be found in Zambia, they are also known as Shikoya and they are part of the Bantu speaking people, they are related to the Mambwe, Lozi and Subiya People of Zambia, they grow crops such as maize, sorghum, millet, tomatoes, carrots, onions and other crops. According to their Oral history the leaders of the Mvule clan,  Mwene Shipandu of the lands, the son of Mwene Kayambila, his nephew known as Shilili, and together two sons which is Mwanamunene na Ngoma, the sons of Mwene Kayambila, Mwana Mwene Shishasha and his younger brother known as Mungumani Mulawa, their mother’s was Kanwengo,  Shihshonda Banyama and Mukwemba their mother was Kashinzi she had five children who belonged to the family of Kafuta and as well as the father Mwene Shikongi the son of Mulawa, Mampilu a Nanzala, Kakemble and Nkuta, Kakembele are the leaders of the Nkomba clan, moreover Kakembele Kuta one of the great elephant gave them Sipopa powers their father was the son of Mushima. 

It is believed Nkoya people came from the Luba Libupe It is said their ancestors came from Ncelele the north, Mwene first lady came with them and migrated across the Zambezi, they were known by their old name of Mbwela, Mwene Libupe had a daughter called Shilayi her original name was Mashiku, Mwene Libupe did not wage  war on one another and Mwene Libupe reached a higher age, It is said she died from natural causes her people ate fish, game meat and fruits were collected in the forest there was no porridge such as millet porridge. 

According to other accounts their Origin It is believed after everything else in the world,  Mwene Nymabi created a man, It is believed their great grandparents passed down the story that all people were born free and came from the same great grandmother, She was fertile and from her womb came forth all Nkoya clans, the clans are six of them such as Lavwe, Mbunze, Shungu, Ntabi, Nkomba and Nyembo, Nkoya People wanted to get honey, they had to make a fire to scare away the bees, because of burning their hands every time and having smoke in their eyes, they were kindling, It is believed all these clans descended from same ancestress this means that there is only one divison of Nkoya. Nkoya languages include Mbwera, Lukolwe, Shangi, Shasha, Shimbwera and Mbowela. 

In Nkoya Culture the Kazanga ceremony is held annually in Kaoma district this include a two events such as drumming, singing and dancing, the kingship is said to have started with the large cooking pot full of game meat, many of them in the past believed that Mwene Nyambi is a bird, Mwene Nyambi has a child called Mvula the name means rain also a bird and that two clans in Nkoyaland are the relatives of Mvula, Nkwehe which is the hawks Buzzards on the part of the birds and on the part of the people.

The Humnu War was the first war the Myene of the Nkoya fought as a result of a request from a Lihano to the effect that the Mwene should go to Mukanda, along with the entire land which restored under the kingship, Nkoya refused to adopt to that custom, and the war started. Nkoya defeated the Humbu and It is said Humbu came from the north, crossing the Zambezi and Kabompo, another greater army came and many of the Nkoya died in the war, It is claimed Humbu came and took the land of Mwene Luhamba and others believed they came from Mwantiyavwa later they left. Mwene Luhamba begot Kashina, who acceded to the kingship at the capital of Nkulo later on, Kashina son of Luhamba moved the capital from Nulo to Nabowa, and built his capital on Kate Kanyemba, a tributary of Nabowa, Mwene Kashina was the successor of Luhamba son of Shilayi, It is said Lipepo Mwenda na Nkuli, a son of Shilemantumba  succeeded to the kingship when Kashina ka Luhamba died later it is believed Mwene Liepopo was well known for his benevolence and Nkoya People were fond of him , blessing him with a word of praise. 

In 1936, Nalilele Native treasury was established in Makoya district in Present day Kaoma and a Lozi appointed to head it and Nkoyas wanted freedom from the Lozis and According to Malama Katulwende Indigenous people in an area, moved south down the Kabombo river in the latter part of the 18th century, and founded other bantus such as Nkoya, Sotho, Shona and Nguni lived already in Present day Western Zambia, the new settlers conquered and subdued the locals through the use of arms, Twa or Kwengo were drivern south by 1800 AD they had founded what is known as “ Barotse Nation” with their greatest Chief Mulambwa who imposed himself and ruled from 1812- 1830. The early Bantu had settled in the Zambezi plain as early as the 1500 AD and these existing Inhabitants such as Nkoya were subsequently displaced. 

The Indigenous people such as Nkoya, Kwangwa and Twa had lived in the western province and surrounding region since 1500 AD, although people were conquered by Lozi in the early 1800AD, Kuomba festival is celebrated by both Nkoya and Lozi it is celebrated during the month of February or march sometimes, the festival is celebrated on a Thursday just before full moon, Kuomboma means “ to get out of the water onto a dry ground “ each year towards the last part of the rainy season as the flood plain of the upper Zambezi valley increases, the signal of drums is given to all the people, the Chiefs leaves on his flat boat with his family and a crowd.  In Nkoya culture they used instruments such as Silimba which is a xylophone turns keys are tied atop resonating gourds, It is used during traditional ceremonies like Kazanga and Nkoya ceremonies, dancers slowly make their appearance in sing file in front of a lead singer next to the drummers and Shilimba the xylophone player and they perform traditional dances such as Makwasha , Luhwa , Kamunyelele and Ntomboke, Nkoya Chiefs have their own royal dances they also perform.

The African Tribe or ethnic group in USA (Gullah People of USA)

The Gullah is an African ethnic group In USA they are descendants of enslaved Africans who came to USA or America during Slave Trade who kept their African Culture. The Origin of the phrase “Gullah” is said to be unknown others believed the word “ Gullah” came out of a West African ethnic group known as Gola which is an ethnic group in Sierra Leone and Liberia,  Others claimed Gullah came from their Angolan Ancestors who used the word known as Gullah.

According to Ailani’s historical account or narrations on the Gullah People of USA, Nearly a half a million the Gullah ethnic group had lived between Jacksonville, North Carolina and JacksonVille, Florida this modern day this 500 mile along the Atlantic Ocean and over and between the rivers that surround it is home to the descendants of Africans captured to the Carolina Colony in the beginning of the late 1500s . For nearly the 5 centuries , their lives have been economically and politically tied to the regions and the cash crops, needed for its success whether it be rice or tourism . Gullah can be found in places such as around Wilmington, North Carolina, Georgetown, Charleston, South Carolina, Savannah and Jacksonville, Florida figure prominently in the Gullah oral story from the beginning to now. It is said their Origins and history began on the West African Soil. During Slavery , they were Africans captured, destined for the American Plantations, were often retained in holding cells along the West African Coastlines. By the mid 1700s, Africans dominated the Slave labor forces. They became the muscle and mind behind the rice and cotton Industries that once lined the waters of the Carolina Slave Coast their knowledge of farming, rice, rice cultivation , along with their labor, made the Gullah the most desired and sought after the labor of the agricultural South . 

It is believed they were farmers and became the wealthiest businessmen in Pre-Civil War America. In the early period , Enslaved Africans reserved the name “ Gullah” for certain members of their communities. It is used more as a handle or prefix as it was the case of Golla Jack in the Denmark Vessey Conspiracy of 1822. The Gullah have always embraced their rich African Cultures which survived in America the diaspora. 

They are also acknowledged for their contributions to the growth, development and success of the rice and Sea Island cotton industries of the Slavery era . It is believed The similarities in the African and American names of these groups, the Golas (Gullahs) and the Gizzis (Geeches), could very well be source of the Importance placed on whether one is called Gullah or Geechee this modern day. 

During the early days of freedom, their underpaid labor contributed to the regrowth and recovery of the region they inhabited. By the 1940s, the shift from agriculture to tourism made them the dominate labor force in and of the hospitality Industry, the Chief Industry, the Chief Income in every state wherever they reside in large numbers modern day. In the 21st Century, the 500 mile region where the Gullah live is nationally recognized as endangered land right within our midst. 

According to Cultural heritage Corridor historical account, The Gullah or Gullah Geechee People are descendants of enslaved Africans from different part of Africa and came from ethnic groups such as Fon, Aja, Gola , Mende, Temne, Yoruba, Igbo, Akan and other ethnic groups across West and Central Africa. They were captured to America which considered as the diaspora or new world by European slave traders and they were forced to work on the plantations of the coastal South Carolina, Georgia, North Carolina and Florida, USA. The Gullah Geeche have retained many aspects of their African heritage due to the geographic barriers of the coastal landscape and the strong sense of African Pride. 

According to Charles Coclock Jones Jr, Margaret Washington Creel and Galileo’s historical account, Many traditions of the Gullah Geeche Culture were passed from one generation through language, agriculture African Spirituality including the concept of Libations. The Culture has been linked to a Specific West African ethnic groups who were enslaved on the Island plantations to grow rice, Indigo, and cotton which started from 1750.  The Rice plantations fostered Georgia’s successful economic competition with Other enslaved base rice economies along the eastern seaboard. Coastal Plantations invested primarily rice, and plantations owners sought out Africans from West Africa such as Present day Benin, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Ivory Coast and Liberia,  the enslaved rice growers from West Africa brought with ancestral knowledge of how to make tools needed for rice harvesting, Including fanner baskets for winnowing rice.  The Sweet grass basket found in the rice culture of West Africa. Sweet grass baskets also were used for carrying laundry and storing fire for firewood, how to select palmetto, sweet grass, pine straw to create baskets, and to decorate art for primary tourist.  

The Gullah Spiritual Songs: 

The Gullah Spiritual Songs were believed to have its roots from West Africa among Mende, Temne and Gola People of West Africa. Spiritual songs developed on the plantations. Although most of the song some had Christian message. The melodies of the songs were similar to the Sierra Leone and Liberian songs. Enslaved Africans worshipped the Creator together in one- room meeting places called Praises houses. The small buildings became the center of the Gullah Community, Slave Owners described everything Ungodly so they ban drumming on the Slave Ships even when they arrived in America but Gullah kept their African rhythm with handclaps and foot stomps,  they perform traditional dances such as ring shout while they sing and they move together in a circle.  The isolation of the Gullah Community lasted throughout the period of Slavery and continued even after the U.S. Civil War which they even contributed from 1860- 1865 and fought in with other African American Soldiers and the emancipation of enslaved Africans. The Gullahs on the mainland continued to work on the rice plantations as wage laborers after gaining their freedom, but the rice economy of South Carolina and Georgia collapsed after about 1890 due to competition with rice farmers farther west in Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas. On the sea Island, the rice and cotton plantations were abandoned after the Civil War.  The first bridges were built in the 1920s, and a decade later there were still elders.  Many people have found economic opportunities outside the area, and return only occasionally for holidays and family gatherings the Gullahs are no longer Isolated they have a strong Influence on African culture in America and they continue to cherish their rich African roots. Gullah performed many  traditional dances such as Gumbo Island dance, Ring shout, Geeche shouters, Georgia Sea Islands dance, buck dance, Gimme de knee bone bent and other dances and story telling were kept.

Monday 30 May 2022

Isaiah Emmanuel Morter of Belize, Central America

Isaiah Emmanuel Morter also known as Isiah Morter was born in Freetown, Belize in the 1860. He was a direct descendants of Igbo from Present day Nigeria who were brought to the Americas during Slave Trade, others claimed he might be of Edo or Akan Ancestry which is not even accurate to claim such but, he was actually an Igbo by Ancestry and Nigerian by blood.

Morter was Inspired by many African freedom fighters or revolutionists. The late Honorable Marcus Garvey once wrote about Morter when he was growing up fighting the oppositions and difficulties generally surrounded one being born to this condition, until Morter lifted himself to the service for his race and country, he even planted bananas, coconuts and built a fortune and is well known as the Belize’s first colored millionaire. 

He was given nicknames such as the Coconut King, Guinea Sugar as well furthermore, he owned Caye Chapel and for his achievements he was honored with the award of Knight Commander of Distinguished Service order of Ethiopia. A Statue of Morter can be found at the end of Albert Street near the Anglican Cathedral of Belize .

Lumina Sophie an Afro-Martinique who rebelled against the French and fought in Martinique

Lumina Sophie also known as Marianne Lumina Sophie, Lumina Sophie ditto Surprise and other names. She was born around 1848, others claimed she born on 1780 and she was a black woman of African Ancestry who participated in a revolt in the 19th Century with other Unknown black freedom fighters such as Lea Galva, Loriane Zacharie there were numerous women who distinguished themselves as freedom fighters who did not accept enslavement passively. Lumina played a significant role during the event known as the name of the Southern Insurgency in 1870, Lumina Sophie was enslaved African woman or Afro Matinique of African Ancestry who believed  God Inspired her to call on other women to revolt against the French. In 1870, during the South uprising in Martinique then fought French Oppression, Injustice and racism, She was admired by her people because she had willingness to sacrifice herself for the revolt against the French.

According to Autre Histoire historical account, Lumina Sophie was called Surprise who was born on 5th November, 1848 in Vauclin in Present day Martinique at the house of La Broue, She was a daughter of Philomene Sophie and when her mother was enslaved they were both given the surname of their Slave Owner which is Roptus. Others believed when Lucima was released during the abolition she was called by the name Zulma but was registered in the state Civil under the name Marie Philomene Sophie , the mother became known as Philomene Sophie Roptus while the daughter was Marie Philomene Sophie . Lumina was a seamstress who also cultivate and helped her family with cultivating the land. She was Impregnated by her owner, She was also one of the freedom fighter in Martinique in September, 1870. Lumina was arrested and sent to the Colonial prison of Fort de France in Present day Martinique, She also fought in French Guiana in 1871 of the month of December before she was murdered or assassinated by the French Colonialist because she liberated her people during the abolition movement and Slavery Period.

DID YOU KNOW (History Of Ebute Metta)?

There is a very rich history behind the Ebute Metta town in Lagos that a whole lot us are not aware of.

The construction of the Lagos rail terminal situated at Ebute Metta gave birth to the idea behind me digging deep to find out more about the historical town.

You will be amazed what I dug out from my findings in the this little piece of article.

Ebute Metta is known for the production and sale of local food and cloths. It is a very old part of Lagos, many of its houses were built during the colonial era using Brazilian architecture.

Ebute Metta is part of the Awori Kingdom of Otto. Its capital is at Otto just before Iddo on the way to Lagos Island. Ebute Metta means “The three Harbours” in the Yoruba language. This was in reference to Iddo, Otto and Oyingbo. In the olden days the king, Oba Oloto of Otto, controlled these harbours and had his agents collecting taxes from ships bringing goods to Lagos by way of them.

In 1867, there was a great tension between the Christian community and adherents of the traditional religion in Abeokuta which was on the verge of snowballing into a sectarian crisis. On the eve of departure of some European missionaries from Abeokuta, the native Christian converts – fearing that the dominant traditionalists would descend on them in the absence of their European proctectors – begged the Europeans to take them along to Lagos.

On getting to the colony, the European missionaries went to the king of Lagos to ask for him to allocate land for the Egba Christians from Abeokuta. In response, the king said Lagos Island was already filled up and he couldn’t afford to give the little available land to the Egba people. Instead he suggested that the Colonial Governor, John Hawley Glover, contact his brother Oba, the Oloto, whose territory was located just across the lagoon.

Governor Glover approached the Oloto, who agreed to give the Egbas a large tract of land from Oyingbo (Coates Street) to somewhere just before the lands of Yaba begin (Glover Street, where LSDPC Estate was later built about 130 years later).

These Egba Christians – some of whom were Saros and Amaros – then formed a community which they called Ago Egba, the Yoruba for “Egba Camp”. They built their church, St. Jude’s Church, schools to educate their children, and trading concerns, and they divided the land into streets which were originally named after their European missionaries and colonial officers. The streets were also named after some of the Egba chiefs like Oloye Osholake. Thus we had Denton Street (since renamed Murtala Muhammad Way), Griffith Street, Freeman Street, King George V Street (since renamed Herbert Macaulay Street), Cemetery Street, Bola Street, Osholake Street, Tapa Street and Okobaba Street.

These Ebute Metta people went on to form the first set of civil servants in Nigeria. After the amalgamation of 1914 and the construction of railways, Ebute Metta became a great destination for many people coming from the hinterland to Lagos, many of whom couldn’t get accommodation on the Island (reserved for only the Europeans and upper class Nigerians).

The Ago Egba people in Ebute Metta constructed the Lisabi Hall which was commissioned in 1938, by which time their third generation descendants had become the engineers, technicians and stationmasters of the Nigerian Railway Corporation with stations and offices nearby. 

Ebute Metta has a number of notable buildings including the Nigerian Railway Corporation headquarters, the post office, St. Paul’s Catholic Church, the Oyingbo Market, a major bus terminal, Foucos Secondary School (a school built by the former minister for education), St. Saviour’s School, Junior Strides Academy, Ajayi Memorial Hospital, Ijero Baptist Church Nursery and Primary School, Ebute Metta Health Centre, Federal Medical Centre Ebute Metta ,and shops of all types. Ebute Metta is divided into two main areas: Ebute Metta East and Ebute Metta West.

2023 Presidential Election Should be Cancelled; It’s Already Predetermined

With the help of Aminu Tambuwal, Atiku Abubakar has defeated Nysom Wike to win the PDP presidential primaries. I’ve seen people exultingly proclaiming that Atiku will give APC a bloody nose in 2023. That’s misplaced optimism. 

Your votes won’t count—like they didn’t in 2019—because INEC is anything but independent. It’s a dutiful, groveling poodle of APC and Buhari and has no capacity or willingness to provide a level playing field for all contestants.

I think there’s no point wasting billions to hold a presidential election whose outcome is already predetermined. INEC’s last-minute extension of the electoral timetable in response to Buhari’s instruction is all the evidence you need to know that that the 2023 election has already been decided.  I hope I'm wrong.

But recall that on May 5, INEC told political parties that pleaded with it to tweak its timetable that its “deadline is firm and fixed.” It repeated this on May 10 when IPAC again requested it to extend its deadline.

But Buhari traveled out of the country, called Mahmood Yakubu, and told him to bend his “firm and fixed” deadline. Yakubu then invited the same IPAC guys whose request he’d spurned and told them the “firm and fixed” deadline was now suddenly infirm and unfixed.

If Buhari can unilaterally call the INEC chairman and direct him to loosen a “firm and fixed” deadline in order to give an unfair advantage to the APC, he’ll certainly tell INEC chairman whom to declare as "president" in 2023 irrespective of the actual outcome of the presidential election.

That was precisely what happened in the 2019 election, which Buhari lost by close to 2 million in spite of APC’s massive, in-your-face rigging in Borno, Yobe, Lagos, and Kano. As I write this, INEC has still not provided a comprehensive breakdown of the votes cast in the election like Jega’s INEC did in 2015.

They can’t because Yakubu just arbitrarily plucked figures from the air and assigned them to presidential candidates. That’s what might happen again in 2023, and the signs are already apparent.

Let’s use some of the billions that will be wasted on a pointless, predetermined coronation exercise fraudulently called a “presidential election” to settle ASUU’s demands. That way, we won’t lose twice.

But, seriously, what’s the point of “democracy” if something as basic as change of government through elections can’t be guaranteed, if the body charged with the responsibility to conduct elections can’t even perform a pretense of neutrality?

My illusions have been shattered because I’d thought that Yakubu had learned lessons from the electoral fraud he enabled in 2019, especially in light of the fact that this is his final term in office, which gives him the latitude to not be beholden to anyone-- and the freedom to not have anxieties about losing his job.

 At this point, I doubt there are many people who will miss this "democracy" when it is gone and replaced with something else.

By Farooq Kperogi

Sunday 29 May 2022

Antaisaka People of Madagascar

Antaisaka People can be found in Madagascar also known as Tesaki, Tesesaka or Taisaka, Ateseka People. It is believed Antaisaka are mostly of African, some Indonesian and mostly African Ancestry, It is said their Kings descended from Zarabehava lineage, It is believed Zarabehava Dynasty crossed to the east and west between 1620 and 1650. 

It is believed Antaisaka used to be part of the Menabe Sakalava Kingdom, they migrated from Menabe Sakalava and settled in Naspandra Present day Vangaindrano in 1650s.

According to Ateseka Oral history, the founder was known as Andriaman desy which became a clan name, he was born in Present day Rapila a village in Tsiare Pioky, bear Mahabo then later became Thazorango and finally became known as Andria mandresrivo. It is believed  Andramandesy departed  with anger and attempted to seize his uncle’s rice alongside his younger brother’s succession then mother exile.

Andriamandesy departed with the warriors, In the 17th Century they were part of the 4 largest Kingdoms in Madagascar later Ratongalaza exile with his brothers to secure the throne. Antaisaka People  are related to the Imerina and Betsilo tribe and they primarily Inhabit Southeastern Madagascar, around the city of Farafangana.

The Antaisaka People primarily inhabit the Southeastern Madagascar around the Farafangana and they speak a Malayo-Polynesian language. Antaisaka tribe or ethnic group who are also direct descendants of the Western Sakalva, they cultivate or grow coffee, banana and rice. 

Their houses are made up of Ravinala palm tree and built on stilts the houses have 2 doors. One doors it is believed one function as a normal entrance . 

The 2nd door is usually located on the east side also used for taking out Corpse. The Kibory situated on slopes before the funeral, the corpse has to dry out at a hidden in the forest as it location. 

The Antongil and Antaisaka allied to the Sakalava before the south came in succession which is Betsimisaraka.The Antaisaka subgroups such as Sahafatra, Antambahaokas, Antimoros, Antaifasy and Antiboina. It is claimed Antaisaka lived southeastern part of Madagascar mainly in Vangaindrano at the edge of rivers Mananara and Itonamy, they are known for bravery and being Warriors.

Karoninka People of Senegal and Gambia

Karoninka People can be found in Senegal and Gambia, they are part of the Niger- Congo family also they are related to the Jola People and they live mainly in Casamance in Present day Senegal. Carabane is an Island and Village located in the Southwestern part of Senegal in the mouth of Casamance river it consists of a shonal and alluvium to which soil is added by accumulation in the branches and roots of mangrove trees which cover most of the Island was once considered an arid location where no useful plants were likely to grow, but it now supports several types of fruit tree, the most common of which are mangoes and oranges, Carabane has continued to attract orinthologist interested in its wide variety of birds,  various species of fish are plentiful around the Island but there are few mammals.  

According to their Oral history Karoninka People , They originated from Present day Guinea due to their small numbers, marriage to members of other ethnic groups is common among Karoninkas, and has been identified by elders as one of the reasons for assimilation into both Islam and other language groups.   

Senouroumba is a set of drums used by both Karoninka, Jola and Mandinka, Jola, Karoninkas and Bainounkasi were believed to be the early settlers of Present day Kombo while Sere and Wolof settled in Present day northwest Ninumi By AD 1000,  people from the east arahule, Mandinkas and Fulani later settled along the river in towns and villages, when early Europeans arrived in Present day Gambia in the 15th Century had Kingdoms such as Baddibu, Fuladu, Niani, Kantora and Wuli.   

In Karoninka Culture the food is rice with a spicy sauce and vegetables, tomato sauce with fish,  vegetables such as carrot, cabbage, green peppers, Yassa is a dish from Cassamance is a chicken or fish marinated in lemon juice, pepper and onions,  It is accompanied by plain rice including sauce known as máfe domafa and soupe, Kandja which is made from Okra, fish and palm oil, meals include roasted or grilled meat with beans, steamed millet with vegetables, mutton and gravy is a ceremonial dish.  

In their tradition story tellers are known as a griot they are considered to be historians, poets, musicians and entertainers all in one, they use props, flutes, harps and make songs as they perform each region has a traditional feasts according to its own calendar in the Casamance region the own Oussouye hosts an annual royal feast day, It is held at the end of agricultural seasons and before the beginning they follow Islamic custom in their rites of Passage.

Initiation rites among Karoninkas is to build courage and endurance, communicate traditional and practical Knowledge of life, and transfer responsibility to a younger generation and some of the Knowledge it is believed it cannot be shared, drums also play an Important role in Karoninka Culture, the tradition rhytms of Sabar and tama drums still from the back drop to one of the popular types of music there is a mixture of the African and Cuban sound. It is believed Bainuk, Manjack, Jola, Karoninka and Bandia lead lifestyles which is similar both music and dance play an integral role, and distinctive traditional music such as Yela, the rhythm of which mimic the sound of grain being pounded by women is still practiced many people in Present day Senegal, their musical instruments such as Kora and hoddu are still played during ceremony.  

Karoninka houses are made of mud brick and thatch roofs while the walls are made of millet stalks or reed,  their traditional Kora is a stringed calabash gourd Instruments, symbolizes the singing poet tradition a unique percussion sound is made with a small drum held under the arm. Karoninkas have folk arts, crafts,  cottage Industry, they make jewelery,  baskets, pottery,  wood carvings, handwoven fabrics, handcrafts jewelry includes gold, silver, bronze, beads and amber necklaces, the crafts people fashion animals such as Iguana, crocodile, cow into belts, bags and shoes.

Saturday 28 May 2022

Datoga People of Tanzania

Datoga People can be found in Tanzania they are part of the nomadic nilotic speaking people, the Datoga are grouped into 7 subsgroups they are Bajuta, Gisamjanga, Asimjeeg, Rootigaanga, Bianjianda, Bajuda and Barabayiiga.

They are related to the Massai people, Fulani people and other ethnic groups part of the nomadic nilotic speaking people they migrated from Present day South Sudan they crossed Western Abyssinia Present day Ethiopia, present day Kenya then settled in present day Tanzania around 1500 AD the tribal marks or facial scars traced back to many centuries ago they used tattoos as their tribal marks around their circular patterns of the eyes.

They claimed to be the oldest ethnic group in Tanzania followed by Massai and Hadzabe, their cultures are similar to the Massai and also their traditions as well they used to be part of the Aksumite Empire before migrated to their present day homeland the fresh milk is used for ceremonies and also for drinking they also drink.

Honey beer is a traditional beer made with honey and they have many instruments such as drums and also Violin the violin is used to perform traditional datoga music and for entertainment or culture display. Young men who are datogas have to prove they are warriors by fighting and defeat their enemies and each datoga has symbols for each clans the symbols are wild animals such as Lion, Elephant and Buffalo.

The Jwira Pepesa People of Ghana

Jwira Pepesa People are part of the Akan subgroups they can be found in some parts of the Western Region of Ghana, they are located along the Akobra river and Wassa land between the Agona Junction and Tarkwa their maintown is Dompim. 

They are part of the Niger Congo family among the Jwira Pepesa in the Southern part of the Western Region their language has some Nzema, Wassa, Ahanta and little bit of Ayin which is mixed, they are also related to the Ahanta People of Ghana, Fanti People of Ghana and Ahufo People of Ghana, Jwira Pepesa migration and settlement in Gold Coast Present day Ghana they migrated from Nubia Present day Sudan then settled in Abyssania Present day Ethiopia later settled in Present day Adanse in Ashanti Region of Ghana before they settled in Present day Techiman in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Others claimed they their migration started in Techiman, Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana others believed they originally migrated from their Current location from Sahara desert and Sahel region of Africa into the forested region around the 11th Century they migrated from North and went through Present day Egypt and settled in Nubia Present day Sudan around 500 AD later moved with other Akans and established smaller Kingdoms which grew around 750 AD the Empire of Ghana was later formed the smaller Kingdoms was from 750 AD- 1200 AD and Others claimed because of Islam influence they left Present day Western Sudan crossed Present day Ivory Coast then throughout Present day Togo and settled in Techiman in Brong Ahafo around the 14th Century before settling in their Present day homeland. Their Ancestor was called Kwanza Ekuban the Jwira Pepesa People of Banso and Tumentu share the same common ancestor it is believed the word Jwira derived from Gwira, the Adum Banso in the Western Region is the place of the Gwira the word baŋ means the fence, boundary, wall and fortified place of the Jwira Pepesa. 

Jwira Pepesa language is spoken among the People who lived in some parts of Western Region in Jwira north of Axim from Bamiankaw to Humjibere along the Ankobra river in 18 Villages as well in the Western Region of Ghana, they grow crops such as Cassava, Yam, Groundnuts known as Peanut, Plantains and other crops and they are considered to be of not well known Akan People of Ghana followed by the Ankobra river primarily rises north east of the South of Gulf of Guinea. During funerals they perform their traditional dance and music along with performing in a group known as Band singing and playing high life music some of the Jwira divisions celebrate annual Yam festival and other festivals along with Akpa festival celebrated by the Jwira Pepesa from Dompim the Omanhene of Nsin traditional area in Dompin come together to celebrate and have meeting about discussion with their people about development while others who are willing to help Dompin development can help also the Wassa People of the Wasaa West districts come together to celebrate Akpa and People from Wassa West on invitation contribute as well, Others claimed they are subgroups of the Bia Speaking groups which include Ayin, Baoulê, Chokosi, Anufo, Sefwi, Nzema, Wassa and Jwira Pepesa. Some claimed they used to celebrate a Yam  festival which used to be celebrated during the 5th day of the 5th lunar month and they are considered to be a pair of the Central Tano dialects, Drumming in their Culture is a way they express themselves this including making announcement, communication, welcoming visitors and performing music carving also play a significant role they carved wooden masks and sculptures.

Nambya People of Zimbabwe

Nambya People can be found in Zimbabwe and they are related to the Ndwandwe and Kwanda People of Zimbabwe. They are part of the Bantu Speaking People, they are Inhabitants of the area around Hwange National park, the second biggest national park in Africa after Kruger national park which boasts the big five game. It is believed that Nambya are of Shona Ancestry and they came from Great Zimbabwe after the fall of Great Zimbabwe, a Sub Chief known as Sahwanga fled from Present day Dete. It is said some went to live in Bumbusi, this possibility is reinforced by stone structures that are similar to some of them in Great Zimbabwe and It is believed Nambya are closely related to the Kalanga in Southwestern Zimbabwe and Shona varieties in Present day Central and Eastern Zimbabwe.

According to George Mayomba account on Nambya People of Zimbabwe, They left Masvingo and they came and crossed kana river through most often than not, they travelled through most dangerous animals such as lions, leopards, elephants and snakes of different kinds. They used risky routes because of fear and normally, they had enough food to cover such a journey. They are said to have driven some cattles along with them, after kana river, they approached Lwaye Present day Gwayi river.

They followed along Lwaye river until they came to Its confluence with river Lukuzhe also referred as Lukosi after which they settled at Present day Tinde. As they were planning to leave the place, a daughter of one elder Chief gave birth to a baby boy named “ Pashu” meaning locusts destroying and Indeed there was a great famine caused by these locusts. Then after Tinde, they followed the north-eastern direction and came to an area known as Kabila near Zambezi. “ Kanila” is a Tonga phrase meaning water unfavorable”, to them. Once again, still waiting for summer rains to terminate and continue with the exodus, one of the Princesses gave birth to a baby boy and was named “ Shaba” meaning coloured red. They left them together with a few people to look after her and the children . After this, they abandoned Initial direction and turned west, still along the Gwayi river and finally came to the place known as Chingehali near Present day Kumati.

Leaving the Princess at Chingehali, the next stops was Dopota where they said to have fought a Wese Chief who was a Spiritualist. The Chief was known as Chilukutu. The two did not wedge a battle at once. What happened was Nambya Chief learnt he called a Spiritualist to speculate how strong was the other Chief . They could easily conquered him despite his reputation. The army was launched to attack he was defeated and Chief Chilukutu was believed to be executed. The Nambya clan continued in the search of greener pastures until they came to Detema Present day Dete.

According to the Oral tradition on Nambya People of Zimbabwe, there was a ruler known as Rozvi and he had 3 sons they were known as Dewa, Dende and Sabhatule. The Paramount Chief was known as Mambo, disputed of Chieftainship between his son arose. It is said Dende decided to break away from his father ‘s Kingdom and set up his own court rules, and take over or ruled his followers. Dende organized strong people such as Soldiers, Engineer, Scouts, women and young ones and they left moving Northward in a search of greener pastures . According to Wentzel, In the 18th Century Dende one of the three sons of Rozvi broke away from his father to established himself as an Independent ruler in Present day Northwestern Zimbabwe, It is believed Nambya were considered to be the descendants of Rozvi and they originated from Great Zimbabwe. According to Kufakunesa Mawira, Dende and his followers, a patrilineal people of the clan which the totem is a monkey who were later known referred as Nambya, entered the Leya territory via Lowere Gwayi, setting in Bhale area between Gwayi, Nyatuwe and Lukosi rivers. They assimilated some of the Leya who had not resisted their Incorporation into Nambya state. On the top of a strategic hill named “ Shangano “ meaning to meet and build a stone walled enclosure and It became the first Capital city of Nambyas. Nambya People moved from Shangano city to Bumbusi area in the Upper Deka valley during the reign of the 5th Whange, Shana ruled from 1834- 1860. The walls of Shangano ruins are built of a vast quantity of small sandstone rocks laid on top of each other to a height of about four to five feet in the modern day most of the wall enclosure mostly collapsed due to unprotecting from the weather and wild animals. The Hwange in Zimbabwe include Matowa, Shangano, and Bumbusi. King Nchengwa Nengasha was the last King of Nambya in terms of authority before European settlers was claimed to have opened wanike colliery company. Rebellion brought Wange Kingdom down from 1896 after the death of King Nengasha, all leaders were appointed as Chiefs of Chiefdoms iinstead of Kingdoms and Chief Nengasha later Chief Nekatambe ruled from 1903 to 1950.

According to Anthropologist Gwayo, Nambya People are descendants of Rozvi dynasty, and It is believed that they came from Great Zimbabwe and they now live clustered around Hwange, a town named after King Hwange a native Nambya. In their Culture marriage has been conducted basically three ways , which include Kuhwaya, tobela and Kutizhisa. For a couple to be pronounced husband and wife, the groom has to go through a process that shows his appreciation by paying Ishasha. It is said payment includes Imbuji yokwa tate namai and Pyangi lani yo kuno. The groom goes to his in laws with Izhendeyi for place to sleep. Early the following day, the grandmother or aunt takes the bride with cold water while they oil the grom as a symbol of weakling and the hardship of life. Mashaja is a meal of Sadza and placed in one plate form which the the bride and groom eat at the same time and throw the first morsels away at the same time.

In Nambya tradition, The groom shares his food with the bride’s younger sister however, he does not eat more than the girl basically to just test the girl if he is caring. In their Culture, the bride’s virginity is very important and celebrated. If the bride was a virgin, the family of the groom would carry a pot full of beer to the in laws as an Indication of Virginity and also praise the parents of the bride that they took good care of her daughter. The Bride also goes through bedroom lessons so that she is a complete knowledgeable woman, her grandmother teaches her how to respect, cook and love your husband and satisfy him as well. Nambya make Hwange Isangwa palm basket from woven IIala fibre and According to Ndzimu Unami Moyo account, In 1505 the Portuguese was believed to have formed their first settlement on the southeastern coast, the Makulanga Present day Bakalanga, BaNambya also known as Nambya and VhaVenda occupied the territory seaboard between Zambesi and Sabi rivers.

According to Onalenna Chabaya’s account on Nambya People of Zimbabwe, Kalanga are made up or divided into 120 major ethnic groups comprising Balozwi, BaNambya, VhaVenda, BaTalawunda, Babirwa, BaShangwe, BaTembe, BaTwamabo, BaTswapong, BaLobedu, BaLembethu and It is believed they all scattered acrossed Southern Africa from Kwa Zulu Natal all the way to Present day Tanzania and Present day Zimbabwe.

According to Mr. Musa Singland, there are about two tribes similarities, Shona are classified as Western Shona the Bakalanga and Eastern Shona. The Only Western Shona groups are Bakalanga are founded in Southwestern Zimbabwe and Botswana. The Bakalanga- Banyai groups include BaNambya, Bayela, Badhalaunda or Batalaote and Balima. Others claimed BaNambya also known as Nambya were started by one of Changamire’s Dombo’s son known as Sahwangawho lost out a succession and BuNanzva’s the northern dynasty by BaNambya but his brother known as Luwanayika crossed Zambezi and started a Lozi dynasty of Luwananyika. It is believed Sahwanga changed his totem to Shoko and ruled together with his son in law which is Chief Nelukoba. The Bajawunda are Originally Kalanga and It is believe BaNyamba are either originally Shona as well.

Nambya grow crops such as sorghum, millet, cassava, pumpkin, yam, plantain and coconuts. Sorghum are used to make traditional beer called hwahwa and they keep cattles, sheeps and goats. The Cattles are kept but although useful for milk and their villages consists of mud and wattle huts, granaries and common kraals. Their Principal Chief Inherit position and power in a divine manner and as a King headed them. In their Culture, there is Inheritance, In customary marriages all property rights during marriage or after divorce or death belong to the man, children and relatives of the man or husband. Nambya have a rich tradition of metal working and wood carving also women make pottery and hand-woven basket while men work as fishermen, farmers and blacksmiths and In Nambya Concept, They believe in a Supreme being and Ancestors who heal and protect them from evil, they also believe ancestral spirits are benevolent or malevolent they may Inspire Individual talents such as healing, artistic ability. Nambya Traditional medicine practices have succeeded in curing and scientific medicines are obtained from plants. Nambya built an anceint wall around 12th and 15th Centuries AD . Nambya Chiefs must be able to recite the history of their totems and they also use fabric painting and Iron work. In their tradition, they have contact with their ancestors and there is a ritual ceremony which lasts all night and a great great grand fathers are believed to pass down messages to their Children, grandchildren and their Children ‘s children’s children throughout the bloodline which is believed to be from the Creator a Supreme being which is God who cannot been seen and he is considered to be a spirit in the heavens, some of their names are associated with both God and the Ancestors furthermore, their ancestors are considered to be the Universal Intercessor. Nambya totems are Identify with different clans and historically made up the dynasties of their ancient civilisation.

Their totems include animals such as Monkey, Lion, Zebra, Leopard, Snakes, Elephants and Hippopotamus. Among Nambya their music has influenced both traditional rhythms and sounds which are created using Instruments such as flute, marimba, drums, xylophone and mbira. Nambya Instrument is a small hand- held Instrument belonging to a family known as Lamellophones also referred as thumb pianos . The Mbira keys or Iron prongs are mounted on a hardwood sound board which is often placed skin and the calabash shell acts as deze. Most Nambya mud and wattle or sun- drieds are used in house buildings and may use concrete blocks.

Traditionally, houses are round with thatched roofing, square or rectangular with zinc sheet roofing, kitchens are built as thatched mud huts. Millet and Sorghum are grinded into a flour which is cooked as a thick porridge. Roasted and Stewed meat is used during celebrations such as ox, cow, goat, sheep are slaughtered and accompanied by rice and traditional beer is made by women. Nambya People celebrate festivals such as harvest festival, Shangano festivals and other types of festivals.

During Shangano, drama acting, music, script writing and dancing are taught and they performed Umbuyiso a traditional ceremony for enthronement of Chiefs and the rain ceremony is celebrated once a year before raining in September. Traditional dancers wear Ingubo, Micheka or Yermijinu made up of black cloth and ox tail and the colour black signifies the life and death of the ancestors and the ox tail symbolized bringing the living and ancestors together. Nambya literature includes folklore, myths and traditional legends. Traditional arts includes sculptures, crafts , basket weaving, mat weaving and pottery, textiles, jewellery and carving. Nambya cultural dances are scared such as Miliya, Malila and Mhande.

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