Friday 15 March 2024

The 25th dynasty were not the only Black Pharaohs

The term "Black Pharaohs" typically refers to rulers of the Kingdom of Kush who ruled over ancient Egypt during the 25th Dynasty, also known as the Nubian Dynasty. The origin of claim that only the 25th and 26th dynasty were black is racist ideas in the late 19th century and early 20th century, they first claimed the ancient Egyptians were “brown”, the “white” then “white black”.

The architects of the modern day confusion are historical figures such as Flinders Petrie and James Henry Breasted, who popularised and perpetuated racist ideologies by attempting to whiten the ancient Egyptians, thereby distorting historical accuracy. These individuals relied on outdated and prejudiced criteria to classify race, leading to the marginalization of African contributions to civilization.

It's important to acknowledge the role of individuals like Josiah Clark Nott, Geo R Gliddon, and others in shaping these erroneous classifications of race. Their works laid the foundation for Eurocentric interpretations of history that persisted for decades, influencing mainstream Western civilization narratives.

To make their case, these academics had to contradict the very same ancient authors they appeal to for records of Roman and Greek History.

Consider Strabo:

“The priests at Thebes are reputed to be the most learned in astronomy and philosophy. They began the custom of telling time, not according to the revolution of the moon, but by that of the sun. To twelve months of thirty days each, they add five days a year. A certain fraction of a day is still left over, so to complete the duration of the year, they form a period comprising an even number of days …; when the excess fractions are added, they make a whole day.” (Strabo, Bk. XVII, Chap. 1, par. 22, 816.)

Strabo doesn’t claim the ancient Egyptians learnt to tell time from Saudi Arabia.

According to Plato, in Timaeus 21e–24d (4th century BCE), the priest of Sais, Egypt, informed Solon that Athens and Sais were founded by the same person, revealing Athens' great antiquity. He claimed that Neith was the person the Greeks called Athena, after whom Athena is named. According to the priest, the Greeks lacked ancient knowledge due to catastrophic events erasing their history and lack of writing, while Egypt's records spanned 8,000 years, documenting their advanced civilization. The priest emphasized Egypt's role as a cradle of civilization, with Athens deriving its culture from ancient Egyptian roots. This challenges the conventional narrative that Greece was the birthplace of civilization.

Tracing back what “8,000 years ago” meant 2,400 years ago means 10,400 years ago, in 2024 AD. 10,400 years ago is before white skin emerged in either Central Europe, Western Europe, Anatolia or Egypt based on archaeological remains found such as as Cheddar man, Whitehawk lady, the Red Lady of Paviland, Mladec skulls, and others, collectively shedding light on the presence of black European ancestors in prehistoric times.

The Whitehawk Lady, unearthed in East Sussex, England, and dating back approximately 5,000 years, is one such example. Analysis of her skeletal remains revealed dark skin pigmentation, challenging previous assumptions about the racial homogeneity of ancient European populations. Similarly, Cheddar Man, Britain's oldest complete skeleton dating back over 10,000 years, stunned researchers with his dark complexion, blue eyes, and curly hair, providing tangible evidence of the racial diversity that characterized ancient Europe.

But the story doesn't end there. The Red Lady of Paviland, despite its misleading name, is another significant find. Discovered in Wales in the early 19th century, this male skeleton dates back around 33,000 years and exhibits features associated with African ancestry. Likewise, the Mladec skulls found in the Czech Republic, dating back approximately 31,000 years, display African-like traits, further challenging conventional narratives of European prehistory.

Academics have employed various scientific techniques to determine the racial identity of these ancient individuals. Genetic analysis of DNA extracted from ancient skeletal remains has provided crucial insights into their ancestry and physical characteristics. Additionally, isotopic analysis of dental enamel and bone collagen has helped researchers reconstruct ancient diets and migration patterns, further informing our understanding of prehistoric populations.

The discovery of black European ancestors in prehistoric Europe challenges outdated perceptions of racial homogeneity and highlights the complex interplay of migration, adaptation, and cultural exchange that shaped ancient societies. These findings underscore the importance of diversity in human history and emphasize the need for inclusive narratives that reflect the multifaceted nature of our shared past.

Racial identity is a social construct because assumptions about the moral customs, values, and mental abilities of racial categories are not based on inherent biological differences but rather on cultural and historical perceptions of physical traits. While physical features such as skin color, hair texture, and facial features may vary among individuals, these characteristics do not inherently signify distinct racial categories. Moreover, human bodies are dynamic and constantly evolving, influenced by environmental factors, genetic variation, and cultural interactions. Therefore, racial identity is not static but rather fluid and subject to change over time, reflecting the complex interplay of social, cultural, and biological influences. The ancestors of European around 10,000 to 60,000 years ago were darkly pigmented because white skin had not evolved yet. These populations were able to get their vitamin D nutrients from fishing.

“10,400 years ago” debunks and utterly discredits any claims by modern Egyptians or Eurocentrics that ancient Egypt was founded by a homogenous white population.

Genetic research suggests that the ancestors of ancient Egypt followed a migration path that can be summarized as follows:

Around 50,000-70,000 years ago, African and non-African populations diverged. Language already existed, with non-African populations dispersing and forming new various language groups.

Within the African non-click population in East Africa, the E-M96 Y-DNA haplogroup split into different subclades, and subsequent splits and migrations occurred in East Africa.

Around 20,000 to 60,000 years ago, Western African non-click groups split from East African non-click groups.

The African non-click population further split into proto Niger-Congo and proto Nilo-Saharan around 28,000 years ago.

The E-M35 haplogroup (E1b1b), originating around 35,000-24,000 years ago, is widespread in Africa, particularly in North and East Africa, as well as in other regions like South Africa, Western Asia, Europe, and the Balkans.

The maternal lineage, represented by mtDNA haplogroups L, M, and U6, shows distinct patterns across different regions of Africa.

The formation of Proto-Afro-Asiatic, the ancestor of Afro-Asiatic languages, is estimated to have occurred around 16,000-10,000 years ago.

The emergence of diverse skin tones in North Africa is attributed to factors such as lower UV radiation, genetic continuity, evolutionary adaptation, human migrations, and selective pressures for depigmentation, which aligns with scientific understanding of natural selection and environmental influences on human phenotypes.

Various settlements within Africa were later unified into Egypt. They were already present from 9,500 Bc in Nabta Playa to around 4,500 Bc in Faiyum. Ancient settlements in the Green Sahara, from the Atlantic to the Egyptian Western Desert, thrived near oases and lakes. On the West Bank of the Nile, cattle-keeping hunter-gatherer-fishermen cultivated pottery and devised solar, stellar, and lunar calendars. They subsisted on cereals like brachiaria, sorghum, and urochloa. Sorghum, initially farmed in Sudan (Upper Nubia), emerged as Africa's first crop around 7500-5500 BC. Notable settlements included Lake Yoa in Chad, Nabta Playa, Dakhleh Oasis, Farafra Oasis, and Faiyum Oases. Communities like the Bashendi in Dakhleh Oasis and Badarian culture pioneered agriculture, while others at Farafra and Faiyum adopted animal husbandry. The Merimde culture furthered agricultural development, establishing Egypt's earliest permanently occupied northern town, Merimde Beni Salama.

Challenging these misconceptions does not solely fall to black Africans or African Americans. Scholars from various backgrounds, both academic and non-academic, have taken up the task of debunking inaccurate narratives and rewriting history from a more inclusive perspective. The goal is not to promote an exclusively Afrocentric view but to ensure that all contributions to human civilization are accurately represented and recognized.

Certain universities like UCLA and Cambridge no longer issue misleading statements that insinuate that the Ancient Egypt was a white civilization, or an Non-African civilization.

Prior to the 25th Dynasty, the vast majority of pharaohs in ancient Egypt were indeed of African descent. The ancient Egyptians themselves were indigenous to the Nile Valley and were part of the broader African cultural and ethnic landscape. From the earliest known dynasties, such as the Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods, through the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom, the rulers of Egypt were primarily indigenous Africans.

Naqada I, II, and III were located in Upper Egypt, near the modern city of Naqada, along the eastern bank of the Nile River. Naqada I and II sites are situated south of Luxor, while Naqada III extends further north towards Qena. These areas were pivotal in predynastic Egyptian civilization.

During these periods, the pharaohs represented a continuum of African leadership, overseeing the development of one of the world's earliest civilizations. They built monumental architecture, established complex religious and cultural traditions, and expanded Egypt's influence through trade, diplomacy, and military conquests, all within the context of their African heritage.

The Hyksos, who ruled parts of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, were of West Asian origin, not indigenous Africans. However, they were an exception to the predominantly African rule of the pharaohs throughout Egypt's long history.

Therefore, while the 25th Dynasty, also known as the Nubian or Kushite Dynasty, is renowned for its rulers of Nubian descent, it represents a continuation of African leadership in Egypt rather than an isolated instance. The presence of black pharaohs during the 25th Dynasty is part of a broader narrative of African influence and continuity in ancient Egyptian history.

Furthermore, there were periods of Nubian influence and control over parts of Egypt even before the 25th Dynasty. For example, during the Second Intermediate Period, the Kingdom of Kush, centered in Nubia (a geographic term not a skin colour), exerted influence over parts of Upper Egypt, ruling from the city of Kerma. These rulers are sometimes referred to as the "Nubian Pharaohs".

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