Friday 30 September 2022



Professor Saburi Biobaku, the chairman of the Yoruba Historical Research in his book titled "Odu" volume 4 said “ The history of the WARRI Monarchy and the ITSEKIRI People history is one of the best documented in NIGERIA, beginning from the great YORUBA migrations of the 12th Century." He said this, in reference to the great migration of the 9th to 12th century that saw the movement of Yoruboid speaking people and communities from various parts of what makes up the Yoruba people today to the current location of the Itsekiri people and some part of the lower Niger.

This can be substantiated from the History of Ureju, Omadino and other communities that made up what the Itsekiri people called Aborigines communities. They all trace their migration from various Yoruba areas to their current location around the 9th to 12th century. We also have some of the Okotomu Irigbo people that trace their Origin from Igala land. This migration form the earliest records of the history that shape what is know today as the Itsekiri history.

When these migrant moved down to their current location, did they meet anyone on ground? It is of interest to note that Sir William Moore in his book "The History Of Itsekiri" page 22 had this to say “When the Kingdom of Iwere was founded, there was no nation or tribe known as the Sobo on the coastline of Warri River, nor was there any settlement on the land besides those of Ode Itsekiri. However, there were of course the four large Sobo towns far away in the hinterland and as already stated, Ugo, Agbassa-Oto, Iyede and Ughelli, the people of which had all come from Benin at different periods." From the above account of William Moore and other collaborative information from the various itsekiri aboriginal communities, it is easy to come to the conclusion that the Itsekiri were the first people to settle in their current location.

For us to have a more in-depth understanding of this, let us take a peep at the records on the division of Benin Kingdom as recorded in pre colonial times. It is pertinent for us to note that the word Benin was for long used in reference to geographic location made up of various ethnic groups not an ethnicity of people.

John Leighton Wilson 1856, Page 192 in his book "Western Africa: Its History, Condition, and Prospects" has this to say about Benin “Many years since the kingdom was divided into two minor provinces, one of which is still known as Benin, and the other as Ware.  the capital of Benin, covers a large extent of ground, but does not contain, according to Captain Adams, more than 15,000 inhabitants. The town and island of Ware, which is the principal sea-port and commercial depot of the kingdom, has a population of something like 5000 inhabitants." From the above, we can deduct that Warri (Iwere, Oery, Aweri, Itsekiri) was once an important part of Benin.

Let us take a look at the account of the early Portuguese that came to that region.

In A.t.t. Livro das Ilhas (fol. 6lv.-62r. 20 March 1500) the Portuguese said “We arrived  Oeyre, a port of Benin on the 6th day of March 1486." The name of this port occurs several times in documents of this period with variant spellings that makes it clear that the Portuguese were using the local name (A.t.t . Corpo Cronologico Nov. 1516), Ovyere, Oere.

From the early record, it is easy to say with confidence, that most of the people that made up Warri Kingdom and the Itsekiri nation came from the South West of Nigeria and settled in an area later known as Benin which has Iwere (Ovyere, Oere, Oeyre) as its principal port.


The people we call itsekiri today, have they always spoken this same language as they do today?  In the History of Itsekiri by William Moore 1936, we were told that when Prince Ginuwa left Benin to Warri, he changed the name of the people's language to Itsekiri in honour of the leader of the people he met called Mr Itsekiri. If we were to accept this as said, it meant that the people spoke a language before Ginuwa arrived, we don’t know the name of the language but we know Ginuwa changed the language name. In order to help us identify the type of language we will have to rely on historical record from that period.

In 26-12-1640 Columbin de Nantes, Report to Propaganda Fide: proposes a mission. Father Columbin's has this to say about the language of the inhabitants of Benin: “In this kingdom the people are very easily led to embrace the Faith, and priests can live here with greater ease than in other parts of Guinea because of the healthy climate, the fertility of the soil and because the people are more generous. Their language is simple: it is called the Licomin language and is universally used in these parts, just like Latin in Europe”. A.S.C Lettere di Germania, Francia, Fiandraea, Inghilterra, 1641. vol.83. fol. 379-80. "Licomin' was a vague name for the inland Yoruba-speaking peoples.

Interestingly, there are still remnants of the Olukunmi (Licomin) speaking people. Their language is closely related to the Itsekiri language than the Western Yoruba language. Let us also see what an eye witness has to say about the language of Warri and Benin in the 18th century.

In Memoires du capitaine Landolpe, contenant l'histoire de ses voyages pendant trente-six ans, aux cotes d'Afrique 1820 Jean Francois Landolphe [(1747-1825)] Said "In the past, Owhère and Benin were one kingdom. ….. The language and customs of the two states are the same. There is however this difference that the king of Owhère does not make any human sacrifice that there are three classes of nobility in Benin, and only two in Owhère."

It is important for us to note that Jean Francois Landolphe a French captain came to Warri in 1768 to set up a French colony in Warri. He had regular visit to both the king of Warri and Benin and lived in Warri up till 1789. His memo was published into the above mentioned book shortly before he died. So his accounts or Benin and Warri can be accepted as eyewitness report.

From the letter of Father Columbin's above and the eyewitness account of Captain Landolphe, we have been able to have a better knowledge of the historical background of the Itsekiri language. We can confidently say that the Itsekiri have always spoken a language close to what they speak in this modern day,  Yoruboid language.


Let us dive into historical records to see what was written about Warri Kingdom location. 1571-4 mission to Warri 1620 Pedro da Cunho: Ad limina report stated “Besides these three islands, there is a town of Christians on the continent in the kingdom of Warri, called St. Augustine, because its people first received the Faith from religious of the Hermits of St. Augustine. One of them, called Brother Franciscus a Matre Dei, baptized the present king at the time he was still a prince and successor designate. He gave him the name Sebastian, after the then king of Portugal. That religious was a truly apostolic man, and had such authority over the barbaric people that in front of them, to the great amazement of all, he destroyed a tree that was very popular for incantations and diabolic superstitions among them. For they thought it would be impossible for their gods to put up with such an insult and that the religious himself who was the author of the insult could survive unpunished, as he did. After this religious went back, the bishops of that time agreed to send a priest to the king to reside with him and exercise the work of pastor”.  

Diogo da Encarnação: Appeal for priests  27-9-1584 read “There is another king in Rio Forcado [ Warri] who is already Christian, but is calling for priests, because he has none in his kingdom.  The record of Diogo do SS. mo Sacramento: 14-12-1584 read “There is another king of what is called Rio Forcado, which is in alliance with the Priester John and Congo, who is already Christian. He also calls for priests so that they can do baptisms in his kingdom.”

The above are some of the earliest recorded history on this part of West Africa and everyone of them identified Warri as an independent kingdom.

Do we have idea of the boundaries of the Kingdom of Warri? The ancient boundary of kingdom of Warri covers both bank of Benin River down to river Calabar. This we can see from John Barbot 1682 and extract from Captain Landolphe Memo 1820 below.

John Barbot (1678 – 1682)  A description of the coast of North and South-Guinea; and of Ethiopia Inferior , vulgarly Angola :being a new and accurate account of the Western maritime countries of Africa in six books London 1732.

In this chapter I shall speak of the kingdom of Ouwere or Forcado, and of the coast from cape Fermosa, where the Ethiopian gulph or bight of Guinea commences, to the river of new Calabar or Calbary. Captain Okro September 1786 (Captain Okro is Chief Okorodudun, a Chief Of Ogiame Erejuwa I A.K.A Sebastiao Manuel Octobia 1760–1795). Landolphe’s memoirs “The sovereign of this state owns not only both banks of the Benin river but also all the rivers of these parts as far as the tributaries of the Calabar”.

In part two we are going to look at the foundation of the kingdom, a critical look at Prince Ginuwa from the Benin and Warri historic records, the spread of itsekiri people and the infusion of some other tribes into the Iwere race.

By Oritsegbubemi Adrian Edema 

Thursday 29 September 2022

Why The Igbo Hate Benjamin Adekunle

The attack on Lagos was unnecessary. Ojukwu knew for certain that the Yorùbá's had no stomach then for war and also was not going to allow any assault on the East from the West. The key Yoruba Generals, after trying their best to mediate on both sides, and after Yaradua shot Adekunle without any consequences have told Gowon to fight his own war.

The Igbos were winning at the initial stages of the East-North war, they East have taken all what the Federal Government had and destroyed them. They have defeated all the Generals from the North completely, all Ojukwu needed to do was shift from defensive mode to attack against the North, they would have gained ground, shifted the battle ground to the North proper and put the civilians under pressure, forcing Gowon to negotiate East exit.

But that was not what he did.

He instead saw it as opportunity for the Igbos to conquer the whole south and rule the Yorùbá's. Even though we nurtured him as we nurtured Zik, Achebe and most of the Igbo leadership, he repaid us with Contempt. He knew the Yorùbá's had no weapon base, complement of the British who diverted all the Military arsenal to Kaduna and left the West completely unprotected from attacks by the other tribes because the British feared the Yorùbá's more.

Ojukwu knew this, Awolowo told him so at their last meeting in Onitsha, a conversation that was secretly recorded and the tape that has been transcribed. So why was it the Yorùbá's the Igbo leadership chose to attack instead of pursuing the Fulanis that attacked them. The answer can be deduced in Ojukwu' s letter to Banjo, promising to make him the governor of SW, answering to him.

But Ojukwu was foolish, his contempt for the Yorùbá's made him forget our tenacity when threatened. 

Adekunle rose up and formed a new Fighting Battalion made up of Yoruba people called 3rd Marine Commando, not with the approval of Gowon and the North. Gowon was powerless, already facing certain defeat.

Yorùbá's taxed themselves and bought new weapons for the new Battalions and the weapons were not purchased from the British. Adekunle' s wife and children were caught in the battle line by the sudden attack by Biafra. Adekunle was the one who rescued most of the experienced Igbo fighting men from the North, yet Ojukwu went after Adekunle's family in Warri.

Yorùbá's had more historical relationships with the Calabars then than the Igbos, there was a Yoruba town in Calabar then, so Adekunle sneaked to Calabar and formed the second front made of SS fighters who were already been rubbished by the Igbos when they thought they will win the war. It was those Eadt- West assaults on Biafra that led to the Biafra demise. 

Adekunle sunk Ojukwu and Biafra. He attacked their Western moving front with speed boats, which he recruited the Ijaw boys for, deterring the movements at Ore, forced them back to Benin and crushed them. Then move them to Asaba and back across River Niger.

OJUKWU set up defenses across river Niger expecting Adekunle to follow, but he didn't, he went after Biafra Navy instead making sure that the Igbos will never threaten the Yorùbá's again from the sea.

Gowon was furious that Adekunle would not pursue Biafra so he brought Murtala to Benin to do the Job, apart from Murtala sacking the Central Bank and stealing all the money, he was a completely useless human being. He was defeated over and over, destroying the lives of many soldiers. Yoruba soldiers refused to fight with him totally.

Adekunle captured Bonny, sacked PH and then went after Biafra stronghold in Owerri. He attacked Owerri both from PH and Calabar, a completely inch by inch war. The Igbos best fighting men and women and their officers where in Owerri and that battle was the bloodiest. When Adekunle conquered Owerri, everyone knew that the war was over, it was only a matter of time.

The story of the war was documented by foreign press, expecially Military Press, who came to witness the incredible fighting skills and strategies been displayed in PH and Owerri. Adekunle had already made International news and reputation as one of the best Warrior-General of modern warfare, and the best to emerge from Africa. Every news outlets wanted to interview and document his troops. He had the best officers Nigeria ever produced, trained by him. They led their forces from the front and created magic that brought the whole world press to Nigeria battle field.

Gowon did not defeat Biafra, the Fulanis did not defeat Biafra, it was the Biafra Leadership disrespect and contempt for the Yoruba people that defeated Biafra. Yoruba whooped the Igbos Ass.

Yes, towards the end of the war, it was also the Yoruba people who came up with the reconciliation plan, no winner, no vanquished. The Yorùbá people of Lagos who paid for and developed Surulere where made to give up their ownership of those buildings up to Lawanson to resettled the Igbos. Schools in Lagos, primary and secondary where expanded to accommodate the resettled Igbos. Spaces were created for the Igbos in secondary schools depriving the Yorùbá's in the process. Yorubas were not initially happy, but Yoruba leadership went around to create the awareness that the Igbos were out cousins and that the war was a family feud and it is over, we need to bind the wounds of our cousins.

Yet look at now, look at the version of history that the Igbos fed their own children. Still filled with contempt against the Yorùbá's and lies, purposeful calculated lies just like before the war. Now Igbos own Lagos and Ibadan, they built everything in Yoruba land, the Yorùbás were just savages. That is what they teach their children, contrary to the facts.

Yet, can you blame them? What are the stories Yorùbá's are telling their Children? Do your children know the truth about events in your lives when you were young? If you are over 58, I shouldn't be telling you the stories I just did, you lived through it, what did you tell your children?

By Tony Mosunmade


Late Teslim Balogun.

(1927 - 1972)

Legendary Apapa Bombers, Marine Athletics, UAC XI, Railway XI, Pan Bank Team, Dynamos Club, SCOA XI (all Nigeria), Peterborough United, Skegnes Town, Queen's Park Rangers, Hold beach United (all England), Ibadan Lions Nigeria, 5 times Challenge Cup winner in 7 finals, First Nigerian to signed professional contract abroad and Nigeria international striker.


The cosmopolitan city known today as Ikorodu was a massive forest in the early seventeenth century, it was used for game hunting by the Princes of Shagamu, precisely the children of Ọba Koyelu - The second Akarigbo of Orilẹ Offin.

The eldest of them was Olusoga also known as Oga, followed by Lasunwon, Rademo, Anoko, Osonusi, Igimisoje, Kilaro, Oladepo and lastly Sekumade. Oga was said to be the most powerful and influential of them all.

Initially, Oga and his siblings only used the area as a camp, soon after they discovered how strategic the area was for doing business as traders from Shagamu, Ijebu and Epe ply the route to the coast. So the brothers decided to make it their permanent settlement.

The area was the home to a now extinct specie of plant called 'Odu' - it was a kind of vegetable that blackens and used for dyeing cloth by Remo women hence the traders usually refer to the settlement as OKO-ODU meaning Odu farm.It was later corrupted to Okorodu and subsequently to "Ikorodu".

As the settlement began to expand, Olusoga being eldest and the most powerful hunter took responsibility for the expansion of the village, shortly before his death, he received a large contingent of Benin migrant led by a wealthy merchant called Eregbouwa or Rebugbawa.

After his death, there was need for proper administration of the town, his brother became the Oloja meaning the ''village head'' or market head according to some quarters, the influential Eregbouwa was made the Olisa - the prime minister.

Till this day, the Obaship goes to the Akarigbo line while the Olisaship goes to the descendant of Eregbouwa.

The tragic story of the first Black African gold medallist who was executed by firing squad

His involvement in politics and later military activities have made many people forget that Emmanuel Ifeajuna was the first ever black African to win a gold medal.

Born in Nigeria in 1935, Ifeajuna was a high jumper, a skill he learnt while still in school. He participated in national competitions including the 1954 Nigerian Athletics Championships that saw him establish his name as a prolific high jumper. After jumping 6 foot 5.5 inches (1.97 m) at this competition, he qualified to represent his country at the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games.

While in Vancouver where the competition took place, Ifeajuna broke both the competition and the British Empire records in high jump. He did all this without his right shoe. He was considered a hero and received such a grand welcome, complete with a parade when he returned to Nigeria after the competition. He became such a celebrity that his photo was used on the cover of exercise books in Nigeria.

He, however, stopped training in the game and opted to go back to school. He joined the University College of Ibadan, where he became involved in student politics and became friends with some of Nigeria’s biggest poets, J.P Clark and Christopher Okigbo. Ifeajuna would organise a number of protests, but would not participate in many of them according to the accounts of his friends and schoolmates.

After completing his university studies, he went to Abeokuta to teach but left the profession in 1960 to join the military. Because of his education, Ifeajuna rose the ranks to become a Major in 1966.

Dissatisfied with how the government was running affairs after independence, Ifeajuna became a plotter of Nigeria’s bloodiest coup together with Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu, Timothy Onwuatuegwu, Chris Anuforo, Don Okafor, Adewale Ademoyega and Humphrey Chukwuka.

It is recorded that Ifeajuna not only arrested then-Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (who later died in detention) but also killed other army officials including Brigadier Zakariya Maimalari, who had come to him for help and Lieutenant Colonel Abogo Largema.

The coup was prevented by Major-General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, who later took over power to become the first military head of state. Following the failure of the coup, Ifeajuna had no choice but to run away. With the help of his friends, he travelled to Benin and headed to Ghana where he was welcomed by Kwame Nkrumah.

His stay in Ghana was shortlived as Nkrumah’s government would be overthrown shortly afterwards. He returned to Nigeria amid assurances from Emeka Ojukwu, who would later become the leader of the Republic of Biafra, that his life was not at risk.

Ifeajuna got back into the military and became part of the Biafran Army. However, Ojukwu would accuse Ifeajuna and other top military leaders of treason in 1967. He claimed that Ifeajuna and his mates were busy negotiating with Nigeria via the British and wanted to overthrow him and take power for themselves.

In a hastily-conducted trial, Ifeajuna was sentenced to death by firing squad and was executed on September 25, 1967. According to reports, his last words were:

You may kill me now, but I am afraid it is too late. I am sorry for you all because it won’t be long before they get all of you. The Nigerians are already in your midst.”

Compared to most of the 1966 coup planners and the leaders of the Biafran revolution, Ifeajuna has not been featured prominently in Nigerian history.

He left behind an unpublished manuscript about the January 1966 coup that caught the attention of many people who believed that it would reveal some facts about the event.

Why is [the term] kabbalah used in Ifá Esoteric Yoruba Kabbalah? Isn’t Kabbalah Jewish?

Kabbalah is actually a universal and non-sectarian philosophy and spiritual discipline that teaches us how to receive the divine light and integrate it into our lives so that we can evolve, develop, unfold and mature morally, ethically and spiritually. Kabbalah is for eradicating selfishness and acquiring selflessness [overflowing love and compassion].  Kabbalah is for overcoming and transcending powerlessness and becoming filled with continual waves of ever increasing divine power, strength, intelligence and ability.

Even thought the science of Kabbalah was adopted, grafted upon and used within the framework of Judaism, Kabbalah itself transcends and predates Judaism. Kabbalah a perfect and divine system and science of spiritual enlightenment, empowerment and unfoldment that can be applied and practiced by anyone. Kabbalah teaches how to successfully receive and employ divine blessings, endowments, [spiritual] powers and benefits. Ifá is such a divinely constituted system and science that is exclusively dedicated to teaching us how to successfully receive and employ divine blessings, endowments, [spiritual] powers and benefits, and as such can rightly be called kabbalah.

The foundational principles, teachings and practices of Kabbalah are universal and the science of Kabbalah exists everywhere though it is called by different names depending on the time period and culture where it emerges. Calling it by the name Kabbalah is not what is important. What is important is the understanding and practice of its principles in all the aspects of ones life. Kabbalah simply means the science that teaches us the way to quickly and safely receive divine light, understanding and spiritual power. 

When we carefully study and consider the profound teachings of the Ifá literary corpus we very quickly come to understand that what Òrúnmìlà revealed was a science, method, practice and philosophy that leads us safely and unerringly to fulfillment, maturity, intelligence and power. Ifá teaches us how to RECEIVE [kabbalah means the art, wisdom and science of receiving divine wisdom, power, benefit and blessing]  divine power, grace and wisdom or ÀSE in a systematic, orderly, gradual and progressive way and hence the founder of Ifá Esoteric Yoruba Kabbalah very wisely adopted the use of the universal and non-sectarian word Kabbalah because Ifá is the science that teaches us how to receive [kabbalah means to receive] divine blessings, healing and correction, and how to right perceive the world and our place in it, and how to properly operate our lives within this world so are to achieve the maximum amount and maximum quality of blessings, benefits, prosperity and unfoldment in an optimal time period.

Ifá is written in a sacred and ingeniously codified language devised by Òrúnmìlà. When you are taught to correctly understand and apply the confided confidential teachings of Òrúnmìlà in Odu Ifá you will will experience immediate and direct contact with the upper spiritual worlds, the world of primordial power, the world of the holy emanator and the supreme absolute truth [Enitolodun - Olorun Alaaye]. The goal of Òrúnmìlà for us is Ifáyelele - the unsurpassed state of excellence, perfection, satisfaction, harmony and fulfillment.

Saturday 24 September 2022

Ifá - A Computer Programmer’s Perspective

For some of us who earn our daily bread from programming computers (I have been doing this for over 2 decades), making the connection between Ifá binary notation and programming is a no brainer.

We programmers write codes/instructions (incantations) on the cpu - made from silicon (sand) to carry out our desires.

The parallel between a Babaláwo and a computer programmer is striking. We write on sand (silicon/cpu), a Babalawo writes on Iyerosun (camwood powder). We chant/write binary codes, a Babaláwo recites Odù Ifá!

In essence, a computer code is àfọ̀ṣẹ par excellence! In Yoruba, àfọ̀ṣẹ means “oun tí a fọ̀ tí ó sì ṣẹ” - something commanded to happen.

Our incantations (computer codes) can animate the entities in the cpu (sand) and make them become whatever we want: a game console, a financial trading system, an air traffic controller, facebook, Google, Twitter, Amazon, Bitcoin etc.

How did this come about? Well, the Binary System makes this possible.

The Binary System of Ifá is based on the Yorùbá philosophical duality of Ibi and Ire (Evil and Good); for several millennia, the Yorùbá had been using the binary system before the German mathematician - Gottfried Leibniz formalised in 1679.

These days, the Binary Numeral System (Base 2) is well known in Mathematics and digital electronics and the system underpins how computers work by representing numeric values using just two digits - zero (0) and one (1)

In Computing, a Bit (i.e. BInary digiT) is the smallest unit of storage and can either be 1 or 0

A Nible (also called half Byte or semi-octet) is the grouping of four Bits e.g 0 1 0 1

In Ifá, Odù signatures are marked with “|” and “||”. Where “|” is the binary number “0” and “||” is “1”.

For example Ogbè (0000) has the following signature:





Ọ̀sá (1000) is represented as:





Òtúrá (0100) is marked as:





We can therefore summarise the representation of the first sixteen Odus as follows:

Decimal == Nibble == Odù

00 == 0000 == Ogbè 

01 == 0001 == Ògúndá

02 == 0010 == Ìrẹtẹ̀

03 == 0011 == Ìrosùn

04 == 0100 == Òtúra

05 == 0101 == Ọ̀sẹ́ 

06 == 0110 == Èdí

07 == 0111 == Ọ̀bàrà 

08 == 1000 == Ọ̀sá 

09 == 1001 == Ìwòrì 

10 == 1010 == Ọ̀̀fún 

11 == 1011 == Ìká 

12 == 1100 == Ọ̀wọ́nrín 

13 == 1101 == Òtúrúpọ̀n

14 == 1110 == Ọ̀kànràn 

15 == 1111 == Òyẹ̀kú.

Since Ifá speaks only in binary (Odu Èjì Ogbè says: "Èjèèji ni mo gbè, n ò gbe ọ̀kan ṣoṣo mọ́" i.e “I will only support two, I will not support one”), each Odu must be paired.

For example, after pairing the main Odu, we get the following (see graphic for the main Odu signature).

Èjì Ogbè (also called Ògbè Méjì): 00000000

Ògúndá Méjì : 00010001

Ìrẹtẹ̀ Méjì : 00100010

Ìrosùn Méjì : 00110011

Òtúrá Méjì : 01000100

Ọ̀sẹ́ Méjì : 01010101

Èdí Méjì : 01100110

Ọ̀bàrà Méjì : 01110111

Ọ̀ṣá Meji: 10001000

Ìwòrì Méjì : 10011001

Ọ̀fún Méjì : 10101010

Ìká Méjì :10111011

Ọ̀wọ́nrín Méjì :11001100

Òtúrúpọ̀n Méjì :11011101

Ọ̀kànràn Méjì :11101110

Ọ̀yẹ̀kú Méjì : 11111111

The other 240 minor Odus are derived from the main 16 Odus. 

For example (note: the binary notation and the marks are read from right to left).

Ogbè-Ògúndá : 0001-0000

| |

| |

| |

|| |

Ọ̀yẹ̀kú-Ìrẹtẹ̀ : 0010-1111

| ||

| ||

|| ||

| ||

Computers also speak in binary and binary numbers can be converted to decimal, hexadecimal, octal etc.

Without getting into too much maths, below are the decimal values of the 16 main Odu:

00000000 = 00

00010001 = 17

00100010 = 34

00110011 = 51

01000100 = 68

01010101 = 85

01100110 = 102

01110111 = 119

10001000 = 136

10011001 = 153

10101010 = 170

10111011 = 187

11001100 = 204

11011101 = 221

11101110 = 238

11111111 = 255

Below is a computer machine code that adds the numbers from 1 to 10 together and prints out the result:

i.e. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 = 55

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

In Ifa, the patterns of bits above translate to...

ọ̀wọ́nrín-ọ̀sá     èjì-ogbè               èjì-ogbè

ọ̀wọ́nrín-ọ̀sá     ogbè-ọ̀sá            ogbè-ọ̀sá

ọ̀wọ́nrín-méjì    ogbè-ọ̀sá            ogbè-ọtúrá

ọ̀fùn-ọ̀sá           ogbè-òtúrùpọ̀n   ogbè-ọtúrá

ọtúrá-méjì         ogbe-ọtúrá          ogbè-ògúndá

ìrẹtẹ̀-ọ̀wọ́nrín   ogbè-ọ̀sá             èjì-ogbè

ìrẹtẹ̀-ọ̀sá           ogbè-ọ̀sá             ogbè-ọ̀sá

ọ̀sá-ogbè          ogbè-ọtúrá          èjì-ogbè

èdì-ọtúrá           èjì-ogbè               èjì-ogbè

This was how programmers used to write computer programs before high level programming languages like Fortran and Lisp were created in 1957 and 1958 respectively.

For programmers, entering these patterns manually was a laborious, tedious and error-prone task. Even for a seasoned programmer, it could get dizzy and nauseating after assembling a couple of these patterns.

However, a competent Ifá priest can commit to memory 256 of these patterns without breaking a sweat and able to recite close to 4,000 Ifá verses by heart!

Effectively, the meaning of the 1s and 0s in the code above is as follows:

1. Store the number 0 in memory location 0.

2. Store the number 1 in memory location 1.

3. Store the value of memory location 1 in  memory location 2.

4. Subtract the number 11 from the value in memory location 2.

5. If the value in memory location 2 is the number 0 continue with instruction 9.

6. Add the value of memory location 1 to memory location 0.

7. Add the number 1 to the value of memory location 1.

8. Continue with instruction 3.

9. Output the value of memory location 0.

Using names in place of numbers for memory and instruction locations, we can do the following:

Set the value of "total" to 0.

Set the value of "count" to 1.


Set the value of "compare" to the "count" value.

Subtract 11 from the value of "compare" .

If "compare" is zero, continue at [end].

Add "count" to the value of "total".

Add 1 to the value of "count".

Continue at [loop].


Output "total".

In a modern programming language like Python, we can write the following:

total = 0

count = 1

while count <= 10:

total = total + count

count = count + 1

print total

In 2017, I wrote series of programming tutorials on this wall using the Python programming language. In the coming days, I will translate the posts into Yoruba so stay tuned.

Ire o.

The Story Of Attah Ameh Oboni - the Nigerian King who Chose Suicide Instead of Bowing to the Queen of England

Attah Ameh Oboni was a revered Igala King.

At a particular meeting held in Kaduna which consisted of all paramount traditional rulers in Nigeria and which had the queen of England in attendance, Attah Ameh was asked to remove his cap to greet the Queen of England as others had done.

Though he refused until they said he should leave the meeting if he would not remove his cap. But Attah was not like others, or was he?

It was a taboo for Attah to remove his cap in the public. The entire hall where they were staying was occupied by bees from the cap of Attah Ameh Oboni which he removed in order to greet the Queen.

The Queen of England as well as other rulers in the meeting ran helter-skelter except the friendly Oba of Benin who was asked by Attah Ameh to go out before he removed his cap. The hall became empty as some were stung by the bees and the meeting ended.

According to history, Attah Ameh Oboni was asked to be arrested and handcuffed by the security people, which they did, but the handcuffs fell off his hands.

He was later locked up in a room on the instruction of the Northern rulers and guarded by the security personnel but only to find out later by the personnel that he had left the room. Yes, when the security were taking him to be locked up, he told his driver, Amanabo of blessed memory, to take the car and be going to Idah while the security locked him in the room.

He then warned Amanabo not to look back until he felt a cool breeze in the car. Though Amanabo argued a little that he cannot leave the Attah there but later obeyed and started driving back to Idah from Kaduna.

After some time, he felt the cool breeze in the car, and Attah Ameh was sitted inside the car.

The incident in the meeting made many traditional rulers which were mostly northerners to be angry especially making kings run in such a manner because of bees.

This became one important sin, and it was like “one sin too many”.

The queen of Englnad was also not happy and they (the Queen and northern leaders) started looking for a way to remove Attah Ameh from the throne since he was getting tougher and uncontrollable like others, as well as searching for an obedient replacement.

Igala has various cultural festivals, one of which is Ocho. Ocho is celebrated before farming starts, and it is the time that Attah Igala prays to God for sufficient rainfall, bountiful harvest, success in hunting. It is celebrated in the bush and the venue is called Ere-ocho, where the Attah will hunt until he kills a Buffalo or a strong animal. The community in Idah where Ocho takes place is called Ogo-Efa. He performs a little sacrifice to the ancestors using a fowl in the process, and this was to find out if there will blessings or problems in the land after the Ocho.

Before this time, the enemies at home (among the Igala people), especially those having connections with the leaders of the northern region, were working hard to get any evidence either true or false which can be used to remove him from the throne. The blood of the animal used as sacrifice at Ocho ground now became what the enemies would use against him.

Petition was written by these two Igala people to the Queen and some other Northern leaders that Attah Ameh was sacrificing humans during the Ocho festivals. Since they were looking for any means to displace him with, judgment was quickly passed that he must be dethroned, even when investigations were not yet concluded.

In addition, all the Igala cultural festivals including the Ocho were immediately banned and this remained for almost 63 years until Governor Yahaya Bello unbanned them based on the appeal of the present Attah Igala.

Already, before this time, the Oba of Benin who had such friction with the British had already been dethroned and banished from Benin. So, Attah Ameh Oboni knew that at that point, no matter what spiritual approach applied, it can only postpone the evil day as his enemies will never relent until he was removed by them.

The result of the blood sample which was taken from the Ocho venue and taken to University of Ibadan for analysis had arrived and it was proved that it was the blood of an animal and not human. Sadly, the revered King, Attah Ameh had passed on before the result was brought.

But Attah Ameh, being very sure that he was wrongly accused and framed up by his enemies, especially those from Igala who wrote the petition against him marking the beginning of his planned dethronement, made some pronouncements before his death.

He was allegedly quoted to have said that ” the person who wrote the petition against him would have that hand dried up, and that the leader of the gang or petitioners would be buried three times”. And they all came to pass.

While the hand dried as said, the other was buried as stated, first was the leg, second was his hand and the third was himself, all buried at various times at different locations.

In addition, as this information of his dethronement was given to him in a meeting from where he was supposed to go back to Idah and prepare to leave the throne, he stopped on the way in another Igala land called Dekina.

That was where he committed suicide.

Before taking his life, he was allegedly quoted to have said that the town, Dekina will be popular but its development will not be as much as its popularity.

He was also quoted to have said that because Igala was the genesis of his ordeal, there will be disunity among the Igala people until the reign of his own blood (son) as Attah, and all Igalas irrespective of their locations will be reunited again.

I think from the reconnection and reunification of Igala people across Nigeria and beyond which has been going on and still going on under the reign of his son, Agabaidu Idakwo Ameh Oboni II, the present Attah Igala, that pronouncement of reunification of Igala people is also coming through.

Friday 23 September 2022

OOGUN KIRIJI -The World’s Longest Ethnic Civil War (1877 - 1893)

The Kiriji War, an epic battle fought by the Yoruba for 16 years, is believed to be the World’s Longest Civil War by any ethnic group. The war, according to historians, was the fiercest tribal war among the Yoruba ethnic group of Southwest Nigeria and the Kiriji War, which ended almost 122 years ago led to the signing of a Peace Treaty on September 23, 1886.


Ibadan, a relatively new establishment that had the honour of filling the oversized shoes of the former Oyo Empire as the protector of the Yoruba nation against external attacks. But the military successes and wealth raked in by Ibadan in its military expeditions soon posed serious challenges.

Like all global super-powers, Ibadan was said to embark on an expansionist programme that extended its reach to much of Yorubaland. It started appointing District Officers known as ‘Ajeles’ to rule the conquered territories on its behalf.

It did not take long for the ‘Ajeles’ to transform into despots. They became corrupt and power-drunk, demanding ridiculous homage and exorbitant tributes. The Yoruba vassal states of Ijesha and Ekiti revolted and massacred the Ibadan-appointed ‘Ajeles’.

They formed a confederacy called Ekiti Parapo (Ekiti Brotherhood) and declared their independence from Ibadan. Ibadan knew the dire consequences of allowing such action to go unpunished as it would encourage other conquered territories to declare independence.

Ibadan wanted a centralized political system, with a central economy, a command military structure, a central administration and a forcefully united Yoruba Nation, while the other Yoruba subgroups wanted a decentralized structure, where all the federating units would be autonomous and would be able to plan their political future based on their own heritage.

This led to the epic Yoruba war called the Kiriji War in 1877 when the Ibadan police, navy, infantry and artillery soldiers, led by ‘General’ Obadoke Latoosa invaded the entire commonwealth of Yoruba nation, pummeled the sacred institutions, raided the markets and the deepest hinterlands and sought to proclaim a forcefully united Yoruba nation.

Kiriji war is the longest civil war by any ethnic group (1877 -1893) lasting 16years.

The Major Actors and Causalities:

Ibadan was led by its commander-in-chief, Aare Obadoke Latosa, while the Ekiti Parapo army was led by Fabunmi of Oke-Imesi.

The Ibadan army pitched their camp at Igbajo while the Ekiti Parapo camped at Imesi-Ile. 

Somewhere along the line, Saraibi Ogedengbe (famously known as Ogedengbe Agbogungboro), the Balogun of Ijeshaland, became the General/Commander-in-Chief of the Ekiti Parapo army, and the appointment greatly influenced the turn of events, as Ogedengbe was a renowned military strategist.

The war got its name (Kiriji) from the thunderous sound “kiriiiiiiiiji” of the cannon guns which the Ekitiparapo purchased in large numbers. The cannon gave them an advantage over the Ibadans.

Ekiti Parapo enlisted several Yoruba tribes like Igbomina, Akoko, Egbe, Kabba and the Oworro (a Yoruba sub-tribe in Lokoja, Kogi State).

Lagos, Ijebu and Egba were said to have assisted Ekiti Parapo against Ibadan, seen by all, as a common threat to the Yoruba commonwealth. 

Ilara Mokin in Ondo State was said to have been the headquarters of the Ekiti Parapo secret service.

Several Yoruba towns, such as Osogun and Ijaiye, were wiped out in the course of the war. Igbajo barely escaped total destruction.

Eventually, Ibadan found itself fighting on five fronts. First, in the South against the Egba who confined their activities to raids and surprise attacks; secondly, against the Ijebu, in the same south, who pitched a camp against them at Oru under Balogun Onafowokan; thirdly, the main war at Kiriji in the East, where their forces fought a long battle against the Ekiti and Ijesa (Ekiti-Parapo forces) under the command of Ogedengbe; fourthly, at Offa in the north, where they faced the Ilorin Fulani who pitched their camp against the people of Offa (an ally of Ibadan); and finally at Ile-Ife where the Ife people joined the alliance against them in 1882.

However, in spite of Ibadan's disadvantages in the war, these five forces could not effect its defeat. A state of stalemate was reached, from which only the intervention of an outside force could redeem the whole Yoruba Nation.

Eku isinmi o.

Ara lao mada o, ao ni daran. Arambara!!


After Bashorun Oluyole’s death. Oderinlo who was his Balogun was next in line to succeed him. Because of the purges and wars that Oluyole engineered during his time as the leader of Ibadan, all the chiefs that were senior to Oderinlo had died before Oluyole or soon after Oluyole’s own death. So there was practically no rival to Oderinlo’s position as Balogun and ruler of the town.

Oderinlo rose to prominence as one of the chiefs who played an active role in the rebellion against Lakanle and the latter’s subsequent suicide. There seemed to have been some form of close ties between him and Oluyole. It is likely to Oderinlo was at least an associate if not a close friend of the Bashorun. It was the influence of Oluyole that he became the Otun Balogun to Bankole Aleshinloye, the first Balogun under Oluyole. After Aleshinloye’s death, Oderinlo became the Balogun. Oderinlo was the Balogun who led the Ibadan troops to fight in the second Ibadan- Ilorin war at Osogbo, a war that Ibadan won comprehensively.

The Army of Ibadan equally attacked Ilesa to rescue Oshogbo. From that war, the Ibadan Army ventured into Ekiti for the relief of Otun, which was attacked by Ilorin Army. They also fought in Ara to reinstate the Alara who was then having problems with his people. He was among the six generals who plotted against Oluyole after that campaign. He was also among the four who later rescinded that decision, leaving the two who did not rescind, Lajubu and Akinluyi to die in a purge by the Bashorun.

At the time Bashorun Oluyole died, Balogun Oderinlo was planning to go on a war to Oke Ogun. So when the entire council of Ibadan invited him to become the Baale He declined, saying he wanted to win that war first. Historians speculate that he wanted to gather the wealth from that war to boost his claim to the rulership of Ibadan at the time.

Balogun Oderinlo went to the war and came back. He won the war and gathered enough loot and slaves to bring back to Ibadan. However, a few months after his triumphant return to Ibadan from Oke Ogun, as he was set to be announced as the Baale of Ibadan, Balogun Oderinlo died mysteriously. To this day nobody knows how Balogun Oderinlo died, but the sudden and mysterious nature of his death has led many to speculate that he may have been poisoned. But no body could pinpoint who did the warrior the fatal blow.

After his demise, Baale Opeagbe replaced him on the throne of Ibadan. Balogun Oderinlo has been honoured in Ibadan, a statue of him stands at Beere not far from Mapo Hall and the statue of Bashorun Oluyole. His house and some of his descendants live not far from Oja’ba to this day. His son Tanpe, would become a chief of Ibadan.

Queen Nanny of the Maroons

Born 1686: Ghana

Died  1733/1750: Jamaica

For over 30 years it is said she fought and freed over 800 slaves on the island of Jamaica. There are many stories about her, it is said she was a queen in Ghana from the warrior Ashante tribe when she was captured and brought to Jamaica where she later escaped and led an armed revolt against the British Empire in the mountains and jungles of Jamaica for two decades.

It is said she used guerilla warfare to fight the B.ritish who suffered great loss and later settled with a peace treaty to spare their men. She was said to also be a powerful spiritual voodoo priestess who would use her powers to shield her fighters from the attacks of the British.

One British officer who was lucky to survived her encounter described her as being small, muscular and strong with intense eyes. She wore a girdle with at least 10 different combat kn iv es. Queen Nanny is Jamaica's only female hero and there are still Maroons living in Jamaica today.

Source: one africa

Thursday 22 September 2022


Ilaro town was founded in the 18th century by Aro who migrated from a state Oyo town to settle down in Igbo Aje, a little hill situated at the centre of the town from where he and his warriors could sight enemies (mostly slave traders from the neighbouring Benin republic known then as Dahomey) on attack from a long distance. Aro himself was a warrior and a hunter to be reckoned with. Ilaro had her name from "Ilu Aro" meaning the settlement of Aro which later became Ilaro for ease of pronunciation. Ancient Ilaro town was blessed with great farmers, hunters and warriors.

The Oronna Festival is an ancient festival celebrated by the Ilaro Kingdom. The Ilaro people celebrate the Oronna festival annually to preserve, uphold, and celebrate the rich cultural heritage of Ilaro Kingdom. Oronna who was known by the Ilaro people to be a hero, a brave warrior who was said to have brought several victories to the land during war, mostly against the Dahomeans Army who constantly threatens the peace of the Land. He was a man who distinguishes, and committed himself to the safety, well-being of the land as he stood in war to defend the land against intruders.

This place where Orona disappeared into the ground with his Leopard is today known as the Orona Shrine and has been renovated and constructed as an emolument for lovers of history and tourists. It is also the location where the coronation of every new traditional ruler of the town is performed. The Orona Ilaro Festival is celebrated annually in remembrance of the great warrior.

The Orona Ilaro festival is however most significant for its attraction of culture and tourism enthusiasts to the town. The festival which always happen by November is one that last for  one week. Within this one week are lots events that features all of Ilaro cultural and social life such as:  Street Carnival, Tourism activities, cultural beauty pageant, masquerade displays and festival dances, a talent hunt, Medical check-up programs and many more.

Who is Yoruba between Itsekiri & Bini in Edo state, Nigeria?

There has been mixed up as to know which tribe is Yoruba between Itsekiri and Bini.

If its about language, itsekiri language is a mix of Ìjẹ̀bú /Ilaje /Ikale. (Yoruba).

If its by origin, Itsekiris come from ilé ìfẹ́ like other Yoruba people.

If its by monarchy. The title of itsekiri monarch is OLÚ (of Warri) like many other Yoruba tribes. So by all criteria itsekiri are Yorùbá.

One of the most popular Itsekiri born-pastor and a former CAN president AYO ORITSEJAFOR said in 2018 that Itsekiri migrated from Ile-Ife and are yoruba after confirming so many reports. Also in 2014 National Confab, the Itsekiri leaders make it known to the public that should Nigeria breakup, itsekiri must be merged to Yoruba which is their source. Till today, we have OPC in all itsekiri domain in warr, delta state. Anywhere you see OPC is a sign that it is a Yoruba Territory.

How About the Bini?

If it's by language, the bini spoke a different language that no yoruba can speak or even understands. Bini and Yoruba has a different lifestyles and actually different views of life.

The only connection between the Bini and Yoruba is their palace. The royal palace is the only connection between the Bini and Yoruba where we have Yoruba Descendants controlling bini palace. The history of Oba rulership in bini was established by a Yoruba prince from Ile-Ife.

Therefore, binis are not yoruba, but their royal house is Yoruba.. Also, there are some yoruba people in bini who are Descendants of the palace and those who lives in boundary side and those who bears yoruba names like Akoko-Edo, these are the Yorubas. But the bini itself are not Yoruba, their title is Ogiso/Ogiamen, but Yoruba title is Oba.

Apart from this, the itsekiri has never for once denied the fact that they are yorubas or migrated from Ile-Ife, but the bini has contrary opinion even among their kinsmen in Edo state so much that they dragged themselves to court.

In view of the above, itsekiri are yoruba while bini are not yoruba but bini palace is yoruba. Because of this, there are OPC in Edo state! Dont forget that anywhere you see OPC shows that's yoruba Territory. The bini palace and Yoruba Descendants in bini are yoruba..

This is so clear so much that the itsekiri Territory is listed among the Oduduwa Republic agitators Map. The map of Oduduwa Republic shows itsekiri, but bini was clean off, as some yoruba agrees that they will follow the wish of Oba of bini if its Territory should be included in Oduduwa map or not.

Meanwhile some yoruba disagree, but the said bini has been clean off on Oduduwa map. Any Oduduwa map showing bini on its list is a fake Oduduwa map. Only Oba of bini will decide if its Territory should be included or not.

You need to note that the bini we are discussing here is a city in Nigeria and its different from Benin Republic (country). They have no connection!

Note that Yoruba is an Ethnic (Nation) not a tribe.. Yoruba is an Ethnic that compries of many tribes.. Itsekiri, Okun, igbomina, ilaje, Awori, ijebu, oyo, ife, ekiti, ondo, ijesha, egba, Owu, offa, Ibadan etc are all tribes under Yoruba Ethnic. YORUBA IS A NATION.

By Oritsagbemi Akinola

Warri, Delta State, Nigeria.

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Colonial languages in Africa

African Countries where English is spoken:

Nigeria, Ethiopia, South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, Ghana, Cameroon, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Namibia, Lesotho, Botswana, The Gambia , Mauritius, Eswatini, Egypt and Seychelles.

African Countries where French is spoken:

Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Algeria, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Togo and Tunisia.

African Countries where Portuguese is spoken:

Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and Equatorial Guinea.

African Countries where Italian is spoken:   

Libya, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia.

African Country where Spanish is spoken:

Equatorial Guinea.

African Country where German is spoken:


Note that this post is not about official languages of countries. Its about colonial languages that are spoken by a significant number of people in the country.

Source: Africa Facts Zone

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Tuesday 20 September 2022

Is it possible to learn computer coding in Yoruba?

The question above came from a Facebook friend recently.

Yes of course. It is possible to learn computer coding in Yoruba. In fact, there is a Yoruba based programming language called Yorlang (

Computer coding can be learned in any human language even though English is the lingua franca of computer programming. 

I learnt computer programming during my university days in Russian albeit, the programming languages (Fortran, C, Pascal and Basic) are English based. 

There were some Russian based programming languages (e.g. Рапира [Rapira], Аналитик [Analitik] etc) in the USSR but they were not in widespread use.

It is a fact that 99% of all programming languages (8,500+) used worldwide for writing software are English language based nevertheless, the best coders in the world are not native speakers of English.

This is not by accident. Elite programmers and software developers are able achieve this feat because the language of instruction in their countries is in their mother tongues.

Below is the world rank of countries with the best programmers (according to Hackerrank):

1. China

2. Russia

3. Poland

4. Switzerland

5. Hungary

6. Japan

7. Taiwan

8. France

9. Czech Republic

10. Italy

Currently, Nigeria is number 48 (see below) but we can do better. If our children are introduced to computer programming in their mother tongue then nothing says we can’t be number one on this list.

Also included below are screenshots of the same C program in English, Russian and Chinese. The code is the same but the explanations are in different languages.

Some of the main programming languages in use today across the world are: C, Python, Java, JavaScript, C++, C#, PHP, Perl, Visual Basic, SQL, Fortran, R, Ruby, Swift, Objective C, Matlab, Go, Prolog, Rust, Julia, Ada, Lisp, Dart, Scala, Cobol, Kotlin, F#, Lua, D, Nim, TypeScript, Bash etc. They are all English based.

Monday 19 September 2022

Afro Bahamians People of African Ancestry Bahamas, Carribeans

Afro Bahamians are descendants of Freed and Enslaved Africans who were captured by Europeans especially from Present day Benin, Present day Ghana, Present day Ivory Coast, Present day Togo, Present day Nigeria, Present day Burkina Faso, Present day Sierra Leone, Present day Liberia, Present day Congos, Present day Congos, Present day Cameroon, Present day Guinea Bissau, Present day Guinea, Present day Angola, Present day Mozambique, Other parts of West and Central Africa. It is believed they came from African ethnic groups such as Igbo, Ashanti or Asante, Fante or Fanti, Nzema, Ahanta, Ga Dangme, Fon, Edo or Bini, Hausa, Mbundu ,Makua, Chamba, Wolof, Mandinka, Chokwe, Lunda, Kikongo, Kpelle, Fulani, Kanuri, Temne, Vai, Bulom, Sherebro, Urhobo, Ogoni, Yombe, Bangwa, few Yoruba,  Lobi, Fang also Bahamas has a strong Ahanta, Fante and Igbo Influences and some came from other ethnic group across West and Central Africa. It is believed enslaved Africans were also brought from Bermuda in the 17th Century as well as Africa between 18th and 19th Centuries. 

It is believed they are mixed with Arawakan and African Ancestry furthermore, Bahamas derived from the word “Baja mar” in Spanish language meaning shallow water or sea”. Maroons of Bahamas were believed to be of mostly Asante, Ahanta and Fante ancestry the population resides on New Providence Island the location of Nassau.  It is believed Many of their African Ancestors who came from Africa arrived in Bahamas when the Islands in Bahamas staying area  for the Slave trade in the early 1800s.Others , accompanied 1,000 of the British loyalists had fled to the American Colonies during the revolutionary War . 

It is believed enslaved Africans also came from Bermuda and Haiti which formed the largest community in the Bahamas they were estimated 30,000 to 60,000 to be legally or illegally, concentrated on New Providence, Abaco amd Eleuthera Islands. The Bahamas or Bahamas Creole is mixed up with some Igbo, Kikongo, Fulani, some Ahanta with some Fante it is considered as a English based Creole with some African language spoken mainly in Bahamas, Turks and Caicos Islands. 

The Bahamas national flag was Introduced in 1973. The left side consists of a black triangle with a horizontal yellow stripe flanked by 2 bright blue stripes. The yellow symbolizes the sunny climate, and blue symbolizes the sea and black symbolize the African race. During the post emancipation, in 1830s and 1840s, tensions rose between Britain and the US after American merchant ships, were part of the coastwise Slave trade, put into Nassau or were wrecked on hsreefs. This Include the Hermosa In 1840 and the Creole in 1841, the latter brought in after a slave revolt on board. The British had notified nations that enslaved Africans brought from Africa to Bahamas and Bermuda waters would forfeited and enslaved Africans, refusing U.S. efforts to recorder them. In 1851, Americans and British signed a treaty around 1814, they were submitted and demand payment In 1855. During the American Civil war, It is said Bahamas as a base confederate blockade running, bringing in the cotton to be shipped running out arms and munitions. 

Bahamas is made of whites, mixed races and African race , It is said In 1838, 1,043 enslaved Igbo , Yoruba and Akan as well as Egbar enslaved Africans were brought to Cuba then to Nassau, Bahamas by 2 British men, captured from Africa, bound for Slavery in the fields sugar of Bahamas by the british. In Bahamas they are Africans , Lucayan which is part of the Arawak People, It is said Bahamas became a british Colony In 1718, after the American War of Independence , 1,000 of the Colonist of the American revolutionary period who supported the British cause by enslaving Africans to Bahamas , It is believed  British Slave trade was abolished in 1807, It is believed Navy resettled many freed and Africans liberated from the illegal Slave Ships in Bahamas nearly 500 were  also freed Africans from the US Merchant Ships by royal Navy 85 percent of the Bahamas population are people of African Ancestry about 2/3 of the population . Others believed Peter Mowell was the last Slave Ship in Bahamas abolished in Britain  In 1807, Slave trade continued the Americas well past emancipation in 1834. In 1860, a Slave ship en route to Cuba , carrying mostly enslaved Africans , weekly at Lynyard Cay In the Abacos. 

Once on the Bahamas Soil enslaved Africans suffered a lot during Slavery , In 1830, 77 enslaved Africans on the Lord rolle’s Plantation in Steventon , Exuma , a rebellion took place which enslaved African men and enslaved African women fled to the forest or bush rather than be moved before they provisions ran out of 44 of them returned and seized Lord rolle’s Salt boat . During the revolt it spread throughout and abolition of Slavery became full emancipation in 1838, there are walls of the jailhouse remain as a reminder of Slavery days at Steventon, Exuma. In Afro Bahamians, Culture, typical meals consists of fruits, vegetables, meat, fish , bread, rice their common dishes is known as Conch, an easily collected sea, snail,  rice and peas . During holiday meals prepared are conch , rice, baked goods, fresh fruit, Bahamian rum, local and imported beer, soft drinks, tea and coffee are regularly consumed. 

Their Cottage Industries produce Straw, shells, wooden items and had a major of producing rum, crawfish and cement. Family plays a significant role grandparents, In nuclear family households authority tends to be evenly divided. One of the crew members were forced by the Europeans to navigate enslaved Africans to Bahamas, It is believed Slavery was illegal in the British colonies the Afro Bahamians were considered as the majority of the enslaved people on the ship free however, remaining people who had been Involved in overtaking the ship were held and charged with mutiny. After the American revolution, 1,000 of British loyalists, took enslaved Africans and moved their farms to Bahamas where they set up a thriving plantation economy. 

The Igbo came to Bahamas during Slave Trade fought and build their town settlements with the Maroons in Bahamas. Bahamas Slavery was described as the most horrendous violations of human rights when most of them were forced to labor and enslaved. Others believed Slave Trade in Bahamas was abolished In 1834, they have architecture such as Royal Victoria. The Royal Victoria Hotel which opened In 1861, survived through till 1971 when it finally destroy and was replaced by a Car park of all things , royal victoria minis for a painting that brings back the hotel’s long gone grandeur wonderful subtle it with this frontage . 

Most of the Museums in Bahamas focus on the Slave revolt led by enslaved Africans they used weapons and machetes to revolt. Pompey’s revolt established that enslaved Africans could not be moved against their will without Impunity regularly from 1831 to 1834, there were many revolts led by Igbos in Exuma which made their slave masters weak. 

According to Caribya’s account, Enslaved Africans were originally brought to Bahamas from Africa to work on the Islands cotton plantations. In 1834, enslaved Africans some were fishing, tradition medicine which was used Indigenous plants to health the sick also played a significant role. There was a Lucayan Village sites, an Ocean bath carved from living rock, where enslaved Africans were washed following transport through the Middle Passage, and Loyalist Plantation , where 2 generations of enslaved Africans worked and died on the Whylly Plantation which dates back to the mid 18th Century. According to Smithsonian, when 135 enslaved Africans transported from Richardmond, Virginia to the Slave market  in New Orleans In 1841, 18 of enslaved Africans revolted and killed one of their European Slave owner they later escaped and settled in Bahamas which was a British Colony , In Bahamas, The Pompey revolt of 1830, Involving the Slaved from Lord John Rolle’s Steventon, Exuma plantation. 

In 1830, tension existed in the Colony of Bahamas, enslaved Africans wanted their full freedom and Slavery as a regime was dying . The arrival of the Colony’s new Governor known as Carmichael Smyth, on Lord John Rolle’s Steventon Exuma Plantation, some of the enslaved were notified that they would be moving to cat Island within 2 weeks . This time was insufficient for them to sell their Cattle, nor could they reap their recently planted crops. The enslaved Africans refused to be transferred. 

Therefore, 44 of the enslaved Africans hid into bushes of Exuma, then got on Lord John Rolle’s boat , which they took to Nassau to present their case to Governor Smyth . Prior to achieving this goal, the enslaved Africans were Intercepted by a boat from Harbour Island in the waters off Nassau. The men and women received 50 lashes, Including two nursing women . When the Governor Smyth learnt about what occurred, he was betrayed and Immediately called for the suspension of Involved parties, Magistrate Duncombe, and A.J. Lees Duncombe authorize the flogging of enslaved Africans and enslaved Africans were Immediately excused and sent back to Exuma.

Upon the Sojourner, Other enslaved Africans stayed in Exuma who refused to work because Emancipation was afoot . Thomas Thompson , reports on the Island that enslaved Africans arrived on the Bahamas Islands from West Africa. The Exumas have the name Rolle , following emancipation many of freed enslaved Africans took on the name after Lord Rolle , a plantation owner who gave the land on Exuma Island to the people who were believed to be enslaved. It is believed blackbeard was probably the most Infamous pirate to have terrorized the Islands of Bahamas . The Bahamas complex geography of Island and cays, It is said The Bahamas was the perfect playground for pirates In the 17th and 18th Centuries and tales of pirate flights and shipwrecks have been recanted through the generations of Island. 

After Centuries of being pirates and raiders under the British rule the quaint Village of New Plymouth on Green turtle cays , The Bahamas was the perfect playground for pirates in the 17th and 18th Centuries and tales of pirate fights and Shipwrecks have been recanted through the generations of Island . After Centuries of being have pirates and raiders under British rule the quaint village of new plymouth on Green turtle cay from revolutionary war loyalist , who settled Abacos Islands in 1783. It is said in 1648, about 28 freed Africans on the Island of Eleuthera and became known as Eleutherian Adventurers . 

These 28 freed Africans were considered the first Africans to have arrived in Bahamas from Africa and Bermuda. In 1670, King Charles II demanded Africans as slaves to the Islands, also granted the Islands to the Lord proprietors of the Carolinas, who rented the Islands from the King with rights of trading, tax, appointing governors and ministering while enslaved Africans who came with Loyalists and resisted from the American War of Independence not to remain under the British rule and sugar revolution increased the number of enslaved Africans in the west Indian region, Europeans found a way to convert enslaved Africans who they were considered as defenseless and Inferiors calling them Pagan and demonizing their Spirituality, Europeans Introduced Christianity to both enslaved and freed Africans but the freed ones continued to be relocated to the Bahamas Islands furthermore, hundreds of African Americans and Black Seminoles were believed to have escaped from Cape Florida to Bahamas, establishing a settlements and developed a village known in Red Bays. It is believed enslaved Africans were seized from ships that had been captured or shipwrecked while on the move to America or Cuba where enslaved Africans were still being traded by Europeans.

It  is said 18 enslaved Africans went to Bermuda In 1825, 135 from Virginia to New Orleans 38 from Hermosa to the Abaco Islands in 1840. According to Ms. Rodgers, Slavery conditions in Bahamas they were various reasons for this large plantations were very rare and only a handful of Owners possessed more than 100 enslaved Africans . Each plantation slave family had its own plot of land on which vegetables and fruit were grown for home use. European Slave masters were cruel, evil who whipped enslaved Africans. 

According to the Slave code of 1729, enslaved Africans could be whipped for many reasons such as escaping the plantations, causing a revolt for killing a White Slave Master or carrying stick or club. There from the plantations many times, their freedom was denied but they fought hard for their freedom. It is said many enslaved Africans were employed as fishermen. Others were cooking meals, washing, cleaning, hunting, farming, growing food or cotton. 

The Month March was very busy month with torture , since it was picking of cotton season , they were forced to work on the cotton plantation the cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney, cotton gins were also used in Bahamas by Joseph Eve of Nassau it worked by wind rather than running water. The cotton was then packed in bales and sent off for sale . There were many different jobs done on the plantation on that of Charles Farquharson on San Salvador, there were about 50 people who were enslaved.

They had to prepare the land plant the Cotton, thin, weed, pick it, bale it, they grow food, corn, peas, yams, potatoes and they had to fish and cut wood furthermore, they tended the cattle and they built and mended fences, walls, thatched roofs and erected houses. The Pompey Museum of Slavery and emancipation of Vendue house. The Pompey Museum was named in honour of a Congerous enslaved African.

Pompey who lived the Rolle Plantation on Steventon Exuma , Bahamas Vendue house it was built before 1769 and continued as a marketplace until late 1800s . Enslaved Africans and their commodities were sold by Europeans at Vendue house during the 18th and 19th Centuries and Pompey became a Museum In 1992 and the slavery wall located 3 miles south of the remains of a high rock wall constructed by enslaved Africans in the late 18th Century and It is now a habitat for giant white crabs during crabbing season.

According to Magian media studio, the struggle for freedom in bahamas enslavement of Africans is delivered in seven distinct periods. The Sails of each sailing carries texts and Images about historical events from 1648 to the nation’s Independence from Colonial Britain in 1973. In 1860, on the Lynard Cary in the Abaco chains of Islands with a Cargo ships of 400 enslaved Africans brought from Africa to Bahamas . On the Golden Grove a plantation that gained widespread authority after the 1831 Slave Uprising.

Others believed Europeans who carried firearms and alcohol from England to Africa, then shipped enslaved Africans to Bahamas and earned profit from shipping companies and the Pompey Slave revolt was led mostly the Igbo People of Nigeria, Igbos have a long history of revolts in Bahamas, Barbados, Belize and other parts of the Carribeans.

The Afro Bahamian Culture of Bahamas:

In Afro Bahamian Culture, typical meals consists of the fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, bread, rice, their common dishes is known as Conch, an easily collected Sea, Snail, rice and peas. During holidays meals prepared are Conch, rice, baked goods, fresh fruit , Bahamian rum local and Imported beer, soft drinks, tea and coffee are regularly consumed. Their cottage Industries produce straw, shells, wooden items and had major of producing rum, crawfish and cement . Family plays a big role grandparents, In nuclear family households, authority tends to be evenly divided between one of the crew members. Folklore, folk dancing and competitive games like greasy pole and plaiting the pole. They used a traditional drum made out of a goat skin, Goombay traditional music which is combined with Akan, Fon, Igbo and some English Influences.

It is believed enslaved Africans had few resources on the plantations with they create Instruments , rake and scrape bands had drums made out of a pork barrel, goatskin, bush medicine is an Indigenous used for medicinal purpose and enslaved Africans brought it with them almost 100 plants. Straw markets Include handmade mats, baskets, woodcarving and guava jellies, between the husband and the wife . Inheritance Include sons and daughters which they inherit from both parents, Inherited Properties Including land , houses, boats and kin groups. It is believed there is no formal kin groups larger than the family exist. Adult Siblings tend to look after each other’s Interests. In their tradition, Children are Socialized in traditional adult roles. Girls care for their Siblings there is also a traditional dolls, oral literature is about the telling of old stories and written historical, poetry and novels. 

John Canoe and Junkanoo Festival of Bahamas:

John Canoe also known as John Kenu , John Junkanoo or John Connu was believed to be an Ahanta by tribe , Others claimed he was either an Nzema or Fante or Fanti,  It is believed John Canoe was considered to be a tribal Chief of Ahanta who hail from Axim, Western Region of Ghana and Others claimed he was a Fante who hail from Ajumako , Central Region , Ajumako is the home town of enslaved African known as Ottobah Cugoano an Abolitionist of the 18th Century. Junkanoo is a festival celebrated in Bahamas, Guyana, Bermuda and some parts of Saint Vincent Islands and Other parts of the Carribeans. Other narrations, it is said John Canoe was forced into Slavery and he was brought to the West Indies between 16th and 17th Century around the Christmas season, events such as Scrape bands, limbo dancing, folk dancing the Junkanoo masquerades is similar to the Igbo and the fancy dress is likely of Fante and Ahanta Origins.

Junkanoo is also believed to be the African version of Christmas which began before 1720, after emancipation their tradition continued Junkanoo evolved some African practices from simple origins to a formal organized parade with Intricate costumes , themed music and various categories. Junkanoo begins once a year of the summer the capital of Nassau Islands which usually takes place on Saturdays In July, attracts thousands of local and tourist who came and celebrate the unique traditions and Culture . The membranophones the goombay drum is the main rhythmic component in rake and scrape, It is decorated by simple design in bright Colours or Colors, Idiophones this Instrument is scraped with a nail or butter knife, straw weaving traditional crafts Include plaiting or braiding style, creating beautiful hats and baskets.

Calypso is an Afro Caribbean music which is spread throughout Bahamas, Dominica, St. Vincent and other parts of the Caribbean and Soca is a form of dance music which is combined with the African melodic liting sound of Calypso. Junkanoo music instruments are made consists of drums, cowbells, horns, whistles, brass, clapper and Junkanoo festival is a street parade festival with music, dance and costumes which of Akan Origin which  It is believed it has both Ahanta and Fante Influences also it is held in many towns across Bahamas every boxing, new year’s  day and the largest Junkanoo parade take place in the capital of Nassau. 

Junkanoo is a festival which originated from Ahanta and Fante which are considered to be Akan the festival is dedicated to an Ahanta known as John Canoe also known as John Kenu and Fancy dress are worn as well Junkanoo is also known as Kakamotobi Festival celebrated in the Carribeans.

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