Saturday 20 April 2019

Where is The Cook Islands?

Location of The Cook Islands on a map.

Where is the capital of The Cook Islands?

Located in the continent of Oceania ,
Cook Islands covers 236 square kilometers of land, making it the 219th largest nation in terms of land area.
The Cook Islands is a dependant territory of New Zealand. The population of The Cook Islands is 10,777 (2012) and the nation has a density of 46 people per square kilometer.

The currency of The Cook Islands is the New Zealand Dollar (NZD). As well, the people of The Cook Islands are refered to as Cook Islander.

The dialing code for the country is 682 and the top level internet domain for Cook Islander sites is .ck.
The Cook Islands does not share land borders with any countries.
To learn more, visit our detailed Cook Islands section.

Quick facts

Population 10,777
Density 45.7 / km 2 ( 118.3 / mi2 )
Language English
Capital Avarua
Currency New Zealand Dollar
Land Area 236 km 2 (91 mi2 )
Minimum Longitude -165.830
Maximum Longitude -157.320
Mininum Latitude -21.950
Maximum Latitude -8.960

What is the capital of The Cook Islands?

Location of Avarua on a map.
Avarua is the capital city of The Cook Islands. It has a population of 13,373, and is located on a latitue of -21.21 and longitude of -159.78.

Quick Facts About Avarua, the Capital Of The Cook Islands

City Avarua

Country The Cook Islands
Population 13,373
Longitude -159.77500000
Latitude -21.20778000
Elevation 6 meters over sea level

Most popular cities in The Cook Islands

Nearby Countries

The United States Of America

•culled from

Monday 15 April 2019

The Indigenous Peoples of Australia

The term Indigenous or Aboriginal Australians refers to two major groups of people who were the original inhabitants of the island of Australia and surrounding areas.

The term Indigenous or Aboriginal Australians refers to two major groups of people who were the original inhabitants of the island of Australia and surrounding areas. Generally Indigenous Australians are characterized by two groupings:

• Indigenous, or Aboriginal, Australians    who lived across the territory of what    is today Australia.

• The Torres Strait Islanders people        who primarily lived in the Torres Strait Islands in between Australia and Papua New Guinea.

These sub-groups have their own different and distinct cultures, languages, and ideas. In fact, there were at one time over 500 Indigenous Australian nations. Today, only around 145 Indigenous nations remain, most of which are endangered. At the time of the arrival of European settlers, many Indigenous people were victims of massacres, disease, and violence. Today, the Australian government has been attempting reparations and has put several policies in place to recognize Indigenous groups.

Regional Groups

There are several communities of Indigenous Australians. These communities include the Murrawarri, Koori (Koorie), Ngunnawal, Goorie, Murrdi, Murri, Nyungar, Yamatji, Wangai, Nunga, Anangu, Yapa, Arrernte, Yolngu, Bininj, Tiwi, Anindilyakwa, and Palawah who numbered close to 750,000 at the time of the first European settlements. Most of these sub-groups have smaller ethnic branches. The second group, Torres Strait Islanders are relatives of the Papuan people found in New Guinea although Australia normally includes them as Aboriginals. The Torres Strait Islanders live on the over 100 Torres Strait Islands.


Indigenous Australians speak several language groups, more than 100 of which have close linguistic ties. Some of the languages have speakers numbering only between 50 and 100 people. The languages fall into two main classes: Pama–Nyungan and non-Pama–Nyungan languages. The Pama–Nyungan language family is the larger of the two. Speakers of the non-Pama–Nyungan language groups generally live in the north and the western part of the country from Kimberley to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Torres Strait Islanders speak the Papuan language.


Defining who is an Indigenous Australian or a Torres Strait Islander was a challenge in Australia for a long time. In 1983, the Judiciary defined the two groups as "persons of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent who identify themselves as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islanders and are accepted as such by the community in which they live." In 2016, Indigenous Australians numbered 590,056 whereas Torres Strait Islanders numbered 32,345. Those who were both Indigenous and Torres Strait Islanders were 26,767. The total Indigenous population, as per these figures, made up 2.8% of Australia’s population. The distribution of the Indigenous population in 2006 was as follows: New South Wales – 216,176, Queensland – 186,482, Western Australia – 75,978, Northern Territory – 58,248, Victoria – 47,788, South Australia – 34,184, Tasmania – 23,572, and Australian Capital Territory – 6,508 among others spread across territories under Australia.


Many Indigenous Australian nations have a strong history of storytelling. Oral history indicates that the belief systems involved reverence for the land and “Dreamtime.” Dreamtime involves dreaming that stretches back in time to the periods of ancestors and the “First Peoples.” Almost all indigenous Australians also had traditional healers who were individuals who commanded respect in the society and were also the ones who interpreted Dreamtime stories. They also practiced rock art, bark painting, ball games, and weapon games among others.

Challenges Facing the Indigenous Community

The term “Stolen Generations” refers to members of the Indigenous community who were affected by a government policy that began in the 1800s and ended in the 1970s. Throughout this time period, the government and church missions forcibly removed many Indigenous children from their families and placed them in orphanages, missions, and foster families. They gave the children new identities and new religions in the name of assimilation into Australian society. Repercussions from this traumatic shared history are still felt in Indigenous communities today.
Indigenous Australians were not granted the right to vote until 1962. In 1967, the Australian government finally amended the constitution to allow for Indigenous Australians to stand for elective parliamentary positions.

By Mark Owuor Otieno

•culled from

Demographics and Ethnic Groups of Australia

Most contemporary Australians can trace their ancestry back to the British Isles, while only 3% are considered indigenous or aboriginal peoples.

The population of Australia today is approximately 24 million people. The country is vast, with large tracts of uninhabited land. Nearly 90% of people live in the urban areas, which gives it a low population density. The residents here are some of the most ethnically diverse in the world, around a quarter of them are originally from outside of Australia. The majority of Australians
speak English .

History of Colonization

Australia was once a land of only aboriginal and indigenous people. Prior to the 1788 British colonization, over 500 different indigenous groups controlled the area. Each had their language, culture, and belief system. These individuals witnessed the changing of their home due to the arrival of European immigrants.
Records indicate that Dutch explorers were the first to come to the continent, but it was the British who decided to colonize towards the end of the 1700’s. The first colony was established as a place for exiled prisoners. Continued immigration forced the native inhabitants from their territories. The era was filled with conflict and disease that led to the loss of nearly 60% of the population. Eventually, the country was separated into six colonies.
In the mid-1800’s, settlers discovered gold. The hope for employment and financial gain brought thousands of more immigrants from other parts of Europe as well as China and India. By the late 1800’s, the majority of the population had been born in Australia of British or Irish descent.

History of Immigration

After the colonies were united as one federation, the government enacted an Immigration Restriction Act. The goal of this policy was to restrict immigration to Europeans only. This period is sometimes referred to as the starting point for the White Australia Policy (an unofficial term). The immigration test required that immigrants seeking Australian residency write a dictated statement that was presented to them in any European language. This system worked to prohibit the entrance of thousands of migrants; after 1909, nobody passed the exam.

Post World War II, the Australian 
government encouraged immigration to the country. This movement provided a home for many displaced post-war refugees. Immigrants did not, however, only come from Europe during this 15 year period. Many Asian immigrants took the opportunity to make Australia their home as well. From 1945 to 1960, 1.6 million people arrived.

Ethnic Diversity Today

Understanding the history of colonization and immigration in Australia helps to understand the current makeup of ethnic backgrounds found today. British continue to be the majority with 67.4% of the population. This is followed by other European ethnicities: Irish (8.7%), Italian (3.8%), and German (3.7%). Those of Chinese ethnicity represent 3.6% of the population and the Aboriginal, and Native Australians are now only 3%. Other ethnicities can also be found, though in smaller numbers: Indian (1.7%), Greek (1.6%), Dutch (1.2%), and Other (5.3%). The “Other” ethnicity includes individuals from many countries, particularly European and Asian.

Effects on Society

Today, immigration policy in Australia celebrates multiculturalism and promotes residency status among people of varying ethnic backgrounds. The country now celebrates its differences and boasts its cultural diversity (over 200 languages spoken). In recent years, few social problems have occurred as a result of this diversity with the exception of non-English speaking immigrants who have a difficult time finding high-level, skilled jobs. Some Australians have spoken out against increased immigration levels, however, especially from Asian countries. The government has responded by adopting multicultural policies and has also recognized the disadvantage and structural violence established against the native populations thereby allocating more funds for social programs to benefit the group.

Ethnic Background Of Australians

Rank Principal Ancestral Ethnicity or Nationality Share of Australian Population
1 British 67.4%
2 Irish 8.7%
3 Italian 3.8%
4 German 3.7%
5 Chinese 3.6%
6 Aboriginal Australian 3.0%
7 Indian 1.7%
8 Greek 1.6%
9 Dutch 1.2%
10 Other 5.3%

By Amber Pariona 

•culled from
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