Monday 29 January 2024

Italy can have Ethiopia only when I am Emperor of Rome, Emperor Menilek II

On the first day of March 126 years ago, traditional warriors, farmers and pastoralists as well as women defeated a well-armed Italian army in the northern town of Adwa in Ethiopia. The outcome of this battle ensured Ethiopia's independence, making it the only African country never to be colonised.

Emperor Menelik II was one of Ethiopia's most illustrious rulers, reigning as King of Shewa from 1866 to 1889 and as King and Emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 until his death in 1913. On August 17, 1884, in Ankober, Shewa, Ethiopia, he was born Sahle Miriam.

Woizero Ejigayehu Lemma Adyamo, his mother, was a palace servant, and his father was Prince Haile-Melekot, the son of King Sahle Sillasse.

By 1898, he had reached the peak of his internal and external power and prestige, and the process of territorial expansion and the formation of the modern empire-state had been completed.

Many Ethiopians honor him and celebrate him for the Battle of Adwa, which is commemorated on March 1 or 2 across Ethiopia and the diaspora.

During the Scramble for Africa, many Pan-Africans saw him as an advocate for African independence against European powers, not only that but the Emperor also transformed the Ethiopian Empire.

Melekot was killed during an invasion by Emperor Tewodros Il in 1855, and Miriam was taken prisoner and held captive for ten years in the emperor's mountain stronghold of Amba Magdela.

He was raised as a prince alongside the Emperor's children. Miriam escaped from Magdela and returned to Shewa in 1865. Miriam was said to be six feet tall, with a dark complexion, smallpox marks on his face, and fine white teeth.

When Miriam returned, Ato Bezebeh, the region's governor appointed by Emperor Tewodros II, fled, and Miriam became Negus (King) of the region.

When Emperor Tewodros Il died in 1868, Miriam wanted to succeed him, but was forced to submit to Tekle Giorgis (1868-1872) and Yohannes IV (1872-1889).

Meanwhile, Miriam began to incorporate several southern Ethiopian kingdoms and states into his reign, and by the time Yohannes IV died in 1889, Miriam had become Ethiopia's most powerful ruler, both King and Emperor.

...

When Miriam was coronated on November 3, 1889, he took the name Emperor Menelik II. His ancestors had ruled Menz, Shewa's heartland, since the 17th century, and it has been claimed that they were related to the Solomonid line of emperors who ruled Ethiopia from 1268 to 1854.

Menelik Il was a significant crown name because Menelik I was the legendary son of Solomon and Makeda, Queen of Sheba. Menelik Il pushed Ethiopia almost to its current borders.

Italians had settled along the Red Sea coast, establishing a colony in Eritrea, just as Menelik I was crowned. Ethiopia and Italy initially reached an agreement, the Treaty of Wichale, but the Italian interpretation of the agreement granted Italy a protectorate over Ethiopia.

When Menelik II learned of this, he renounced the treaty, sparking several skirmishes and a major battle at Adwa. On March 1, 1896, the Italian army was defeated in the Battle of Adwa. The Italians retreated after the treaty was canceled.

"Italy can have Ethiopia when I am the emperor of Rome" -Emperor Menilek II

Menelik I began large-scale modernization, including the restoration of a national currency, the construction of buildings for improved educational facilities and ministries, the construction of a railway from Djibouti to the new capital of Addis Ababa, and the establishment of the Empire's first telephone.

Menelik II fell gravely ill sometime in 1906. On October 25, 1909, he suffered a massive paralytic stroke, ceding power to his wife, Empress Taytu.

Menelik Il married three times: Altash Tewodros

(1864-1865), Befana Gatchew (1865-1882), and Taytu Betul (1865-1882). (1883-1913).

He had no children with his wives, but several with other women.

Emperor Menelik II died on December 12, 1913, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, at the age of 69.

Haile Selassie, Ethiopia's next major leader, was not crowned until 1930. #africa #europe

Sunday 28 January 2024

BLACK HISTORY

The Annunaki “Those Of Royal Blood” are believed to be immortal Gods that inhabited the Earth during the ancient sumerian time in mesopotamia.

The Sumerian civilisation developed on the Persian Gulf, growing to strength at around 4 – 3,000 B.C. The ‘Plain of the Land of Shinar’ is the territory which after 2,000 B.C. became called Babylon. The Greeks named the region Mesopotamia (The land between two rivers), most of which lies in the modern state of Iraq.

The first recorded civilization of mankind and they were advanced with currency, astronomy and farming. The earliest known usages of the term Anunnaki come from inscriptions written during the reign of Gudea (c. 2144 — 2124 BC) and the Third Dynasty of Ur. In the earliest texts, the term is applied to the most powerful and important deities in the Sumerian pantheon: the descendants of the Sky-God An. This group of deities probably included the "seven Gods who decree":An, Enlil, Enki, Ninhursag, Nanna, Utu, and Inanna.

According to the Ancient Alien Theory, the Anunnaki genetically altered primitive mankind and created a labor force which allowed them to mine gold faster.

According to Zecharia Sitchin, “the Adamu” were the first modern humans, they were created by the Anunnaki 450,000 years ago when they genetically mixed their DNA with that of prehistoric man and that way obtained a labor force which did what the Anunnaki wanted. Anunnaki " "Those who from Heaven to Earth Came".

#blackhistory #knowthyself

Italy can have Ethiopia only when I am Emperor of Rome, Emperor Menilek II

On the first day of March 126 years ago, traditional warriors, farmers and pastoralists as well as women defeated a well-armed Italian army in the northern town of Adwa in Ethiopia. The outcome of this battle ensured Ethiopia's independence, making it the only African country never to be colonised.

Emperor Menelik II was one of Ethiopia's most illustrious rulers, reigning as King of Shewa from 1866 to 1889 and as King and Emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 until his death in 1913. On August 17, 1884, in Ankober, Shewa, Ethiopia, he was born Sahle Miriam.

Woizero Ejigayehu Lemma Adyamo, his mother, was a palace servant, and his father was Prince Haile-Melekot, the son of King Sahle Sillasse.

By 1898, he had reached the peak of his internal and external power and prestige, and the process of territorial expansion and the formation of the modern empire-state had been completed.

Many Ethiopians honor him and celebrate him for the Battle of Adwa, which is commemorated on March 1 or 2 across Ethiopia and the diaspora.

During the Scramble for Africa, many Pan-Africans saw him as an advocate for African independence against European powers, not only that but the Emperor also transformed the Ethiopian Empire.

Melekot was killed during an invasion by Emperor Tewodros Il in 1855, and Miriam was taken prisoner and held captive for ten years in the emperor's mountain stronghold of Amba Magdela.

He was raised as a prince alongside the Emperor's children. Miriam escaped from Magdela and returned to Shewa in 1865. Miriam was said to be six feet tall, with a dark complexion, smallpox marks on his face, and fine white teeth.

When Miriam returned, Ato Bezebeh, the region's governor appointed by Emperor Tewodros II, fled, and Miriam became Negus (King) of the region.

When Emperor Tewodros Il died in 1868, Miriam wanted to succeed him, but was forced to submit to Tekle Giorgis (1868-1872) and Yohannes IV (1872-1889).

Meanwhile, Miriam began to incorporate several southern Ethiopian kingdoms and states into his reign, and by the time Yohannes IV died in 1889, Miriam had become Ethiopia's most powerful ruler, both King and Emperor

....

When Miriam was coronated on November 3, 1889, he took the name Emperor Menelik II. His ancestors had ruled Menz, Shewa's heartland, since the 17th century, and it has been claimed that they were related to the Solomonid line of emperors who ruled Ethiopia from 1268 to 1854.

Menelik Il was a significant crown name because Menelik I was the legendary son of Solomon and Makeda, Queen of Sheba. Menelik Il pushed Ethiopia almost to its current borders.

Italians had settled along the Red Sea coast, establishing a colony in Eritrea, just as Menelik I was crowned. Ethiopia and Italy initially reached an agreement, the Treaty of Wichale, but the Italian interpretation of the agreement granted Italy a protectorate over Ethiopia.

When Menelik II learned of this, he renounced the treaty, sparking several skirmishes and a major battle at Adwa. On March 1, 1896, the Italian army was defeated in the Battle of Adwa. The Italians retreated after the treaty was canceled.

"Italy can have Ethiopia when I am the emperor of Rome" -Emperor Menilek II

Menelik I began large-scale modernization, including the restoration of a national currency, the construction of buildings for improved educational facilities and ministries, the construction of a railway from Djibouti to the new capital of Addis Ababa, and the establishment of the Empire's first telephone.

Menelik II fell gravely ill sometime in 1906. On October 25, 1909, he suffered a massive paralytic stroke, ceding power to his wife, Empress Taytu.

Menelik Il married three times: Altash Tewodros

(1864-1865), Befana Gatchew (1865-1882), and Taytu Betul (1865-1882). (1883-1913).

He had no children with his wives, but several with other women.

Emperor Menelik II died on December 12, 1913, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, at the age of 69.

Haile Selassie, Ethiopia's next major leader, was not crowned until 1930. #africa #europe

Saturday 27 January 2024

Ancient China African Relationship

In 1414, the ruler of Malindi [North of Mombasa] in Kenya ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ช, sent an envoy with a giraffe as a present to China!

Sometime in 1413, sailors from the Swahili city state of Malindi arrived at the court of King of Bengal, India, with a host of tributes. Among them was a giraffe.

At that same time, an accomplished Chinese admiral, Zheng He, [who had himself made seven diplomatic voyages to East Africa, particularly Mogadishu [Somalia] and the Swahili Coast [Kenya, Tanzania]) heading an expansive armada also arrived and sent emissaries to the Bengal court. The Chinese sailors witnessed the gifts the powerful Sultan of Malindi had sent, and became fascinated by it. Noticing their intrigue, the wily King of Bengal re-gifted the Chinese with the animal the Malindians had brought, and with it started a legend. Zheng He, the Chinese admiral, made the Malindians promise to visit the court of the Ming Dynasty, and if it wasn’t too much of a hassle, to bring at least one other giraffe.

Eager to connect with the rest of the known world, the Sultan of Malindi sent his envoys to China almost as soon as they arrived from Bengal. With them was a giraffe for Emperor Yong Le, the Ming Dynasty Emperor at the time.

The gift of a giraffe was seen as godsend, almost literally as the emperor would make it seem. In an elaborate public ceremony in 1414, the Malindi envoys presented the Emperor with his second giraffe. The animal was feted and even, to some level, revered. The reknown painter Sheng Du was commissioned to do a painting of the giraffe being led by a handler[the picture attached], and a poem was written and broadcast about the magnificent animal. For years, the giraffes from Malindi were displayed on the east side of the throne during imperial functions.

Zheng had also invited other emissaries from the city states of the Horn of Africa and the East African Coast. Many sent their envoys to the Chinese emperor, including the powerful kingdom of Mogadishu. They gave the Chinese numerous gifts of rhino horn, elephant ivory, tortoise shells, zebras, ostriches, and other presents. The Ming court sent them back with silk, gold, spices, porcelain, and other gifts. But that was after two years.

For those two years, the envoys from Malindi and other city states travelled around China and received royal treatment. Their ships were then packed with gifts for their kings and Sultans and they joined Zheng’s armada for an armed escort back home. Off the sea near Pate Island [present day Kenya], it is said that one of the ships in Zheng’s fleet ran aground. Some of its survivors swam ashore and, to win over the people of Pate, killed a python that had terrorized the village. They settled and their descendants now live in Shanga Village on the island. In 2010, the Chinese government sent archaeologists to find the shipwreck.

The Chinese interest in Malindi and giraffes seems to have started as early as the 8th Century, as recorded by an explorer called Tu-Huan. In early texts, Malindi was referred to as Pipalo, sometimes as Malin and in some texts as Malinti. A 1226 text, Gazetter of Foreigners, written by a customs inspector called Zhao Rugua recorded a description of an animal with a “leopards hide, a cows hoofs, a ten-foot-tall body, and a nine-foot neck.” The traveler who described it to Zhao called “zula”, or at least thats what the customs man heard-It was most likely zurafa, the Arabic name for the giraffe.

The giraffe was particularly fascinating for the Chinese because of its connection with Confucian tradition, and they thought of it as a mythical creature. #africa

Thursday 25 January 2024

THE KING OF ASANTES OF GHANA

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The King of the Asantes Ghana (Asantehene), Otumfuo Nana Prempeh II, and Nana Kwaadu Yiadom, the Asantehemaa (Asante queenmother from 1917-1945), at the Restoration of the Asante Confederacy durbar in Kumasi in 1935. 

The British had always wanted to rule Ashantis but were defeated several times until Sir Garnet Wolseley defeated Asantes in Sagrenti War. Britain later annexed the territories of the Ashanti and the Fanti in 1896, and Ashanti leaders were sent into exile in the Seychelles.

The Asante Union was dissolved. Robert Baden-Powell led the British in this campaign. The British formally declared the state of Asanteman and the coastal regions to be the Gold Coast colony. A British Resident was permanently placed in the city of Kumasi, and soon after a British fort was built there. As a final measure of resistance, the remaining Asante court not exiled to the Seychelles mounted an offensive against the British Residents at the Kumasi Fort.

The resistance was led by Asante queen Yaa Asantewaa, Queen-Mother of Ejisu. From March 28 to late September 1900, the Asante and British were engaged in what would become known as the War of the Golden Stool. In the end, the British were victorious; they exiled Asantewaa and other Asante leaders to the Seychelles to join Asante King Prempeh I.

In January 1902, Britain finally designated Asanteman as a protectorate. Asanteman was restored to independence on 31 January 1935. Asante King Prempeh II was restored in 1957, and Asanteman entered a state union with Ghana at independence from Great Britain.

The first of the Anglo-Ashanti wars occurred in 1823. In these conflicts, Asanteman faced off, with varying degrees of success, against the British Empire residing on the coast. The root of the conflict traces back to 1823 when Sir Charles MacCarthy, resisting all overtures by the Ashanti to negotiate colonial policy, led an invading force.

The Ashanti defeated him, killed MacCarthy, took his head for a trophy and swept on to the coast. However, disease forced them back.

The Ashanti were so successful in subsequent fighting that in 1826 they again moved on the coast. #africa

EMPEROR MANSA MUSA KEITA I

The Story of Emperor (Mansa) Musa Keita I, the richest man who ever lived.

Owner of an incalculable fortune, the African king commanded the empire of Mali in the beginning of the 14th century known as Musa Keita, Emir of Melle, Lord of the Mines of Wangara, Conqueror of Ghanata and the Lion of Mali II.

Many experts believe that Mansa Musa (1280-1337), the king of Timbuktu, was the richest person in history.  According to historians the West African kingdom of Musa was probably the largest gold producer in the world at a time when gold was in high demand.

The Mali Empire was a pre-colonial African Empire, from the Middle Ages, existing between 1235 to 1670, in the Manden region, in present-day Mali, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea and the South of the Western Seara.  This Empire was one of the most powerful in the history of mankind and one of the richest in the Middle Ages.

Musa Keita I assumed power in 1312 at a time of prosperity for several African kingdoms.  Upon assuming the government of Mali, he gained the title of Mansa (which means king) and expanded the wealth of the empire that was concentrated in the era of gold and salt, products highly valued at the time.

At its height, the empire's extension covered an area of approximately 1.2 million square kilometers.

In 1324 he began a great journey to the city of Mecca, sacred to the Muslim people. With a caravan of 60,000 men, including soldiers, civilians and his servants, and with a hundred street vendors carrying gold bars.

During this journey, Musa stopped in Cairo, capital of Egypt, and decided to do a simple act of charity: donating gold. But he left so much gold that it caused an inflationary crisis in the country. It took some for the economy to recover.

The Emperor died in 1337, after 25 years of power, leaving schools, mosques, libraries and museums as a legacy. The mosque of Djinquereber, still exists today...

In 1375, Spanish Cartographers detailed his wealth in the Catalan Atlas. #africa #europe

Saturday 20 January 2024

CAPTAIN IBRAHIM TRAORE

Meet Captain Ibrahim Traore! He is following in the footsteps of Thomas Sankara. At 35, He is the youngest leader in the whole world. He is currently building the first Gold refinery in his country. Burkina Faso has 153 metric tonnes of gold reserve while the former occupier, France, which has no gold mine, has over 2,000 metric tonnes in their reserve.

When he was sworn in as the president, he expelled all the French forces from Burkina Faso for sponsoring terrorism and causing instability. He removed French as the official language of Burkina Faso and adopted local languages.

He has survived 7 assassination attempts in the last year reportedly orchestrated by the West! He is building a nuclear plant in conjunction with Russia.

He formed the Association of Sahel States (AES) to strengthen ties with Mali, Niger Republic. An attack on one is an attack on all.

Friday 19 January 2024

THE LAKE VICTORIA

That is Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa and the second-largest freshwater lake in the world, is not only a geographical marvel but also steeped in history:

(1). Geographical Significance: Straddling Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania, Lake Victoria is a vital part of the African Great Lakes region. It is a source of the Nile River, playing a crucial role in the river's formation.

(2). Colonial Exploration: European explorers, including John Hanning Speke and Richard Burton, ventured to find the source of the Nile. Speke was credited with "discovering" Lake Victoria in 1858. This exploration marked a significant chapter in the European fascination with Africa during the colonial era.

#africa #africanhistory #tanzania #kenya  #uganda

SHAABAN ROBERT KISWAHILI LITERATURE AUTHOR, POET AND ONE OF THE PIONEERS OF THE SWAHILI LITERATURE. RIP 1909 - 1962

In the 70s in our Secondary School Kiswahili lessons we had his book “ Alfu Lela ULela” Rich in Kiswahili words that we didn’t speak in the Highlands of Kenya!

Shabaan Robert was a prominent Tanzanian poet and author who lived from 1909 to 1962. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential figures in Swahili literature. 

Robert wrote extensively in Swahili, and his works often focused on social issues, human nature, and the struggle for independence in East Africa. Some of his most famous books include "Kusadikika".

His writing is known for its poetic language and powerful storytelling, and he played a significant role in popularizing Swahili as a literary language.

Robert's work continues to be celebrated and studied, both within Tanzania and internationally, for its cultural and historical significance.

KABAKA MUTEESA

In ‘Desecration of My Kingdom’ (1967), Kabaka Muteesa tells a story from his short time as a student (and King) at Makerere. One time, as a white teacher was in class, someone came running and handed her a chit. After reading it, she went about walking around the class, helping students with their work. When she reached Muteesa’s desk, she simply wrote in his book: ‘'your lion has killed a man. You are needed at the palace’'. 

He ran out very fast. Getting to the palace (Mengo), the lion welcomed him (they were two). But, as is often done with lions that have tasted human blood, he had to painfully shoot it, the other too. And he went back to Makerere sobbing.

#blackhistory #africa #african

Thursday 18 January 2024

THE POKOT

Enjoy a cultural encounter with the Pokot people who live in West Pokot County, Baringo County in Kenya, and the Pokot District of the eastern Karamoja region in Uganda. The Pokot are part of the Kalenjin community and are highland Nilotes originating from southern Ethiopia. They migrated southward into Kenya as early as 2,000 years ago. The Pokot are economically divided into two groups: pastoral Pokot and agricultural Pokot.

The Pokot speak the Pรถkoot language, which is. broadly similar to the related Marakwet, Nandi, and Tugen. and other members of the language group.

The Pokot community has one of the unique, richest cultures in Kenya if not the world; the most authentic and unexploited. Cultural activities include Sapana (men's rite of passage to adulthood), Kidong'a (a traditional dance by all ages set every evening), and circumcision ceremonies.

About one-quarter of Pokot peoples are cultivators ("corn people"), while the remaining are pastoralists ("cow people"). Among both groups, however, wealth is measured by the number of cows one owns. Cows are used for barter, exchange, and most significantly as a form of bride wealth. A man is permitted to marry more than one woman, as long as he has a sufficient number of cows to offer to her family in exchange. This is the primary way for wealth and resources to change hands in Pokot society. Cows are rarely slaughtered for meat because they are much more valuable alive. They provide milk, butter, and cheese, which provide an important component of Pokot dietary needs.

#kenya #pokot #tribe #maasai #traditions #blackhistory

AFRICAN HISTORY

Document showing estimated amount of African people taken as Slaves by English slave traders from Africa during the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade from 1690 to 1807.

The truth is that many people died trying to avoid captivity.

Senegambia (Today Senegal ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ณ and Gambia ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฒ) - 141,300 people.

Sierra Leone ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฑ- 111,600 people.

Windward Coast (Coastlines of modern countries Sierra Leone ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฑ,  Liberia ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ท and Ivory Coast ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฎ) - 299,300 people.

Gold Coast (Today Ghana ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญ) - 473,800 people.

Bight of Benin  (today coastline of Togo ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฌ , Benin ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฏ , and Southwestern Nigeria ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ) - 292,700 people.

Bight of Biafra (Today Eastern Nigeria ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌ including South South and South East, Cameroon ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฒ, Equatorial Guinea ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ถ, Gabon ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฆ) - 776,400 people.

Angola ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ด and Mozambique ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟ - 468,300 people.

Other unknown locations in Africa - 16,100 people.

"I verily believe that the far greater part of wars, in Africa, would cease, if the Europeans would cease to tempt them, by offering goods for sale. I believe, the captives reserved for sale are fewer than the slain." John Newton, former captain of an enslaver ship.

#europe #africa

THE ASHANTI PEOPLE OF GHANA

The Ashantis are undoubtedly the largest ethnicity in Ghana, with a population estimated at 12 million people, and they can be found in Ghana ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญ , Togo ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฌ and Ivory Coast ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฎ .

The Ashanti people, who are a subgroup of the Akan, speak the Twi language, a language that is now ranked as one of the most spoken in West Africa. Their capital was Kumasi, one of the largest cities in Ghana.

Some of the majority of Ashanti people are  now Christians, Some are traditional worshippers, while a growing population of Muslims can also be found.

According to the history of these great people, the Ashanti kingdom was found in the 1600s, in the midst of a land that was full of gold and that served as a major trade between them and other Kingdoms even with Europeans.

Many Ashantis exist in Caribbean countries, especially in Jamaica ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ฒ , where there is a clear Ashanti influence in the Jamaican name, dress, and physical appearance.

The Ashanti, like many tribes, have their own delicious foods such as Fufu, Mpoto Mpoto, and others that have already been hijacked by other tribes who find them more delicious.

Many Ashantis fought tirelessly for the quick independence of Ghana, and they successfully made it the second west African country to get independence, lagging only behind Liberia ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ท .

#africa

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade 1

Over the period of the Atlantic Slave Trade, from approximately 1526 to 1867, some 12.5 million captured men, women, and children were put on ships in Africa, and 10.7 million arrived in the Americas.

The Atlantic Slave Trade was likely the most costly in human life of all long-distance global migrations. The first Africans forced to work in the New World left from Europe after the fall of the Moors in Europe at the beginning of the sixteenth century, not from Africa. 

The first voyage carrying enslaved people direct from Africa to the Americas probably sailed in 1562. When John Hawkins encouraged the Africans to enter his boat “Jesus of Lubeck,” otherwise called “The Good Ship Jesus.” for salvation

The people who entered soon found out they could not leave the ship. Jesus of Lubeck was a cruising ship built in the City of Lรผbeck in the mid-sixteenth century. By the year 1540 the ship was purchased by Henry VIII, King of England, to expand his fleet. Jesus of Lubeck was later chartered to John Hawkins in 1562 by Queen Elizabeth I after it sank during a Battle

The ship became associated with the Atlantic slave exchange under John Hawkins. He effectively coordinated four journeys to West Africa and the West Indies somewhere in the range of 1562 and 1568. 300 Africans were captured from Sierra Leone and later sold to Spanish ranches in the Americas.

A record holds that Hawkins who professed to be a passionate Christian found the Sierra Leoneans harvesting their yields. He then, at that point, continued to tell the locals of a God named Jesus and of paradise and hell,.

A while later he asked those among them who tried to have Jesus as their saviour to enter his ship “Jesus of Lubeck,” otherwise called “The Good Ship Jesus.” The people who entered soon out found they were barred from leaving the ship. They were shipped to Spanish estates in the Americas. There Hawkins exchanged them for pearls and sugar.

When demands for slaves begin in the new world, the Portuguese and other Europeans first raided some Riverine and coastal towns and port they have been trading with who weren’t prepared for any resistance but living freely. They left some towns Isolated forcing several hundred of Coastal Communities down into thick forest.

That is why today many African names for white people in coastal areas are found to mean “they have carried”, “they will carry”, “they have divided us” and lastly “they divided and rule us”. Most of this names were coin by parents trying to warn their kids from going close to the Ocean and some names begin during colonial era.

The number of people carried off from Africa reached 30,000 per year in the 1690s and 85,000 per year a century later. More than eight out of ten Africans forced into the slave trade crossed the Atlantic between 1700 and 1850. The decade 1821 to 1830 saw more than 80,000 people a year leaving Africa in slave ships. Well over a million more—one-tenth of those carried off in the slave trade era—followed within the next twenty years.

By 1820, nearly four Africans for every one European had crossed the Atlantic; about four out of every five women who crossed the Atlantic were from Africa.

European traders captured Africans in raids along the coast, but bought most of them from trader or African-European dealers. These dealers had a sophisticated network of trading alliances collecting groups of people together for sale.

Most of the Africans who were enslaved were captured in battles in their homeland by invaders from afar mainly by night or were kidnapped during the day, though some were sold into slavery for debt or as punishment for crime.

captives were marched to the coast, often enduring long journeys of weeks or even months, shackled to one another. They were first sold to some African slave traders at the coast. At the coast they were imprisoned in large stone forts, built by European trading companies, or in smaller wooden compounds.

When the slave ships arrived from Europe they were laden with trade goods. Captains offered gifts to slave traders and paid taxes for the right to trade. They then began the serious business of barter and exchange, offering a wide variety of trade goods such as textiles, firearms, alcohol, beads, manillas and cowries.

By providing firearms amongst the trade goods, Europeans increased warfare and political instability in West Africa. Some coastal states, grew powerful and wealthy as a result. Meanwhile some other states were completely destroyed and their populations decimated as they were absorbed.

Millions of Africans were forcibly removed from their homes, and towns and villages were depopulated. Many Africans were killed in slaving wars.

"I verily believe that the far greater part of wars, in Africa, would cease, if the Europeans would cease to tempt them, by offering goods for sale. I believe, the captives reserved for sale are fewer than the slain." John Newton, former captain of an enslaver ship.

Many states, including Angola under Queen Nzinga Nbande and Kongo, strongly resisted slavery. However, the interests of those traders involved in the trade proved too great to overcome.

About two-thirds of the people sold to European traders were men. Fewer women were sold because their skills as farmers and craft workers were crucially important in African societies. The burden of rebuilding their violated communities fell to these women.

The majority of enslaved Africans brought to British North America arrived between 1720 and 1780. Africans carried to Brazil came overwhelmingly from Angola. Africans carried to North America, including the Caribbean, left mainly from West Africa.

Well over 90 percent of enslaved Africans were sent to the Caribbean and South America. Only about 6 percent of African captives were sent directly to British North America. Yet by 1825, the US population included about one-quarter of the people of African descent in the Western Hemisphere. The Middle Passage was dangerous and horrific.

The sexes were separated; men, women, and children were kept naked, packed close together; and the men were chained for long periods. About 12 percent of those who embarked did not survive the voyage. #Africa #europe

THE ZULU PEOPLE FROM SOUTH AFRICA

Zulu people refer to themselves as ‘'the people of the heavens'' and they are the largest ethnic group of South Africa with an estimated 11 million Zulu residents in KwaZulu-Natal. isiZulu is the language of the Zulu people and about 11 million residents are fluent in the language. In the 19th century they merged into a great kingdom under the leadership of Shaka.

After the death of his father, Senzangakhona, Shaka accepted leadership of the Zulu clan who at the time only consisted of 1 500 people. Under his reign from 1816 until 1828, an army (impi) of 50,000 emerged and defeร ted other clans.

Shaka created many military tactics to defeat the enรจmy. He created the 'Assegai' (short, large bladed stร bbing spear) and the lethal means to utilize the wรจapon. Shaka also discarded his cowhide sandals, as it hindered his movements. He proved to be a brilliant military leader and soon became a threat for his clan.

What do you know about the Zulu people?

#african

HAMILCAR CABRAL

One of Africa’s most respected nationalists, Hamilcar Cabral who was assassinated in 1973, aged just 48.

A charismatic leader, Cabral led the nationalist movement of Guinea-Bissau ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ผ and Cabo Verde Islands ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ป  and led the war of independence in Guinea-Bissau.

He was assassinated on 20 January 1973, about eight months before Guinea-Bissau's unilateral declaration of independence, and just over two and a half years before Cabo Verde would also gain its freedom.

Born in Guinea-Bissau, Cabral was an agricultural Engineer, nationalist, Pan-Africanist, writer, and political leader. 

He was educated in Lisbon, where he helped to form the Centro de Estudos Africanos (1948).

In 1962 Cabral took his party into an open war for the independence of Portuguese Guinea. 

The nationalist remains one of Africa’s foremost freedom fighters, and anti-colonial leaders whose legacy influenced a generation of Pan-African nationalists and freedom fighters.

We remember Cabral, and pay homage to this African hero, who fervently fought against western colonialism and exploitation.

“Hide nothing from the masses of our people. Tell no lies. Expose lies whenever they are told. Mask no difficulties, mistakes, failures. Claim no easy victories.” - Cabral.

#africa

LETITIA MICHELLE WRIGHT ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡พ

(Letitia Michelle Wright) is a Guyanese-British actress. She began her career with guest roles in the television series Top Boy, Coming Up, Chasing Shadows, Humans, Doctor Who, and Black Mirror. For the latter, she received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination.

While Wright's exact salary for the first Black Panther movie hasn't been confirmed, Showbiz Galore reported in 2022 that she made $700,000 for the second Black Panther movie, Black Panther: Wakanda Forever, in which she was the lead of after the death of her co-star, Chadwick Boseman, in 2020.

#blackexcellence #europe

Monday 15 January 2024

The Mande people are a west African ethnic group primarily found in Mali ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Gambia ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฒ and Guinea ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ณ

They are known as mandike in Gambia also known as Bambara in Mali, Dyula in Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast, and Malinke in Guniea.

With a population of 11 million the Mandinka are the biggest ethnic group of all Mande peoples, they all speak different dialects of the Mande language. They are descendants of the great Mali Empire in West Africa.

The history of Mandinka people started in what is today southern mali. Hunters from the Ghana Empire (Wagadou) founded the Mandinka country in Manden

Mansa Musa came to the Mandinka throne in 1312, he oversaw the conquest of Ghana and ruled Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Chad. Mansa in Bambara means king. 

The enslaved Kunta Kinte was also said to be from these Mandike people.

The Mandinka have a rich oral history that has been passed down through singers. A very unique way of oral history. They are known for their drumming and also for their unique instrument, the kora. The kora is a 21 string harp like instrument made out of a gourd covered with cow skin. The strings are made of fishing line.

Originally the Mandinkas practiced traditional African spirituality. Between the 8th and 10th centuries, the Soninke were the first Mandinka to accept Islam thanks to the Arab Berbers who traded in this region.  

Maa Ngala is the name of traditional Mandike spirituality. The Komotigui (spiritual priest and priestesses) are those who have been initiated to be intermediates for Maa Ngala. Men are not considered if he hasnot gone through the rite of circumcision.

The universal force is called Nyama similarly the Ghanaians call it Nyame.

Mande stories have had significant impact on the writings and belief system of surrounding peoples such as the Dogon, Fulani, Serer, and Wolof.

Saturday 13 January 2024

THE DEATH OF THE LAST QUEEN OF RWANDA ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ผ (1928-1994)

On April 20, 1994 at around 11am, a detachment of soldiers invaded the home of Queen Gicanda where they abducted her and six others but left behind her bed-ridden mother.

They took Gicanda and the others behind the Ethnographic Museum where they were killed. Before her execution she begged the killers to not use machetes, they respected her wish. They mercilessly shot her 4 bullets in her chest!

The Queen was a living symbol for Tutsis, and her murder shocked many. It effectively signaled the beginning of the mass killing of Tutsi people in the southern province of Rwanda.

GHANA ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญ ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญ

Important introductory information about the traditional Kente dress that the Ghanaian team appeared in when it arrived in Abidjan.

Traditional Kente Cloth:

The term “Kente” refers to Ghanaian weaving, made of hand-woven cloth and strips of silk and cotton.  Historically, the cloth was worn in a toga-like fashion by royalty among the Ewe and Akan. According to Ashanti oral tradition, it originated from Bonwire.

In the Ashanti region of Ghana. In contemporary Ghana, the wearing of kente cloth has become widespread to celebrate special occasions, with highly sought-after brands led by professional weavers. Kente is also worn in parts of Togo and Ivory Coast by the Ewe and Akan people there.

Due to the popularity of Kente cloth patterns, mass-produced prints using Kente patterns became popular throughout West Africa, and thus in the whole of Africa. Globally, typography is used in the design of academic shawls.

Friday 12 January 2024

๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ The President Downplays Removal of Uganda from US Trade Pact

Uganda's President Yoweri Museveni has said that external attempts to "pressure" his country are futile, more than a week after Uganda was expelled from a major US-Africa trade programme.

The US first threatened to sanction Uganda and expel it from the African Growth and Opportunity Act (Agoa) trade pact in May.

"For now, those who put pressure on us, they're wasting their time. And we don't have to worry ourselves about that," President Museveni said.

"What we should concentrate on is to fight corruption among ourselves. These are the real problems. Not foreign pressure, because that one has no meaning," he added.

Museveni also said that Uganda will trade with international partners that "respect" it.

#Uganda #USA

Thursday 11 January 2024

Ekeobong Pearls: A Sculptor Extraordinaire from the Heart of Akwa Ibom

In the realm of artistry, where creativity knows no bounds, there emerges a sculptor whose hands craft wonders from the ordinary - Ekeobong Pearls. 

A proud alumna of the University of Uyo in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, Ekeobong has not just mastered the art of sculpting; she has breathed life into her creations, carving her niche in the world of artistic excellence.

Ekeobong's journey as a sculptor began with a passion that ignited during her university days. The vibrant and culturally rich atmosphere of Uyo became the canvas upon which she would paint her dreams in clay and stone. Graduating with a fine arts degree, Ekeobong embarked on a mission to sculpt her mark onto the world.

Before I forget, she's ''The Magician of Clay''. 

Recently, Ekeobong Pearls unveiled her latest masterpiece – a statue capturing the essence of a prominent figure in Nigeria. With meticulous attention to detail, she chiseled the sculpture to perfection, breathing life into the cold embrace of stone. The figure stands tall, a testament to Ekeobong's prowess in capturing the spirit and charisma of her subjects.

More to feast on ☺ 

From Akwa Ibom to the World

Ekeobong's artistic journey is not confined to the borders of Akwa Ibom; it's a global odyssey. Her sculptures tell stories, convey emotions, and bridge gaps between cultures. Through her hands, the world witnesses the beauty of Nigerian artistry.

A Tribute to Excellence

As we celebrate Ekeobong Pearls, we also pay homage to the dedication and passion she invests in every piece. Her sculptures are not mere creations; they are windows into the soul of the subjects she immortalizes.

In a world that often rushes past the profound, Ekeobong Pearls reminds us to pause and appreciate the artistry that surrounds us. Stay tuned as she continues to shape the artistic landscape, one masterpiece at a time.

To know more, check-in at Ekeobong Pearls

In 1992, the Legendary Nigerian FELA ANIKULAPO KUTI and the Legendary Jamaican SHABA RANKS had a ☘️Weed Smoking Contest at the Kalakuta Shrine

Shabba Ranks (born Rexton Rawlston Fernando Gordon; 17 January 1966) is a Jamaican dancehall musician. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, he was one of the most popular Jamaican musicians in the world. 

Fela Anรญkรบlรกpรณ Kuti (born Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome-Kuti; 15 October 1938 – 2 August 1997), also known as Abami Eda, was a Nigerian musician, bandleader, composer, political activist, and Pan-Africanist. 

He is regarded as the pioneer of Afrobeat.

In 1992, Jamaica’s Rexton Rawlston Fernando Gordon, a.k.a. Shabba Ranks came to Nigeria to perform at a concert but decided to visit Afro-beat legend, Fela Anikulapo-Kuti at his Kalakuta Shrine early in the day.

Of course he was very blunt about the purpose of his visit. Out of youthful exuberance, he promptly told Abami Eda that he’d heard about his smoking legacy and that he’d come to collect his bragging right of being the guy who out smoked Fela.

Well, there is a saying that “It is not wise to go on a drinking or smoking challenge  with another man if you do not understand your own system”. Baba 70 as he’s also known, accepted the challenge and the Ganja Kings drew and puffed their smokes away while exchanging banters.

Turns out each successive wraps of blunt got bigger and bigger until Shaba Ranks passed out and fell asleep. It seems he was beaten black and blue because when he woke up he was informed he has missed his concert last night.

Wednesday 10 January 2024

10 Deep Psychological And Philosophical Quotes

(1). The world will ask who you are, and if you don't know, the world will tell you.

(2). If a man knows more than others, he becomes lonely.

(3). Everything that irritates us about others can lead to an understanding of ourselves.

(4). Life really does begin at forty. Up until then, you are just doing research.

(5). You are what you do, not what you say you'll do.

(6). Knowing your own darkness is the best method for dealing with the darkness of other people.

(7). Until you make the unconscious conscious, it will direct your life and you will call it fate.

(8). Be grateful for your difficulties and challenges, for they hold blessings

In fact... Man needs difficulties; they are necessary for healthy personal growth, individualization and self-actualization."

(9). Everyone you meet knows something you don't know but need to know. Learn from them.

(10). I am not what happened to me, I am what I choose to become.

Monday 8 January 2024

Ethiopia ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡น, Horn of Africa

A group of Ethiopians eating raw meat lunch.

This popular dish among Ethiopians is called “Tere siga”.  The meat comes mostly from the cow and is served with a hot, crushed spice mix called mitmita, a hot dipping sauce called “awaz,” and cinavic (mustard sauce).

A famous theory behind Ethiopians tasting raw meat comes from the Abyssinian-Just War in 1600. It is believed that Ethiopians started eating this food during a battle. It was a war between Ethiopians and Somalians. It is believed that every time the Ethiopian army prepare meat, he easily catch the enemy outside and kill them while they are sleeping.  They later realized that those who were mostly using the fire they built to roast or cook meat to mark their location. To avoid being attacked in this way again, they chose to consume their meat raw rather than roasting or cooking it.

This was later incorporated into Ethiopian culture and developed into a popular rakaa in honor of the occasion.

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